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Editorial

November 14, 2018


Lessons from radiation epidemiology
Won Jin Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018057.

Original Article

October 20, 2018


Seasonality of tuberculosis in the Republic of Korea, 2006-2016
Eun Hee Kim, Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018051.

Original Article

October 7, 2018


Association of appendicular skeletal muscle mass with carotid intima-media thickness according to body mass index in Korean adults
Ji Eun Heo, Hyeon Chang Kim, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Hye Yoon Bae, Ho Jae Lee, Il Suh
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018049.

Original Article

September 17, 2018


Application of a non-parametric non-mixture cure rate model for analyzing the survival of patients with colorectal cancer in Iran
Mehdi Azizmohammad Looha, Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Maryam Nasserinejad, Hadis Najafimehr, Mohammad Reza Zali
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018045.

Original Article

September 14, 2018


Current status of newborn hearing screening in low-income families in the southeastern region of Korea
You Sun Chung, Su-Kyoung Park
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018044.

Current Issue
Volume 40; 2018
Editorial Lessons from radiation epidemiology
Won Jin Lee Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018057.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Original Article Seasonality of tuberculosis in the Republic of Korea, 2006-2016
Eun Hee Kim, Jong-Myon Bae Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018051.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
Radiation epidemiology has developed as a specialized field and has unique characteristics compared to the other fields of epidemiology. Radiation exposure assessment is highly quantified and health risk assessment can yield precise risks per unit dose in each organ. At the same time, radiation epidemiology also emphasizes the uncertainty of the estimated doses and risks. More radiation epidemiologists work in radiation societies rather than those of epidemiology. This specialization deepens the research of radiation studies but also results in fragmentation from general epidemiology. In addition to continued involvement with radiation-related sciences, therefore, more efforts to communicate with the other fields of epidemiology are necessary for radiation epidemiology.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
While the seasonality of notified tuberculosis has been identified in several populations, there is not a descriptive epidemiological study on the seasonality of tuberculosis in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonality of tuberculosis in Korea from 2006 to 2016.
METHODS:
Data regarding notified cases of tuberculosis by year and month was obtained from the Infectious Diseases Surveillance Yearbook, 2017 published by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Seasonal decomposition was conducted using the method of structural model of time series analysis with simple moving averages.
RESULTS:
While the trough season was winter from 2006 to 2016, the peak season was summer between 2006 and 2012, but shifted to spring between 2013 and 2016.
CONCLUSIONS:
Notified tuberculosis in Korea also showed seasonality. It is necessary to evaluate factors related to the seasonality of tuberculosis for controlling tuberculosis.
Original Article Association of appendicular skeletal muscle mass with carotid intima-media thickness according to body mass index in Korean adults
Ji Eun Heo, Hyeon Chang Kim, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018049.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Original Article Application of a non-parametric non-mixture cure rate model for analyzing the survival of patients with colorectal cancer in Iran
Mehdi Azizmohammad Looha, Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Maryam Nasserinejad, Hadis Najafimehr, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018045.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The combined effects of obesity and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) on atherosclerosis, especially in middleaged populations, remain poorly understood. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of ASM on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) according to body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged Korean adults.
METHODS:
Herein, 595 men and 1,274 women aged 30-64 years completed questionnaires and underwent health examinations as part of the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort. ASM was measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis and adjusted for weight (ASM/Wt). IMT was assessed using B-mode ultrasonography; highest quartile of IMT was defined as gender-specific top quartile of the IMT values. Higher BMIs was defined as a BMI over 25.0 kg/m2 .
RESULTS:
Compared to the highest ASM/Wt quartile, the lowest ASM/Wt quartile was significantly associated with highest quartile of IMT in men with lower BMIs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 7.13), but not in those with higher BMIs (aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.91). In women, there was no significant association of low skeletal muscle mass with highest quartile of IMT, regardless of BMI.
CONCLUSIONS:
