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Original Article

December 25, 2019


Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Peru: analysis of the 2018 Demographic and Family Health Survey
Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Horacio Chacón-Torrico
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019051.

Original Article

December 18, 2019


The double burden of malnutrition among adults in India: evidence from the National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16)
Mili Dutta, Y Selvamani, Pushpendra Singh, Lokender Prashad
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019050.

Review Article

November 29, 2019


A systematic review of barriers and motivators to physical activity in elderly adults in Iran and worldwide
Soudabeh Yarmohammadi, Hossein Mozafar Saadati, Mohtasham Ghaffari, Ali Ramezankhani
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019049.

Original Article

November 24, 2019


Ebola virus disease outbreak in Korea: use of a mathematical model and stochastic simulation to estimate risk
Youngsuk Ko, Seok-Min Lee, Soyoung Kim, Moran Ki, Eunok Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019048.

Original Article

November 9, 2019


Physical activity level in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017
Ki-Yong An
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019047.

Current Issue
Volume 41; 2019
Original Article Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Peru: analysis of the 2018 Demographic and Family Health Survey
Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Horacio Chacón-Torrico Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019051.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Original Article The double burden of malnutrition among adults in India: evidence from the National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16)
Mili Dutta, Y Selvamani, Pushpendra Singh, Lokender Prashad Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019050.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) is one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce neonatal mortality. We sought to determine the prevalence and determinants of EIBF in Peru.
METHODS:
We performed a cross-sectional analytical study of the 2018 Peruvian Demographic and Family Health Survey as a secondary data source. In total, 19,595 children born during the 5 years prior to the survey were included in the study. The dependent variable (EIBF status), socio-demographic variables, and pregnancy-related variables were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model to identify the determinants of EIBF.
RESULTS:
The prevalence of EIBF in the study population was 49.7%. Cesarean deliveries were associated with a lower likelihood of EIBF (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05 to 0.07) than were vaginal deliveries. Newborns born at public health centers (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.65) had a higher rate of EIBF than those not born at public or private health centers. Women from the jungle region (aOR, 2.51; 95% CI, 2.17 to 2.89) had higher odds of providing EIBF than those from the coast. Mothers with more than a secondary education (aOR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.76) were less likely to breastfeed during the first hour of the newborn’s life than women with primary or no education.
CONCLUSIONS:
More than half of Peruvian children do not breastfeed during the first hour after birth. The major determinants of EIBF status were the delivery mode and the region of maternal residence. Strategies are needed to promote early breastfeeding practices.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
India still faces the burden of undernutrition and communicable diseases, and the prevalence of overweight/obesity is steadily increasing. The discourse regarding the dual burden of underweight and overweight/obesity has not yet been widely explored in both men and women. The present study assessed the determinants of underweight and overweight/obesity in India among adult men and women aged 15-49.
METHODS:
Population-based cross-sectional and nationally representative data from the National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16), consisting of a sample of men and women, were analyzed. Stratified 2-stage sampling was used in the NFHS-4 study protocol. In the present study, bivariate and adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the correlates of underweight and overweight/obesity.
RESULTS:
The results suggested a persistently high prevalence of underweight coexisting with an increased prevalence of overweight/obesity in India. The risk of underweight was highest in the central and western regions and was also relatively high among those who used either smoking or smokeless tobacco. Overweight/obesity was more prevalent in urban areas, in the southern region, and among adults aged 35-49. Furthermore, level of education and wealth index were positively associated with overweight/obesity. More educated and wealthier adults were less likely to be underweight.
CONCLUSIONS:
In India, underweight has been prevalent, and the prevalence of overweight/obesity is increasing rapidly, particularly among men. The dual burden of underweight and overweight/obesity is alarming and needs to be considered; public health measures to address this situation must also be adopted through policy initiatives.
Review Article A systematic review of barriers and motivators to physical activity in elderly adults in Iran and worldwide
Soudabeh Yarmohammadi, Hossein Mozafar Saadati, Mohtasham Ghaffari, Ali Ramezankhani Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019049.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Supplementary data
Original Article Ebola virus disease outbreak in Korea: use of a mathematical model and stochastic simulation to estimate risk
Youngsuk Ko, Seok-Min Lee, Soyoung Kim, Moran Ki, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019048.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This study was conducted to identify and characterize the barriers and motivations to physical activity (PA) for elderly adults in Iran and other countries.
