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Original Article

March 12, 2022


Unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality: a historical cohort study of 50,000 COVID-19 patients in Fars, Iran
Alireza Mirahmadizadeh, Mohammad Taghi Badeleh Shamooshaki, Amineh Dadvar, Mohammad Javad Moradian, Mohammad Aryaie
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022032.

Perspective

March 12, 2022


Measles susceptibility of marriage migrant women in Korea
Sooyeon Kim, Sun A Kim, Hanbich Hong, Seong Ryeong Choi, Hae-Young Na, Sung Un Shin, Kyung-Hwa Park, Sook In Jung, Min-Ho Shin, Sun-Seog Kweon, et al.
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022031.

Original Article

February 21, 2022


Recent trends in opioid prescriptions in Korea from 2002 to 2015 based on the Korean NHIS-NSC cohort
Joungyoun Kim, Sang-Jun Shin, Jihyun Yoon, Hyeong-Seop Kim, Jae-woo Lee, Ye-seul Kim, Yonghwan Kim, Hyo-Sun You, Hee-Taik Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022029.

Original Article

February 21, 2022


Association between levels of physical activity and low handgrip strength: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2019
Hyungsoon Ahn, Hwa Young Choi, Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022027.

Original Article

February 19, 2022


Differences in accuracy of height, weight, and body mass index between self-reported and measured using the 2018 Korea Community Health Survey data
Yoonsil Ko, Sunhye Choi, Jisoo Won, Yeon-Kyeng Lee, Dong-Hyun Kim, Seon Kui Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022024.