Low appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with carotid arterial wall thickening in men with lower BMIs, but not in men with higher BMIs. Our findings suggest that the risk of atherosclerosis may be low in middle-aged Korean men with appropriate body weight and skeletal muscle mass maintenance.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are considered to have been cured when the mortality rate of individuals with the disease returns to the same level as expected in the general population. This study aimed to assess the impact of various risk factors on the cure fraction of CRC patients using a real dataset of Iranian CRC patients with a non-mixture non-parametric cure model.
METHODS:
This study was conducted on the medical records of 512 patients who were definitively diagnosed with CRC at Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 2001 to 2007. A non-mixture non-parametric cure rate model was applied to the data after using stepwise selection to identify the risk factors of CRC.
RESULTS:
For non-cured cases, the mean survival time was 1,243.83 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1,174.65 to 1,313.00) and the median survival time was 1,493.00 days (95% CI, 1,398.67 to 1,587.33). The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 92.9% (95% CI, 91.0 to 95.0) and 73.4% (95% CI, 68.0 to 79.0), respectively. Pathologic stage T1 of the primary tumor (estimate=0.58; p=0.013), a poorly differentiated tumor (estimate=1.17; p<0.001), a body mass index (BMI) between 18.6 and 24.9 kg/m2 (estimate=−0.60; p=0.04), and a BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 kg/m2 (estimate=−1.43; p<0.001) had significant impacts on the cure fraction of CRC in the multivariate analysis. The proportion of cured patients was 64.1% (95% CI, 56.7 to 72.4).
CONCLUSIONS:
This study found that the pathologic stage of the primary tumor, tumor grade, and BMI were potential risk factors that had an impact on the cure fraction. A non-mixture non-parametric cure rate model provides a flexible framework for accurately determining the impact of risk factors on the long-term survival of patients with CRC.
Original Article Current status of newborn hearing screening in low-income families in the southeastern region of Korea
You Sun Chung, Su-Kyoung Park Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018044.
  • Abstract
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Brief communication Prophylactic efficacy of probiotics on travelers’ diarrhea: an adaptive meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Jong-Myon Bae Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018043.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The aim of this study was to analyze the current status and problems of hearing screening tests for newborns in low-income families in the southeastern Korea.
METHODS:
This study analyzed data from the Ministry of Health and Welfare’s project on the early detection of hearing loss in newborns in low-income families in the southeastern Korea (2011-2015).
RESULTS:
The referral rate was 1.33, 1.69, and 1.27% in Daegu, Gyeongbuk, and Ulsan, respectively. The confirmatory test rate was 36.09, 23.38, and 52.94% in Daegu, Gyeongbuk, and Ulsan, respectively. The incidence of hearing loss (adjusted) was 0.41, 0.62, and 0.41% in Daegu, Gyeongbuk, and Ulsan, respectively. After confirming hearing loss, newborns with hearing handicaps were mostly lost to follow-up, and rehabilitation methods, such as hearing aids or cochlear implants, were not used. The screening tests were performed within 1 month of birth, and the confirmatory tests were generally performed within 3 months of birth. However, more than 3 months passed before the confirmatory tests were performed in infants with risk factors for hearing loss in Gyeongbuk and Ulsan.
CONCLUSIONS:
Hearing screening tests were conducted in newborns from low-income families in southeastern Korea who received a coupon for free testing, but the newborns that were referred after the screening tests were not promptly linked to the hospitals where confirmatory tests were performed. Furthermore, hearing rehabilitation was not consistently performed after hearing loss was confirmed. To successful early hearing loss detection and intervention, a systematic tracking system of hearing loss children is needed.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The 2017 guideline for the prevention of travelers’ diarrhea (TD) by the International Society of Travel Medicine suggested that ‘there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of commercially available prebiotics or probiotics to prevent or treat TD.’ However, a meta-analysis published in 2007 reported significant efficacy of probiotics in the prevention of TD (summary relative risk [sRR], 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.91). This study aimed to synthesize the efficacy of probiotics on TD by updating the meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized human trials.
METHODS:
The search process was conducted by the adaptive meta-analysis method using the ‘cited by’ and ‘similar articles’ options provided by PubMed. The inclusion criteria were double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized human trials with hypotheses of probiotics as intervention and TD as an outcome. The adaptive meta-analysis was conducted using Stata software using the csi, metan, metafunnel, and metabias options.
RESULTS:
Eleven articles were selected for the meta-analysis. The sRR was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.91) and showed statistical significance. There was no heterogeneity (I-squared=28.4%) and no publication bias.
CONCLUSIONS:
Probiotics showed statistically significant efficacy in the prevention of TD.

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