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Original Article

September 21, 2022


Risk of dementia according to the severity of chronic periodontitis in Korea: a nationwide retrospective cohort study
Seon-Rye Kim, Minkook Son, Yu-Rin Kim, Hyun-Kyung Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022077.

Original Article

September 7, 2022


The associations of job strain and leisure-time physical activity with the risk of hypertension: the population-based Midlife in the United States cohort study
Xinyue Liu, Timothy A. Matthews, Liwei Chen, Jian Li
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022073.

Original Article

August 16, 2022


Trends and disparities in avoidable, treatable, and preventable mortalities in South Korea, 2001-2020: comparison of capital and non-capital areas
Sang Jun Eun
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022067.

COVID-19: Epidemiologic Investigation

August 11, 2022


Analysis of the on-ship transmission of the COVID-19 mass outbreak on the Republic of Korea Navy amphibious warfare ship
Soo Hyeon Cho, Young-Man Kim, Gyeongyong Seong, Sunkyun Park, Seoncheol Park, Sang-Eun Lee, Young Joon Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022065.

Original Article

August 2, 2022


Positive association of unhealthy plant-based diets with the incidence of abdominal obesity in Korea: a comparison of baseline, most recent, and cumulative average diets
Sukyoung Jung, Sohyun Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022063.

Current Issue
Volume 44; 2022
Original Article Risk of dementia according to the severity of chronic periodontitis in Korea: a nationwide retrospective cohort study
Seon-Rye Kim, Minkook Son, Yu-Rin Kim, Hyun-Kyung Kang Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022077.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Original Article The associations of job strain and leisure-time physical activity with the risk of hypertension: the population-based Midlife in the United States cohort study
Xinyue Liu, Timothy A. Matthews, Liwei Chen, Jian Li Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022073.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
We investigated the risk of dementia in older adults with chronic periodontitis according to the severity of periodontitis.
METHODS:
Data on patients with chronic periodontitis were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service-Senior cohort database from 2002 to 2014. Among 52,728 subjects eligible for inclusion, 11,953 subjects had newly diagnosed mild chronic periodontitis (MCP), and 40,775 subjects had newly diagnosed severe chronic periodontitis (SCP). Two 1:1 propensity score matched cohorts were created with 8,624 patients each in the MCP and SCP groups. To analyze the risk of dementia, a Cox proportional-hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS:
In the Kaplan-Meier curve, the disease-free probability was significantly lower in the SCP group than in the MCP group (p for log-rank=0.001). In the multivariable-adjusted model, the HR for the occurrence of dementia in the SCP group compared to the MCP group was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.27; p=0.009). A subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between dementia and the severity of periodontitis, especially in subjects who were male, aged ≥70 years, and had comorbidities.
CONCLUSIONS:
Reducing the severity of chronic periodontitis can help to reduce the risk of dementia. Therefore, it is necessary to aggressively conduct early dementia-prevention programs for males under the age of 70 that include dental health to prevent the progression of periodontitis from mild to severe.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Job strain is positively associated with incident hypertension, while increasing leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) can reduce incident hypertension. However, the joint associations of job strain and LTPA with incident hypertension among United States workers have yet to be investigated. This study examined the independent and joint associations of job strain and LTPA with incident hypertension.
METHODS:
This prospective cohort study (n=1,160) utilized data from the population-based Midlife in the United States study. The associations of job strain and LTPA at baseline with incident hypertension during follow-up were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. High job strain was derived from a combination of high job demands and low job control, and high LTPA was defined as engagement in moderate or vigorous LTPA at least once per week.
RESULTS:
During 9,218 person-years of follow-up, the hypertension incidence rate was 30.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.3 to 34.3) per 1,000 person-years. High job strain was associated with a higher risk for hypertension than low job strain (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.67). High LTPA was associated with lower hypertension risk than low LTPA (aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.98). Hypertension risk was higher among workers with high job strain and low LTPA than among those with low job strain and high LTPA (aHR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.43).
CONCLUSIONS:
Job strain and LTPA showed positive and inverse associations, respectively, with incident hypertension. The combination of high job strain and low LTPA was associated with the highest risk for hypertension.
Original Article Trends and disparities in avoidable, treatable, and preventable mortalities in South Korea, 2001-2020: comparison of capital and non-capital areas
Sang Jun Eun Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022067.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
COVID-19: Epidemiologic Investigation Analysis of the on-ship transmission of the COVID-19 mass outbreak on the Republic of Korea Navy amphibious warfare ship
Soo Hyeon Cho, Young-Man Kim, Gyeongyong Seong, Sunkyun Park, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022065.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This study aimed to describe the regional avoidable mortality trends in Korea and examine the trends in avoidable mortality disparities between the Seoul Capital Area and non-Seoul-Capital areas, thereby exploring the underlying reasons for the trend changes.
METHODS:
Age-standardized mortality rates from avoidable causes between 2001-2020 were calculated by region. Regional disparities in avoidable mortality were quantified on both absolute and relative scales. Trends and disparities in avoidable mortality were analyzed using joinpoint regression models.
RESULTS:
