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Original Article

April 7, 2019


Comparison of estimates and time series stability of Korea Community Health Survey and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Ji Son Ki, Ho Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019012.

Original Article

March 30, 2019


Nutrient intake patterns and breast cancer risk among Jordanian women: a case-control study
Reema Fayez Tayyem, Reema Ibrahim Mahmoud, Muna Hussien Shareef, Lina Salah Marei
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019010.

Original Article

March 28, 2019


Geospatial analysis and epidemiological aspects of human infections with Blastocystis hominis in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran
Shabnam Asfaram, Ahmad Daryani, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Abdol Sattar Pagheh, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Reza Saberi, Seyede Mahboobeh Hoseiny, Masoud Soosaraei, Mehdi Sharif
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019009.

Original Article

February 13, 2019


Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Korean women aged 19-79 years: the 2016 Korean Study of Women’s Health-Related Issues
Eunji Choi, Ha Na Cho, Da Hea Seo, Boyoung Park, Sohee Park, Juhee Cho, Sue Kim, Yeong-Ran Park, Kui Son Choi, Yumie Rhee
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019005.

Perspective

February 12, 2019


Health effects of exposure to radon: implications of the radon bed mattress incident in Korea
Songwon Seo, Wi-Ho Ha, Jin-Kyu Kang, Dalnim Lee, Soojin Park, Tae-Eun Kwon, Young Woo Jin
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019004.