Current Issue
Volume 44; 2022
Original Article Unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality: a historical cohort study of 50,000 COVID-19 patients in Fars, Iran
Alireza Mirahmadizadeh, Mohammad Taghi Badeleh Shamooshaki, Amineh Dadvar, Mohammad Javad Moradian, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022032.
  • Abstract
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Perspective Measles susceptibility of marriage migrant women in Korea
Sooyeon Kim, Sun A Kim, Hanbich Hong, Seong Ryeong Choi, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022031.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Previous studies have estimated the risk of death associated with unemployment in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but no studies have examined unemployment before COVID-19 infection as a risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Thus, this study aimed to investigate COVID-19 mortality among this population.
METHODS:
Data on 50,038 people aged 25-59 years were collected from 38 agencies in Fars Province, Iran, from February 2020 to July 2021. Follow-up lasted from participants’ diagnosis with COVID-19 based on the results of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test to participants’ death or the end of the study period. The association between unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality was estimated using the Poisson regression method, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to calculate the E-value.
RESULTS:
Unemployment was associated with a 2.41-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01 to 2.90) higher age-adjusted and sex-adjusted risk of COVID-19-related mortality. The adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed 8.82 (95% CI, 6.42 to 12.11), 2.84 (95% CI, 1.90 to 4.24), and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.24 to 2.01) times higher risks of COVID-19-related mortality among unemployed people aged 25-39 years, 40-49 years, and 50-59 years, respectively, than among their employed counterparts. Unemployment increased the risk of COVID-19 mortality by 3.31 (95% CI, 2.31 to 4.74) and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.86 to 2.84) times in female and male, respectively. The E-value was 3.43, reflecting the minimum strength of confounding required to shift the association between unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality toward the null.
CONCLUSIONS:
Unemployment prior to COVID-19 infection increased the risk of COVID-19-related mortality. COVID-19-related mortality disproportionately impacted unemployed women and younger unemployed people.
Abstract
International migrants could be considered a risk group susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. We conducted a measles seroprevalence study among 419 marriage migrant women living in Sinan-gun and Wando-gun, South Jeolla Province, located in the southwestern part of Korea. The overall seroimmunity was 92.8%. The seroimmunity varied considerably according to the country of origin and increased with age. Our current analysis could be valuable in the context of discussions concerning vaccination policies for immigrants in Korea.
Original Article Recent trends in opioid prescriptions in Korea from 2002 to 2015 based on the Korean NHIS-NSC cohort
Joungyoun Kim, Sang-Jun Shin, Jihyun Yoon, Hyeong-Seop Kim, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022029.
  • Abstract
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  • Supplementary data
Original Article Association between levels of physical activity and low handgrip strength: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2019
Hyungsoon Ahn, Hwa Young Choi, Moran Ki Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022027.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Opioids are prescribed to treat moderate to severe pain. We investigated recent trends in opioid (morphine, oxycodone, fentanyl, and hydromorphone) prescriptions using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort between 2002 and 2015.
METHODS:
The morphine milligram equivalent (MME) was calculated to standardize the relative potency of opioids. The number (cases) or amount (MME) of annual opioid prescriptions per 10,000 registrants was computed to analyze trends in opioid prescriptions after age standardization. Joinpoint regression analysis was conducted to calculate the annual percentage change and average annual percentage change (AAPC).
RESULTS:
The number (cases) of prescriptions per 10,000 registrants increased from 0.07 in 2002 to 41.23 in 2015 (AAPC, 76.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 61.6 to 91.7). The MME per 10,000 registrants increased from 15.06 in 2002 to 40,727.80 in 2015 (AAPC, 103.0%; 95% CI, 78.2 to 131.3). The highest AAPC of prescriptions and MME per 10,000 registrants were observed in the elderly (60-69 years) and in patients treated at general hospitals. Fentanyl prescriptions increased most rapidly among the 4 opioids.
CONCLUSIONS:
Consumption of opioids greatly increased in Korea over the 14-year study period.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This study aimed to investigate the association between levels of physical activity (PA) and low handgrip strength in Korean adults.
METHODS:
Our cross-sectional study design included 24,109 Korean adults older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014–2019. Low handgrip strength is described as hand strength less than the cut-off value of the 20th percentile of handgrip strength from a healthy population in each gender and age group. PA was categorized into three levels (inactive, active, and highly active) according to the World Health Organization’s global recommendations on PA for health. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between levels of PA and low handgrip strength.
RESULTS:
Odds ratios (ORs) for low handgrip strength were significantly higher in middle-aged women who were active (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.69) and inactive (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.76) than in those highly active in walking exercise. Most of older people had significantly higher ORs for low handgrip strength in active compared to highly active in the context of aerobic, muscle strengthening, and walking exercise.
CONCLUSIONS:
Walking exercise was associated with a lower risk of sarcopenia in middle-aged women and older individuals. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the causal relationship between levels of PA and low handgrip strength.
Original Article Differences in accuracy of height, weight, and body mass index between self-reported and measured using the 2018 Korea Community Health Survey data
Yoonsil Ko, Sunhye Choi, Jisoo Won, Yeon-Kyeng Lee, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022024.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
Original Article Secular trends and related factors in leisure-time sedentary behavior among Koreans: an analysis of data from the 2011-2017 Korea Community Health Survey
Hyun-Ju Seo, Min-Jung Choi, Soon-Ki Ahn Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022023.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This study aimed to determine an effective survey method for the accurate calculation of obesity prevalence by comparing the self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) using the 2018 Korea Community Healthy Survey (CHS) data.
METHODS:
Raw data from the 2018 CHS were used to analyze the differences, correlation, and agreement between self-reported and measured height, weight, and BMI.
RESULTS:
The self-reported height was over-reported than the measured height (0.59 cm greater for men and 0.71 cm greater for women), while the self-reported weight was under-reported than the measured weight (0.55 kg less for men and 0.67 kg less for women). Subsequently, the self-reported BMI was under-estimated (0.35 kg/m2 lower for men and 0.49 kg/m2 lower for women) compared with the measured BMI. The kappa statistic and agreement between measured and self-reported values per BMI category (underweight, normal, overweight, and obesity) were 0.82 and 79.6%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
The prevalence of obesity should be calculated using the measured values provided in the CHS in order to promote local health projects based on accurate evidence.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Sedentary behavior has gradually increased and has become a public health problem. Therefore, this study investigated trends in weekday leisure-time sedentary behaviors, as well as characteristic socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates in Korean adults.
METHODS:
We analyzed data from 914,946 adults aged ≥19 years who participated in the Korea Community Health Survey (2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017). Leisure-time sedentary behavior was categorized as a binary variable (<4 and ≥4 hr/day). Multivariable regression analysis was used to model the prevalence of sedentary behavior and estimate odds ratios.
RESULTS:
The prevalence of leisure-time sedentary behavior decreased from 15.2% to 14.4% in men and from 16.6% to 16.0% in women between 2011 and 2017, respectively. However, a significant increase was observed in subjects with an education lower than high school in both genders (β coefficient=0.12 for men and 0.08 for women, p for trend <0.001). Women in the lowest household income level (β coefficient=0.08, p for trend=0.001) and with poor subjective health status (β coefficient=0.05, p for trend=0.013) showed an increasing trend. Other factors associated with sedentary behavior were age, education level, body mass index, household income, walking activity, perceived stress level, and subjective health status in both genders.
CONCLUSIONS:
Identifying the secular trends and correlates of sedentary behavior by gender and associated factors will provide empirical evidence for developing public health campaigns and promotion programs to reduce sedentary behavior in Koreans.

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