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Original Article

October 10, 2019


Estimating the medical capacity required to administer mass prophylaxis: a hypothetical outbreak of smallpox virus infection in Korea
Sangwoo Tak, Soomin Lim, Heesu Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019044.

Original Article

October 8, 2019


Effects of adults’ health behaviors and combinations thereof on health outcomes: an analysis using National Health Insurance Service of Korea cohort data
Hyun-Jung Park, Eun-Jung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019042.

Original Article

September 27, 2019


Distribution and social determinants of overweight and obesity: a cross-sectional study of non-pregnant adult women from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (2015-2016)
Leonard Mndala, Abhay Kudale
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019039.

Special Article

September 22, 2019


Causes and countermeasures for repeated outbreaks of hepatitis A among adults in Korea
Moran Ki, Hyunjin Son, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019038.

Original Article

September 3, 2019


Epidemiological characteristics of HIV infected Korean: Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Soo Min Kim, Sang Il Kim, June Kim, Jun Young Choi, Shin-Woo Kim, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Dae Won Park, et al.
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019037.

Current Issue
Volume 41; 2019
Original Article Estimating the medical capacity required to administer mass prophylaxis: a hypothetical outbreak of smallpox virus infection in Korea
Sangwoo Tak, Soomin Lim, Heesu Kim Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019044.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Original Article Effects of adults’ health behaviors and combinations thereof on health outcomes: an analysis using National Health Insurance Service of Korea cohort data
Hyun-Jung Park, Eun-Jung Kim Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019042.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The aim of this study was to estimate the medical surge capacity required for mass prophylaxis based on a hypothetical outbreak of smallpox.
METHODS:
We performed a simulation using the Bioterrorism and Epidemic Outbreak Response Model and varied some important parameters, such as the number of core medical personnel and the number of dispensing clinics.
RESULTS:
Gaps were identified in the medical surge capacity of the Korean government, especially in the number of medical personnel who could respond to the need for mass prophylaxis against smallpox.
CONCLUSIONS:
The Korean government will need to train 1,000 or more medical personnel for such an event, and will need to prepare many more dispensing centers than are currently available.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of health-risk behaviors, alone and in combination, on health outcomes.
METHODS:
This study used sample cohort data provided by the National Health Insurance Service focusing on the use of hospital services, direct medical expenses, length of stay, and re-entry rate according to health-risk behaviors. A frequency analysis and the chi-square test were used to investigate associations between the demographic characteristics of study subjects and their health-risk behaviors. The strength of the association of each factor was calculated as the odds ratio in a crossover analysis.
RESULTS:
Obesity had the largest effect, especially in combination with smoking and drinking. In particular, significant associations were shown with the duration of hospitalization and direct medical expenses. After adjustment for sex, age, economic status, and pre-existing medical conditions, the duration of hospitalization was 7.37 times longer and that of medical expenses was 5.18 times higher in the obese group relative to the non-obese group. Drinking showed a statistically significant association with the number of days of hospitalization. After adjusting for the control variables, the number of hospital days was 1.24 longer in the drinking group than in the non-drinking group.
CONCLUSIONS:
An analysis of combinations of health risk factors showed obesity had the largest effect.
Original Article Distribution and social determinants of overweight and obesity: a cross-sectional study of non-pregnant adult women from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (2015-2016)
Leonard Mndala, Abhay Kudale Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019039.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Special Article Causes and countermeasures for repeated outbreaks of hepatitis A among adults in Korea
Moran Ki, Hyunjin Son, Bo Youl Choi Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019038.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Hitherto regarded as a public health issue of well-heeled nations, overweight and obesity have emerged as a problem of concern in developing nations. Although social and demographic factors are equally important as proximal lifestyle factors affecting health, their role is neither well researched nor well understood. We conducted a novel study to determine the distribution, prevalence, and social and demographic determinants of overweight/obesity in Malawi.
METHODS:
