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Editorial

November 14, 2018


Lessons from radiation epidemiology
Won Jin Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018057.

Original Article

November 8, 2018


Incidence of varicella in children in Jeju-do, Korea, 2005-2016: age-period-cohort analysis
Jinhee Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018054.

Original Article

October 20, 2018


Seasonality of tuberculosis in the Republic of Korea, 2006-2016
Eun Hee Kim, Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018051.

Original Article

October 11, 2018


Development and validation of a sunlight exposure questionnaire for urban adult Filipinos
Marc Gregory Yu, Nina Castillo-Carandang, Maria Elinor Grace Sison, Angelique Bea Uy, Katrina Lenora Villarante, Patricia Maningat, Elizabeth Paz-Pacheco, Eileen Abesamis-Cubillan
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018050.

Original Article

October 7, 2018


Association of appendicular skeletal muscle mass with carotid intima-media thickness according to body mass index in Korean adults
Ji Eun Heo, Hyeon Chang Kim, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Hye Yoon Bae, Ho Jae Lee, Il Suh
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018049.

Current Issue
Volume 40; 2018
Editorial Lessons from radiation epidemiology
Won Jin Lee Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018057.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Original Article Incidence of varicella in children in Jeju-do, Korea, 2005-2016: age-period-cohort analysis
Jinhee Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Jong-Myon Bae Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018054.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
Abstract
Radiation epidemiology has developed as a specialized field and has unique characteristics compared to the other fields of epidemiology. Radiation exposure assessment is highly quantified and health risk assessment can yield precise risks per unit dose in each organ. At the same time, radiation epidemiology also emphasizes the uncertainty of the estimated doses and risks. More radiation epidemiologists work in radiation societies rather than those of epidemiology. This specialization deepens the research of radiation studies but also results in fragmentation from general epidemiology. In addition to continued involvement with radiation-related sciences, therefore, more efforts to communicate with the other fields of epidemiology are necessary for radiation epidemiology.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Although the nationwide inoculation rate of varicella vaccine was approximately 95% in Korean children recently, the number of notified varicella cases is unexpectedly continuously increasing till now. To suggest some hypotheses regarding this discrepancy, an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis as a descriptive epidemiology study was conducted for children residing in Jeju-do, Korea.
METHODS:
The raw data were obtained from the nationwide database for insurance claim of healthcare fee provided by the National Health Insurance Service, Korea. The selection criteria were children aged 2-13 years who visited any healthcare center due to varicella from 2005 to 2016 while residing in Jeju-do. After calculating the birth cohort-specific crude incidence rates by age and year, the intrinsic estimator method was used to perform the APC analysis.
RESULTS:
As the annual crude incidence rates decreased with increasing age between 2005 and 2016, the age and period effects also decreased. The intrinsic estimator coefficients suggesting the cohort effect shifted from positive to negative in 2011, the starting year of free varicella vaccine program in Jeju-do.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results suggested that inoculated varicella vaccines have preventive effects. However, further studies to evaluate waning immunity would be needed.
Original Article Seasonality of tuberculosis in the Republic of Korea, 2006-2016
Eun Hee Kim, Jong-Myon Bae Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018051.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Original Article Development and validation of a sunlight exposure questionnaire for urban adult Filipinos
Marc Gregory Yu, Nina Castillo-Carandang, Maria Elinor Grace Sison, Angelique Bea Uy, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018050.
  • Abstract
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
While the seasonality of notified tuberculosis has been identified in several populations, there is not a descriptive epidemiological study on the seasonality of tuberculosis in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonality of tuberculosis in Korea from 2006 to 2016.
METHODS:
Data regarding notified cases of tuberculosis by year and month was obtained from the Infectious Diseases Surveillance Yearbook, 2017 published by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Seasonal decomposition was conducted using the method of structural model of time series analysis with simple moving averages.
RESULTS:
While the trough season was winter from 2006 to 2016, the peak season was summer between 2006 and 2012, but shifted to spring between 2013 and 2016.
CONCLUSIONS:
Notified tuberculosis in Korea also showed seasonality. It is necessary to evaluate factors related to the seasonality of tuberculosis for controlling tuberculosis.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
To develop and validate a self-reported sunlight exposure questionnaire (SEQ) for urban adult Filipinos.
METHODS:
The study included adults (19-76 years old) in Metro Manila, Philippines, well-versed in the Filipino (Tagalog) language and had resided in Metro Manila for at least 1 year. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy, active skin disorders, and immunocompromised states. An expert panel created a questionnaire in Likert-scale format based on a conceptual framework and 4 existing instruments. The study proceeded in 4 phases: questionnaire item development, translation and back-translation, pretesting, and construct validity and reliability testing using factor analysis, the Cronbach alpha coefficient, and the paired t-test.
RESULTS:
A 25-item, self-administered, Filipino (Tagalog) SEQ answerable using a 4-point Likert scale was created. The questionnaire was administered to 260 adult participants twice at a 2-week interval, with all participants completing both the first and second rounds of testing. All questionnaire items possessed adequate content validity indices of at least 0.86. After factor analysis, 3 questionnaire domains were identified: intensity of sunlight exposure, factors affecting sunlight exposure, and sun protection practices. Internal consistency was satisfactory for both the overall questionnaire (Cronbach alpha, 0.80) and for each of the domains (Cronbach alpha, 0.74, 0.71, and 0.72, respectively). No statistically significant differences were observed in the responses between the first and second rounds of testing, indicating good test-retest reliability.
CONCLUSIONS:
We developed a culturally-appropriate SEQ with sufficient content validity, construct validity, and reliability to assess sunlight exposure among urban adult Filipinos in Metro Manila, Philippines.
Original Article Association of appendicular skeletal muscle mass with carotid intima-media thickness according to body mass index in Korean adults
Ji Eun Heo, Hyeon Chang Kim, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018049.
  • Abstract
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  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Original Article Community-based surveillance of Cryptosporidium in the indigenous community of Boliwong, Philippines: from April to December 2017
Ryan V. Labana, Julieta Z. Dungca, Veeranoot Nissapatorn Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018047.
  • Abstract
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The combined effects of obesity and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) on atherosclerosis, especially in middleaged populations, remain poorly understood. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of ASM on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) according to body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged Korean adults.
METHODS:
Herein, 595 men and 1,274 women aged 30-64 years completed questionnaires and underwent health examinations as part of the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort. ASM was measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis and adjusted for weight (ASM/Wt). IMT was assessed using B-mode ultrasonography; highest quartile of IMT was defined as gender-specific top quartile of the IMT values. Higher BMIs was defined as a BMI over 25.0 kg/m2 .
RESULTS:
Compared to the highest ASM/Wt quartile, the lowest ASM/Wt quartile was significantly associated with highest quartile of IMT in men with lower BMIs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 7.13), but not in those with higher BMIs (aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.91). In women, there was no significant association of low skeletal muscle mass with highest quartile of IMT, regardless of BMI.
CONCLUSIONS:
Low appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with carotid arterial wall thickening in men with lower BMIs, but not in men with higher BMIs. Our findings suggest that the risk of atherosclerosis may be low in middle-aged Korean men with appropriate body weight and skeletal muscle mass maintenance.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
For the first time, Boliwong, an indigenous community in the Philippines, was surveyed for the prevalence of Cryptosporidium from April to December 2017.
METHODS:
Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples from the river, creek, and water pumps via immunomagnetic separation techniques, and from human and animal concentrated faecal samples using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique.
RESULTS:
Seven of the 24 water samples (29.2%) were positive for Cryptosporidium, with the highest concentration (0.8 oocyst/L) detected in the creek. Of 35 fecal samples from different animal groups, 8 (21.6%) were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The highest intensity of oocyst shedding was detected in dogs (χ2 =8.00). Of the 137 human fecal samples, 39 (28.5%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. In this study, 3 risk factors were found to be associated with infection: (1) location (crude odds ratio [cOR], 16.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 127.41; p=0.008), (2) drinking water from the natural spring (cOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.82; p<0.05), and (3) using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility (cOR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.20; p<0.05). When the cOR was adjusted, using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility remained a significant risk factor of infection (adjusted OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.90; p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
There is a potentially emerging Cryptosporidium zoonosis in Boliwong, Lagawe, Philippines. It is recommended that the toilet facilities and the water system in the community be rehabilitated to avoid any possible disease outbreak. Health education is also needed in the community to maintain proper hygiene and sanitation practices.

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