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Original Article

August 3, 2018


Knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS among Iranian women
Ehsan Zarei, Roghayeh Khabiri, Maryam Tajvar, Shirin Nosratnejad
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018037.

Perspective

July 27, 2018


Vitamin D supplementation as a control program against latent tuberculosis infection in Korean high school students
Eun Hee Kim, Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018035.

Obituary

July 14, 2018


Obituary: Dr. Hyun-Sul Lim’s (1952-2018) life as an epidemiologist, occupational and environmental medicine researcher, and family physician
Sun Huh
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018033.

Original Article

July 13, 2018


Spatial modeling of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iranian army units during 2014-2017 using a hierarchical Bayesian method and the spatial scan statistic
Erfan Ayubi, Mohammad Barati, Arasb Dabbagh Moghaddam, Ali Reza Khoshdel
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018032.

Original Article

July 4, 2018


Functional disorders of the lung and symptoms of respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust in Iran
Masoud Neghab, Zeinab Jabari, Fatemeh Kargar Shouroki
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018031.

Current Issue
Volume 40; 2018
Original Article Knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS among Iranian women
Ehsan Zarei, Roghayeh Khabiri, Maryam Tajvar, Shirin Nosratnejad Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018037.
  • Abstract
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Perspective Vitamin D supplementation as a control program against latent tuberculosis infection in Korean high school students
Eun Hee Kim, Jong-Myon Bae Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018035.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This study investigated the knowledge of Iranian women about HIV/AIDS and whether they had accepting attitudes towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sought to identify factors correlated with their knowledge and attitudes.
METHODS:
The data analyzed in the present study were taken from Iran’s Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, a national survey conducted in 2015. In total, 42,630 women aged 15-49 years were identified through multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling and interviewed. Associations of the socio-demographic characteristics of participants with their knowledge and attitudes were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS:
The majority (79.0%) of Iranian women had heard about HIV/AIDS, but only 19.1% had a comprehensive knowledge. In addition, only 15.4% of women had accepting attitudes toward people with HIV. Being older, married, more highly educated, and wealthier were factors associated with having more comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and living in urban areas was associated with having more positive attitudes toward people with HIV.
CONCLUSIONS:
The relatively poor knowledge of Iranian women and the low prevalence of accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV highlight the need to develop policies and interventions to overcome this issue, which would be a basis for further prevention of HIV/AIDS in Iran.
Abstract
The prevalence of latnet Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the first-grade high school students in South Korea was 2.1%, which was the lowest level at congregated settings in 2017. For LTBI cases refusing anti-tuberculosis (TB) medication or having poor compliance, additional support should be considered. Eight systematic reviews concluded that vitamin D (VD) deficiency is a risk factor for TB. While three of four South Korean adolescents were VD deficiency, VD supplementation could be a practical remedy to protect LTBI students of refusing anti-TB medication or having poor compliance.
Obituary Obituary: Dr. Hyun-Sul Lim’s (1952-2018) life as an epidemiologist, occupational and environmental medicine researcher, and family physician
Sun Huh Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018033.
  • View article
  • Supplementary data
Original Article Spatial modeling of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iranian army units during 2014-2017 using a hierarchical Bayesian method and the spatial scan statistic
Erfan Ayubi, Mohammad Barati, Arasb Dabbagh Moghaddam, Ali Reza Khoshdel Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018032.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This study aimed to map the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Iranian army units (IAUs) and to identify possible spatial clusters.
METHODS:
This ecological study investigated incident cases of CL between 2014 and 2017. CL data were extracted from the CL registry maintained by the deputy of health of AJA University of Medical Sciences. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of CL was computed with a Besag, York, and Mollié model. The purely spatial scan statistic was employed to detect the most likely highand low-rate clusters and to obtain the observed-to-expected (O/E) ratio for each detected cluster. The statistical significance of the clusters was assessed using the log likelihood ratio (LLR) test and Monte Carlo hypothesis testing.