Current Issue
Volume 41; 2019
Original Article Comparison of estimates and time series stability of Korea Community Health Survey and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Ji Son Ki, Ho Kim Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019012.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Original Article Nutrient intake patterns and breast cancer risk among Jordanian women: a case-control study
Reema Fayez Tayyem, Reema Ibrahim Mahmoud, Muna Hussien Shareef, Lina Salah Marei Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019010.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
In South Korea, there are two nationwide health surveys conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: the Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS) and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The two surveys are directly comparable, as they have the same target population with some common items, and because both surveys are used in various analyses, identifying the similarities and disparities between the two surveys would promote their appropriate use. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the estimates of six variables in KCHS and eight variables in KNHANES over a six-year period and compare time series stability of region-specific and sex- and age-specific subgroup estimates.
METHODS:
Data from adults aged 19 years or older in the 2010-2015 KCHS and KNHANES were examined to analyze the differences of estimates and 95% confidence interval for self-rated health, current smoking rate, monthly drinking rate, hypertension diagnosis rate, diabetes diagnosis rate, obesity prevalence, hypertension prevalence, and diabetes prevalence. The variables were then clustered into subgroups by city as well as sex and age to assess the time series stability of the estimates based on mean square error.
RESULTS:
With the exception of self-rated health, the estimates taken based on questionnaires, namely current smoking rate, monthly drinking rate, hypertension diagnosis rate, and diabetes diagnosis rate, only differed by less than 1.0%p for both KCHS and KNHANES. However, for KNHANES, estimates taken from physical examination data, namely obesity prevalence, hypertension prevalence, and diabetes prevalence, differed by 1.9-8.4%p, which was greater than the gap in the estimates taken from questionnaires. KCHS had a greater time series stability for subgroup estimates than KNHANES.
CONCLUSIONS:
When using the data from KCHS and KNHANES, the data should be selected and used based on the purpose of analysis and policy and in consideration of the various differences between the two data.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common type of cancer worldwide. Globally, BC is rapidly becoming a major common health problem among women. This study aimed to evaluate the association between nutrient intake patterns and BC risk among Jordanian women.
METHODS:
A total of 400 Jordanian women 20-65 years of age were recruited in this case-control study. Two hundred women recently diagnosed with BC were matched in age, income, and marital status to 200 BC-free women. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutrient intake patterns.
RESULTS:
In this study, 3 nutrient intake patterns were identified: a high vitamin C and β-carotene nutrient intake pattern; a high calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D nutrient intake pattern; and a high-fat nutrient intake pattern. A significant increase in BC risk was associated with the high vitamin C and β-carotene nutrient pattern (the highest for the fourth quartile; odds ratio [OR], 5.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 13.91; ptrend=0.001). In the high calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D nutrient pattern, a significant inverse trend was detected for the risk of BC. The high-fat nutrient pattern showed a significant direct association with BC risk in the third (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.58 to 9.51) and fourth (OR, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.53 to 9.77) quartiles (ptrend=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:
A significant increase in BC risk was detected for the high vitamin C and β-carotene nutrient intake pattern and the high-fat nutrient intake pattern. However, for the high calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D nutrient intake pattern, a significant inverse trend was observed.
Original Article Geospatial analysis and epidemiological aspects of human infections with Blastocystis hominis in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran
Shabnam Asfaram, Ahmad Daryani, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Abdol Sattar Pagheh, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019009.
  • Abstract
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Original Article Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Korean women aged 19-79 years: the 2016 Korean Study of Women’s Health-Related Issues
Eunji Choi, Ha Na Cho, Da Hea Seo, Boyoung Park, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019005.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Blastocystis hominis is a very common large intestinal protozoan with global prevalence in humans and non-human hosts. No precise statistics exist regarding the geographical distribution of Blastocystis that would enable the identification of high-risk communities. Therefore, the current research aimed to characterize the spatial patterns and demographic factors associated with B. hominis occurrence in northern Iran.
METHODS:
The current study was performed among 4,788 individuals referred to health centers in Mazandaran Province, from whom stool samples were obtained. Socio-demographic data were gathered using a questionnaire. Samples were examined by a direct wet mount, the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique, and trichrome staining. Moran local indicators of spatial association and a geographically weighted regression model were utilized to analyze the results.
RESULTS:
Generally, the infection rate of Blastocystis parasites was 5.2%, and was considerably higher in the age group of 10-14 years (10.6%) than in other age groups (p=0.005). Our data showed important associations between the occurrence of B. hominis and age, residence, job, contact with domestic animals, anti-parasitic drug consumption, and elevation above sea level (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:
The current study characterized for the first time the infection rate and risk of B. hominis in the north of Iran, and produced a prediction map. It is expected that this map will help policymakers to plan and implement preventive measures in high-risk areas and to manage already-infected patients.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
While the prevalence of obesity in Asian women has remained stagnant, studies of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Asian women are scarce. This study aimed to examine the recent prevalence of obesity in Korean women aged between 19 years and 79 years and to analyze socioeconomic inequalities in obesity.
METHODS:
Data were derived from the 2016 Korean Study of Women’s Health-Related Issues. The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity using Asian standard body mass index (BMI) categories: low (<18.5 kg/m2 ), normal (18.5-22.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2 ), and obese (≥25.0 kg/ m2 ). As inequality-specific indicators, the slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were calculated, with adjustment for age and self-reported health status.
RESULTS:
Korean women were classified into the following BMI categories: underweight (5.3%), normal weight (59.1%), overweight (21.2%), and obese (14.4%). The SII and RII revealed substantial inequalities in obesity in favor of more urbanized women (SII, 4.5; RII, 1.4) and against of women who were highly educated (SII, -16.7; RII, 0.3). Subgroup analysis revealed inequalities in obesity according to household income among younger women and according to urbanization among women aged 65-79 years.
CONCLUSIONS:
Clear educational inequalities in obesity existed in Korean women. Reverse inequalities in urbanization were also apparent in older women. Developing strategies to address the multiple observed inequalities in obesity among Korean women may prove essential for effectively reducing the burden of this disease.
Perspective Health effects of exposure to radon: implications of the radon bed mattress incident in Korea
Songwon Seo, Wi-Ho Ha, Jin-Kyu Kang, Dalnim Lee, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019004.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Original Article Dietary patterns, nutrition, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in the west of Iran
Behjat Marzbani, Javad Nazari, Farid Najafi, Behnaz Marzbani, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019003.
  • Abstract
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Abstract
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material formed by the slow decay of uranium and thorium found in the earth’s crust or construction materials. Internal exposure to radon accounts for about half of the natural background radiation dose to which humans are exposed annually. Radon is a carcinogen and is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. An association between radon and lung cancer has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies on mine workers and the general population with indoor radon exposure. However, associations have not been clearly established between radon and other diseases, such as leukemia and thyroid cancer. Radiation doses are assessed by applying specific dose conversion coefficients according to the source (e.g., radon or thoron) and form of exposure (e.g., internal or external). However, regardless of the source or form of exposure, the effects of a given estimated dose on human health are identical, assuming that individuals have the same sensitivity to radiation. Recently, radiation exceeding the annual dose limit of the general population (1 mSv/yr) was detected in bed mattresses produced by D company due to the use of a monazite-based anion powder containing uranium and thorium. This has sparked concerns about the health hazards for mattress users caused by radiation exposure. In light of this event, this study presents scientific information about the assessment of radon and thoron exposure and its human implications for human health, which have emerged as a recent topic of interest and debate in society.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Unhealthy dietary patterns are the most important changeable risk factors for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer among under-50 year women in the west of Iran.
METHODS:
All women under 50 years old with pathologically confirmed breast cancer between 2013 and 2015 who were referred to oncology clinics in the west of Iran, and 408 under-50 women referred to other outpatient clinics who were without breast or other cancers at the time of the study and 2 years later were selected as the control group. The data were collected using the middle-aged periodical care form of the Iranian Ministry of Health and analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression in Stata.
RESULTS:
The most powerful risk factor for breast cancer was fried foods; the odds ratio of consuming fried foods more than once a month for breast cancer was 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 9.4). A dose-response model indicated that increasing vegetable and fruit consumption up to 90 servings per month decreased the odds of breast cancer, but consuming more than 90 servings per month increased the risk.
CONCLUSIONS:
Inadequate consumption of vegetables and consumption of soft drinks, industrially produced juices, fried foods, and sweets were identified as risk factors for breast cancer. In response to these findings, it is necessary to raise awareness and to provide education about healthy diets and the need to change unhealthy dietary patterns.

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