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Review

October 27, 2019


The global prevalence of dental healthcare needs and unmet dental needs among adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mahin Ghafari, Samira Bahadivand-Chegini, Tayebeh Nadi, Amin Doosti-Irani
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019046.

Original Article

October 10, 2019


Estimating the medical capacity required to administer mass prophylaxis: a hypothetical outbreak of smallpox virus infection in Korea
Sangwoo Tak, Soomin Lim, Heesu Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019044.

Original Article

October 9, 2019


Effects of living in the same region as one’s workplace on the total fertility rate of working women in Korea
Yeon-Yong Kim, Hee-Jin Kang, Seongjun Ha, Jong Heon Park
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019043.

Original Article

October 8, 2019


Effects of adults’ health behaviors and combinations thereof on health outcomes: an analysis using National Health Insurance Service of Korea cohort data
Hyun-Jung Park, Eun-Jung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019042.

Original Article

October 8, 2019


Alcohol-related emergency department visits and income inequality in New York City, USA: an ecological study
Kathleen H. Reilly, Katherine Bartley, Denise Paone, Ellenie Tuazon
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019041.

Current Issue
Volume 41; 2019
Review The global prevalence of dental healthcare needs and unmet dental needs among adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mahin Ghafari, Samira Bahadivand-Chegini, Tayebeh Nadi, Amin Doosti-Irani Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019046.
  • Abstract
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  • Supplementary data
Original Article Estimating the medical capacity required to administer mass prophylaxis: a hypothetical outbreak of smallpox virus infection in Korea
Sangwoo Tak, Soomin Lim, Heesu Kim Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019044.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Access to dental healthcare services is a major determinant of dental health in communities. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the global prevalence of dental needs and of unmet dental needs in adolescents.
METHODS:
PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched in June 2018. The summary measures included the prevalence of met and unmet dental needs. A meta-analysis was performed using the inverse variance method to obtain pooled summary measures. Out of 41,661 retrieved articles, 57 were ultimately included.
RESULTS:
The pooled prevalence of orthodontic treatment needs was 46.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.0 to 53.0), that of general treatment needs was 59.0% (95% CI, 42.0 to 75.0), that of periodontal treatment needs was 71.0% (95% CI, 46.0 to 96.0), and that of malocclusion treatment needs was 39.0% (95% CI, 28.0 to 50.0). The pooled prevalence of unmet dental needs was 34.0% (95% CI, 27.0 to 40.0).
CONCLUSIONS:
The highest and lowest prevalence of unmet dental needs were found in Southeast Asia and Europe, respectively. The prevalence of dental needs was higher in the countries of the Americas and Europe than in other World Health Organization (WHO) regions. The prevalence of unmet dental needs was higher in Southeast Asia and Africa than in other WHO regions.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The aim of this study was to estimate the medical surge capacity required for mass prophylaxis based on a hypothetical outbreak of smallpox.
METHODS:
We performed a simulation using the Bioterrorism and Epidemic Outbreak Response Model and varied some important parameters, such as the number of core medical personnel and the number of dispensing clinics.
RESULTS:
Gaps were identified in the medical surge capacity of the Korean government, especially in the number of medical personnel who could respond to the need for mass prophylaxis against smallpox.
CONCLUSIONS:
The Korean government will need to train 1,000 or more medical personnel for such an event, and will need to prepare many more dispensing centers than are currently available.
Original Article Effects of living in the same region as one’s workplace on the total fertility rate of working women in Korea
Yeon-Yong Kim, Hee-Jin Kang, Seongjun Ha, Jong Heon Park Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019043.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Original Article Effects of adults’ health behaviors and combinations thereof on health outcomes: an analysis using National Health Insurance Service of Korea cohort data
Hyun-Jung Park, Eun-Jung Kim Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019042.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The lowest-low fertility status of Korea has continued for the past 17 years despite governmental efforts to encourage childbirth. As the number of working women has increased, their residence patterns have changed; however, the impact of this factor has yet to be explored. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of residence patterns relative to the workplace on the total fertility rate of working women.
METHODS:
Information on eligibility and healthcare utilization was obtained from the National Health Information Database between 2011 and 2015. The study participants were working women aged 15-49 years. We classified their residence relative to their workplace into 3 patterns: same municipality, same province, and different province. The total fertility rate was calculated and logistic regression was performed of childbirth according to residence pattern, adjusting for age, insurance contribution quartile, size of the workplace, year of birth, and province of residence.
RESULTS:
The total fertility rates of working women from 2011 to 2015 were 1.091, 1.139, 1.048, 1.073, and 1.103, respectively. The total fertility rate by residence pattern was highest in women residing in the same municipality as their workplace. After adjustment, the odds of childbirth in women from the same municipality and the same province were 21.6% and 16.0% higher than those of women residing in a different province, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
The total fertility rate was higher among women living near their workplace. Therefore, effective policy measures should be taken to promote the proximity of working women’s workplace and residence.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of health-risk behaviors, alone and in combination, on health outcomes.
METHODS:
This study used sample cohort data provided by the National Health Insurance Service focusing on the use of hospital services, direct medical expenses, length of stay, and re-entry rate according to health-risk behaviors. A frequency analysis and the chi-square test were used to investigate associations between the demographic characteristics of study subjects and their health-risk behaviors. The strength of the association of each factor was calculated as the odds ratio in a crossover analysis.
RESULTS:
Obesity had the largest effect, especially in combination with smoking and drinking. In particular, significant associations were shown with the duration of hospitalization and direct medical expenses. After adjustment for sex, age, economic status, and pre-existing medical conditions, the duration of hospitalization was 7.37 times longer and that of medical expenses was 5.18 times higher in the obese group relative to the non-obese group. Drinking showed a statistically significant association with the number of days of hospitalization. After adjusting for the control variables, the number of hospital days was 1.24 longer in the drinking group than in the non-drinking group.
CONCLUSIONS:
An analysis of combinations of health risk factors showed obesity had the largest effect.
Original Article Alcohol-related emergency department visits and income inequality in New York City, USA: an ecological study
Kathleen H. Reilly, Katherine Bartley, Denise Paone, Ellenie Tuazon Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019041.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Data Profile Family tree database of the National Health Information Database in Korea
Yeon-Yong Kim, Hae-young Hong, Kyu-Dong Cho, Jong Heon Park Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019040.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Previous research has found that greater income inequality is related to problematic alcohol use across a variety of geographical areas in the USA and New York City (NYC). Those studies used self-reported data to assess alcohol use. This study examined the relationship between within-neighborhood income inequality and alcohol-related emergency department (ED) visits.
METHODS:
The study outcome was the alcohol-related ED visit rate per 10,000 persons between 2010 and 2014, using data obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. The main predictor of interest was income inequality, measured using the Gini coefficient from the American Community Survey (2010-2014) at the public use microdata area (PUMA) level (n=55) in NYC. Variables associated with alcohol-related ED visits in bivariate analyses were considered for inclusion in a multivariable model.
RESULTS:
There were 420,568 alcohol-related ED visits associated with a valid NYC address between 2010 and 2014. The overall annualized NYC alcohol-related ED visit rate was 100.7 visits per 10,000 persons. The median alcohol ED visit rate for NYC PUMAs was 88.0 visits per 10,000 persons (interquartile range [IQR], 64.5 to 133.5), and the median Gini coefficient was 0.48 (IQR, 0.45 to 0.51). In the multivariable model, a higher neighborhood Gini coefficient, a lower median age, and a lower percentage of male residents were independently associated with the alcohol-related ED visit rate.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study found that higher neighborhood income inequality was associated with higher neighborhood alcohol-related ED visit rates. The precise mechanism of this relationship is not understood, and further investigation is warranted to determine temporality and to assess whether the results are generalizable to other locales.
Abstract
We constructed the family tree database (DB) by using a new family code system that can logically express interpersonal family relationships and by comparing and complementing health insurance eligibility data and resident register data of the National Health Information Database (NHID). In the family tree DB, Parents and grandparents are matched for more than 95% of those who were born between 2010 and 2017. Codes for inverse relationships and extended relationships are generated using sequences of the three-digit basic family codes. The family tree DB contains variables such as sex, birth year, family relations, and degree of kinship (maximum of 4) between subjects and family members. Using the family tree DB, we find that prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cancer are higher for those with family history. The family tree DB may omit some relationships due to incomplete past data, and some family relations cannot be uniquely determined because the source data only contain relationships between head and members of the household. The family tree DB is a part of the NHID, and researchers can submit requests for data on the website at http://nhiss.nhis.or.kr. Requested data will be provided after approval from the data service review board. However, the family tree DB can be limitedly provided for studies with high public value in order to maximize personal information protection.

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