RESULTS:
A total of 1,144 new CL cases occurred in IAUs from 2014 to 2017, with an incidence rate of 260 per 100,000. Isfahan and Khuzestan Provinces were found to have more CL cases than expected in all studied years (SIR>1), while Kermanshah, Kerman, and Fars Provinces were observed to have been high-risk areas in only some years of the study period. The most significant CL cluster was in Kermanshah Province (O/E, 67.88; LLR, 1,200.62; p<0.001), followed by clusters in Isfahan Province (O/E, 6.02; LLR, 513.24; p<0.001) and Khuzestan Province (O/E, 2.35; LLR, 73.71; p<0.001), while low-rate clusters were located in the northeast areas, including Razavi Khorasan, North Khorasan, Semnan, and Golestan Provinces (O/E, 0.03; LLR, 95.11; p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:
This study identified high-risk areas for CL. These findings have public health implications and should be considered when planning control interventions among IAUs.
Original Article Functional disorders of the lung and symptoms of respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust in Iran
Masoud Neghab, Zeinab Jabari, Fatemeh Kargar Shouroki Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018031.
  • Abstract
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Original Article Substance abuse behaviors among university freshmen in Iran: a latent class analysis
Kourosh Kabir, Ali Bahari, Mohammad Hajizadeh, Hamid Allahverdipour, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018030.
  • Abstract
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The possible adverse respiratory effects of airborne pollutants in sawmills have not been thoroughly investigated in Iran. Additionally, the extent to which workers are exposed to this organic dust and its associated bioaerosols has not been extensively quantified. Likewise, the predominant bacterial and fungal species associated with wood dust have not been characterized. The present study was undertaken to address these issues.
METHODS:
One hundred male individuals exposed to wood dust and 100 unexposed male subjects were investigated. They completed a standardized respiratory symptom questionnaire and underwent spirometry testing. Additionally, airborne concentrations of respirable and inhalable dust particles, bacteria, and fungi were measured.
RESULTS:
The mean concentrations of inhalable and respirable dust particles, bacteria, and fungi were found to be 2.44, 6.76 mg/m3 , 756.38, and 299.15 colony-forming units/m3 , respectively. The predominant Gram-negative bacteria in the sawmills included the Pseudomonadaceae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Rhinoscleromatis spp., and the predominant fungi consisted of the zygomycetes and Aspergillus spp. Respiratory symptoms were significantly more prevalent among exposed workers. Significant cross-shift decrements were noted in some pulmonary function parameters. Similarly, pre-shift spirometry results indicated that some pulmonary function parameters were significantly lower in the exposed group.
CONCLUSIONS:
Exposure to wood dust and its bioaerosols was associated with significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and both acute (i.e., partially reversible) and chronic (i.e., irreversible) decrements in the functional capacity of the lung. Additionally, the characterized bioaerosols did not differ significantly from those isolated in other parts of the world.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Substance abuse behaviors among university freshmen in Iran are poorly understood. This study aimed to identify, for the first time, subgroups of university freshmen in Iran on the basis of substance abuse behaviors. Moreover, it examined the effects of socio-demographic characteristics on membership in each specific subgroup.
METHODS:
Data for the study were collected cross-sectionally in December 2013 and January 2014 from 4 major cities in Iran: Tabriz, Qazvin, Karaj, and Khoramabad. A total of 5,252 first-semester freshmen were randomly selected using a proportional cluster sampling methodology. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify subgroups of students on the basis of substance abuse behaviors and to examine the effects of students’ socio-demographic characteristics on membership in each specific subgroup.
RESULTS:
The LCA procedure identified 3 latent classes: the healthy group; the hookah experimenter group; and the unhealthy group. Approximately 82.8, 16.1, and 2.1% of students were classified into the healthy, hookah experimenter, and unhealthy groups, respectively. Older age, being male, and having a family member or a close friend who smoked increased the risk of membership in classes 2 and 3, compared to class 1.
CONCLUSIONS:
Approximately 2.1% of freshmen exhibited unhealthy substance abuse behaviors. In addition, we found that older age, being male, and having a close friend or family member who smoked may serve as risk factors for substance abuse behaviors.

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