METHODS:
We searched 6 databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, and the Scientific Information Database) from 2000 to the November 2017, using “aged 60 and over,” “physical activity” or “exercise,” and “motivator” and “barrier” as keywords. Two reviewers independently performed the search, screening, and quality assessment of the studies.
RESULTS:
In total, 34 papers were finally included in the study. The most important barriers, based on the frequency of factors, included physical problems, having no companions, and physical barriers to walking. The motivators included improving one’s physical condition, being social, and suitability of the physical environment.
CONCLUSIONS:
Important motivators and barriers to PA were more closely related to intrapersonal factors than to the interpersonal and environmental domains. The barriers and motivators to PA in the elderly were not markedly different between Iran and other countries. Therefore, a general strategy could be designed to improve PA in the elderly.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
According to the World Health Organization, there have been frequent reports of Ebola virus disease (EVD) since the 2014 EVD pandemic in West Africa. We aim to estimate the outbreak scale when an EVD infected person arrives in Korea.
METHODS:
Western Africa EVD epidemic mathematical model SEIJR or SEIJQR was modified to create a Korean EVD outbreak model. The expected number of EVD patients and outbreak duration were calculated by stochastic simulation under the scenarios of Best case, Diagnosis delay, and Case missing.
RESULTS:
The 2,000 trials of stochastic simulation for each scenario demonstrated the following results: The possible median number of patients is 2 and the estimated maximum number is 11 when the government intervention is proceeded immediately right after the first EVD case is confirmed. With a 6-day delay in diagnosis of the first case, the median number of patients becomes 7, and the maximum, 20. If the first case is missed and the government intervention is not activated until 2 cases of secondary infection occur, the median number of patients is estimated at 15, and the maximum, at 35.
CONCLUSIONS:
Timely and rigorous diagnosis is important to reduce the spreading scale of infection when a new communicable disease is inflowed into Korea. Moreover, it is imperative to strengthen the local surveillance system and diagnostic protocols to avoid missing cases of secondary infection.
Original Article Physical activity level in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017
Ki-Yong An Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019047.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Review The global prevalence of dental healthcare needs and unmet dental needs among adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mahin Ghafari, Samira Bahadivand-Chegini, Tayebeh Nadi, Amin Doosti-Irani Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019046.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This study investigated physical activity (PA) participation based on demographic, physical, and psychological variables in Korean adults.
METHODS:
Participants were divided into four groups (combined, aerobic only, resistance only, and neither) based on meeting the PA guidelines using moderate and vigorous PA time and resistance exercise frequency from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017. The association between meeting the PA guidelines and demographic, medical, fitness, lifestyle, and psychological variables were analyzed using complex samples crosstabs and a general linear model.
RESULTS:
Of the 5,820 Korean adults, 66.0% did not meet any of the guidelines. Among demographic factors, sex, age, marital status, income, education level, occupation, and employment status were associated with meeting the PA guidelines. Chronic disease prevalence, weight, waist circumference, body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, glucose, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, hand-grip strength, resting heart rate, and family history of chronic disease in the medical and fitness variables; frequency of drinking and eating breakfast, total calorie, water, protein, and fat intake in the lifestyle variables; and perceived stress, depression, suicidal thoughts, and quality of life in the psychological variables were associated with meeting PA guidelines.
CONCLUSIONS:
Most Korean adults participate in insufficient PA. Moreover, individuals who are socially underprivileged, have low-income or poor physical and mental health conditions participated in relatively less PA. Our findings suggest that government and individual efforts are required to increase PA and resolve health inequality in Korean adults.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Access to dental healthcare services is a major determinant of dental health in communities. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the global prevalence of dental needs and of unmet dental needs in adolescents.
METHODS:
PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched in June 2018. The summary measures included the prevalence of met and unmet dental needs. A meta-analysis was performed using the inverse variance method to obtain pooled summary measures. Out of 41,661 retrieved articles, 57 were ultimately included.
RESULTS:
The pooled prevalence of orthodontic treatment needs was 46.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.0 to 53.0), that of general treatment needs was 59.0% (95% CI, 42.0 to 75.0), that of periodontal treatment needs was 71.0% (95% CI, 46.0 to 96.0), and that of malocclusion treatment needs was 39.0% (95% CI, 28.0 to 50.0). The pooled prevalence of unmet dental needs was 34.0% (95% CI, 27.0 to 40.0).
CONCLUSIONS:
The highest and lowest prevalence of unmet dental needs were found in Southeast Asia and Europe, respectively. The prevalence of dental needs was higher in the countries of the Americas and Europe than in other World Health Organization (WHO) regions. The prevalence of unmet dental needs was higher in Southeast Asia and Africa than in other WHO regions.

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