A population-based, quantitative cross-sectional study using data from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (2015-2016) was conducted among non-pregnant women aged 18-49 years. A total of 6,443 women were included in the analysis. Overweight/obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m2 , was the main outcome variable. The analysis was done in SPSS version 20.0; after calculating descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate associations and determine odds.
RESULTS:
In total, 16.8% and 6.3% of women were overweight and obese, respectively (p<0.001). Overweight and obesity were more prevalent in urban than in rural areas. The BMI distribution among women varied across different background characteristics. Women from the Ngoni ethnicity were more likely to be overweight/obese than others (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 2.08). Socioeconomic status (SES) and the age of the respondent were highly significant determinants that were strongly associated with being overweight/obese. The richest women were 3 times more likely to be overweight/obese than the poorest (aOR, 3.30; 95% CI, 2.46 to 4.43).
CONCLUSIONS:
Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent and significantly associated with increasing SES, age, and being from the Ngoni ethnicity. Holistic interventions should also focus on improving social determinants in order to entirely curb the epidemic.
Abstract
The 2019 hepatitis A outbreak has become increasingly prevalent among adults in Korea and is the largest outbreak since that in 2009-2010. The incidence in the current outbreak is highest among adults aged 35-44 years, corresponding to the peak incidence among those aged 25-34 years 10 years ago. This may indicate a cohort effect in the corresponding age group. Causes of these repeated outbreaks of hepatitis A in Korea are low level of immunity among adults, Korean food culture that consumes raw seafood such as salted clam and inadequate public health system. Among countermeasures, along with general infectious disease control measures including control of the infectious agent, infection spread, and host, urgent actions are needed to review the vaccination policy and establish an adequate public health system.
Original Article Epidemiological characteristics of HIV infected Korean: Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Soo Min Kim, Sang Il Kim, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019037.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Original Article Overall health and drinking behavior among pregnant and breastfeeding women in Korea
Eun Gyeong Kim Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019036.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
To manage evidence-based diseases, it is important to identify the characteristics of patients in each country.
METHODS:
The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study seeks to identify the epidemiological characteristics of 1,442 Korean individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (12% of Korean individuals with HIV infection in 2017) who visited 21 university hospitals nationwide. The descriptive statistics were presented using the Korea HIV/AIDS cohort data (2006-2016).
RESULTS:
Men accounted for 93.3% of the total number of respondents, and approximately 55.8% of respondents reported having an acute infection symptom. According to the transmission route, infection caused by sexual contact accounted for 94.4%, of which 60.4% were caused by sexual contact with the same sex or both males and females. Participants repeatedly answered the survey to decrease depression and anxiety scores. Of the total participants, 89.1% received antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the initial ART, 95.3% of patients were treated based on the recommendation. The median CD4 T-cell count at the time of diagnosis was 229.5 and improved to 331 after the initial ART. Of the patients, 16.6% and 9.4% had tuberculosis and syphilis, respectively, and 26.7% had pneumocystis pneumonia. In the medical history, sexually transmitted infectious diseases showed the highest prevalence, followed by endocrine diseases. The main reasons for termination were loss to follow-up (29.9%) and withdrawal of consent (18.7%).
CONCLUSIONS:
Early diagnosis and ART should be performed at an appropriate time to prevent the development of new infection.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The study was to conduct a comparative assessment of drinking behaviors and overall health among pregnant and breastfeeding women.
METHODS:
This study used data collected from the Korean Community Health Survey in 2015. Data obtained from 2,156 pregnant or breastfeeding women were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the t-test, the chi-square test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient.
RESULTS:
Current drinking and alcohol consumption were higher among pregnant women than among breastfeeding women. Depression was twice as common among breastfeeding women than among pregnant women, and stress was much higher among breastfeeding women as well. Breastfeeding women also had lower subjective dental health and more unmet medical needs than pregnant women.
CONCLUSIONS:
Although pregnant women were in better overall health than breastfeeding women, many of them were unable to stop drinking, which is a risky and adverse health behavior that negatively affects maternal and fetal health. In order to reduce drinking among pregnant and breastfeeding women, it is necessary to develop a tailored, standardized educational program and national guidelines.

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