Avoidable, treatable, and preventable mortalities in Korea decreased at different rates over time by region. The largest decreases were in the non-Seoul-Capital non-metropolitan area for avoidable and preventable mortality rates and the non-Seoul- Capital metropolitan area for treatable mortality rates, despite the largest decline being in the Seoul Capital Area prior to around 2009. Absolute and relative regional disparities in avoidable and preventable mortalities generally decreased. Relative disparities in treatable mortality between areas widened. Regional disparities in all types of mortalities tended to improve after around 2009, especially among males. In females, disparities in avoidable, treatable, and preventable mortalities between areas improved less or even worsened.
CONCLUSIONS:
Trends and disparities in avoidable mortality across areas in Korea seem to have varied under the influence of diverse social changes. Enhancing health services to underserved areas and strengthening gender-oriented policies are needed to reduce regional disparities in avoidable mortality.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This investigation was conducted to determine the size and pattern, source, and transmission route of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN) amphibious warfare ship.
METHODS:
We investigated the characteristics of all crew members and tracked the medical records of the confirmed cases. Fourteen essential ship operation personnel were interviewed. The study design was a retrospective cohort study, and the incidence rate ratio was through a statistical program.
RESULTS:
The COVID-19 incidence on the ROKN amphibious warfare ship was 44.7% (38/85). It was estimated that the main propagation route started from the 1st floor worker, which spread to the same floor, and then to other floors. In the case of the working area, the incidence rate of crew members below the 1st floor without ventilation was higher than those on the 2nd or higher floors with natural ventilation.
CONCLUSIONS:
This case is the first case of a COVID-19 outbreak on the ROKN amphibious warfare ship, and it is estimated that the incidence rate is high because of the closed and dense environment. To prevent the spread of various respiratory diseases including COVID-19, unified mitigation such as vaccination, observing personal quarantine rules, periodic ventilation, preemptive testing, and blocking transmission through prompt contact management is necessary.
Original Article Positive association of unhealthy plant-based diets with the incidence of abdominal obesity in Korea: a comparison of baseline, most recent, and cumulative average diets
Sukyoung Jung, Sohyun Park Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022063.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Original Article The influence of the dietary intake of vitamin C and vitamin E on the risk of gastric intestinal metaplasia in a cohort of Koreans
Sung Keun Park, Yeongu Chung, Chang-Mo Oh, Jae-Hong Ryoo, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022062.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Different approaches for analyzing repeated dietary measurements may yield differences in the magnitude and interpretation of findings. We aimed to compare 3 dietary measurements (baseline, most recent, and cumulative average) in terms of the association between plant-based diet indices (PDIs) and incident abdominal obesity in Korean adults aged 40-69 years.
METHODS:
This study included 6,054 participants (54% women) free of abdominal obesity (defined as waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women) at baseline. As exposures, baseline, most recent, and cumulative average measurements for PDI, healthy-PDI (hPDI), and unhealthy-PDI (uPDI) were created. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity.
RESULTS:
During 45,818 person-years of follow-up (median, 9 years), we identified 1,778 incident cases of abdominal obesity. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, a higher uPDI was associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity in both total and stratified analyses. The findings were consistent across all approaches (Q5 vs. Q1: HRbaseline=1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 1.98; HRmost recent=1.52; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.78; HRcumulative average=1.76; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.06 in the total set). PDI showed no meaningful association with abdominal obesity risk in any analyses. hPDIaverage had a suggestive inverse association with abdominal obesity risk in men, and hPDIbaseline had a positive association with abdominal obesity risk in women.
CONCLUSIONS:
Greater adherence to unhealthy plant-based diets may increase the risk of developing abdominal obesity in Korean adults. The findings were generally consistent across all approaches.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Studies have suggested that the dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins, such as vitamin C and vitamin E, has a potential role in inhibiting gastric carcinogenesis. The present study investigated the effect of antioxidant vitamins on the incidence of gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM).
METHODS:
This study included 67,657 Koreans free of GIM who periodically underwent health check-ups. Dietary intake was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were categorized into 4 groups by quartiles of dietary vitamin C and vitamin E intake. The Cox proportional hazard assumption was used to determine the multivariable hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for GIM.
RESULTS:
The third and fourth quartiles of vitamin C intake had a lower risk of GIM than the first quartile (multivariable-adjusted HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.03 in the second quartile, HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.97 in the third quartile, and HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.95 in the fourth quartile). Vitamin E intake greater than the second quartile level was significantly associated with a lower risk of GIM than the first quartile (multivariable-adjusted HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97 in the second quartile, HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.99 in the third quartile, and HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.94 in the fourth quartile). This association was observed only in the subgroup analysis for men.
CONCLUSIONS:
Higher dietary intake of vitamin C and vitamin E was associated with a lower risk of GIM.

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