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Original Article

May 27, 2018


Mortality from aluminum phosphide poisoning in Kermanshah Province, Iran: characteristics and predictive factors
Seyed Mohammad Navabi, Jafar Navabi, Abbas Aghaei, Zahra Shaahmadi, Ruhollah Heydari
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018022.

Original Article

May 21, 2018


Associations between dietary risk factors and ischemic stroke: a comparison of regression methods using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Yaser Mokhayeri, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Soheila Khodakarim, Hamid Soori
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018021.

Original Article

May 18, 2018


Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and risk factors of hypertension among adults: a cross-sectional study in Iran
Maryam Eghbali, Alireza Khosravi, Awat Feizi, Asieh Mansouri, Behzad Mahaki, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018020.

Original Article

May 18, 2018


Effects of human and organizational deficiencies on workers’ safety behavior at a mining site in Iran
Mostafa Mirzaei Aliabadi, Hamed Aghaei, Omid Kalatpour, Ali Reza Soltanian, Maryam SeyedTabib
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018019.

Original Article

May 14, 2018


Sleep quality and associated factors among the elderly living in rural Chiang Rai, northern Thailand
Weerakorn Thichumpa, Nopporn Howteerakul, Nawarat Suwannapong, Visasiri Tantrakul
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018018.

Current Issue
Volume 40; 2018
Original Article Mortality from aluminum phosphide poisoning in Kermanshah Province, Iran: characteristics and predictive factors
Seyed Mohammad Navabi, Jafar Navabi, Abbas Aghaei, Zahra Shaahmadi, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018022.
  • Abstract
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Original Article Associations between dietary risk factors and ischemic stroke: a comparison of regression methods using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Yaser Mokhayeri, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Soheila Khodakarim, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018021.
  • Abstract
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Aluminum phosphide (ALP), also known in Iran as rice tablets, is one of the most effective rodenticides used to protect stored grain. However, ALP poisoning regularly causes mortality in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and predictive factors of mortality from ALP poisoning.
METHODS:
This study evaluated all patients with ALP poisoning referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Kermanshah Province, Iran from 2014 to 2015. For each patient, the following information was recorded: age, sex, the number of tablets consumed, the number of suicide attempts, the time elapsed from consumption to treatment, blood pressure, blood pH, HCO3 levels, and PCO2 . Differences between the survivors and non-survivors of ALP poisoning were analyzed using univariate logistic regression and multivariate analysis.
RESULTS:
In this study, 48 patients were male and 29 patients were female (total: 77 patients). The average age of the survivors and non-survivors was 28.7 and 31.3 years, respectively. All cases (100%) of ALP poisoning were intentional, with the goal of committing suicide. The main predictive variables of mortality from ALP poisoning were blood pressure, blood pH, and time elapsed from consumption to treatment.
CONCLUSIONS:
The likelihood of mortality in patients with ALP poisoning can be predicted using blood pressure, blood pH, and time elapsed from consumption to treatment. These findings may help healthcare providers take more effective measures to treat patients with ALP poisoning.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
We analyzed dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR), and assessed how well the scores extracted by RRR predicted stroke in comparison to the scores produced by partial least squares and principal component regression models.
METHODS:
Dietary data at baseline were used to extract dietary patterns using the 3 methods, along with 4 response variables: body mass index, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The analyses were based on 5,468 males and females aged 45-84 years who had no clinical cardiovascular disease, using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
RESULTS:
The primary factor derived by RRR was positively associated with stroke incidence in both models. The first model was adjusted for sex and race and the second model was adjusted for the variables in model 1 as well as smoking, physical activity, family and sibling history of stroke, the use of any lipid-lowering medication, the use of any anti-hypertensive medication, hypertension, and history of myocardial infarction (model 1: hazard ratio [HR], 7.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 33.69; p for trend=0.01; model 2: HR, 6.83; 95% CI, 1.51 to 30.87 for quintile 5 compared with the reference category; p for trend=0.02).
CONCLUSIONS:
Based primarily on RRR, we identified that a dietary pattern high in fats and oils, poultry, non-diet soda, processed meat, tomatoes, legumes, chicken, tuna and egg salad, and fried potatoes and low in dark-yellow and cruciferous vegetables may increase the incidence of ischemic stroke.
Original Article Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and risk factors of hypertension among adults: a cross-sectional study in Iran
Maryam Eghbali, Alireza Khosravi, Awat Feizi, Asieh Mansouri, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018020.
  • Abstract
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Original Article Effects of human and organizational deficiencies on workers’ safety behavior at a mining site in Iran
Mostafa Mirzaei Aliabadi, Hamed Aghaei, Omid Kalatpour, Ali Reza Soltanian, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018019.
  • Abstract
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Hypertension (HTN) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Considering the importance of this disease for public health, this study was designed in order to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and risk factors of HTN in the Iranian adult population.
METHODS:
This cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,107 residents of Isfahan, Iran. Samples were selected through multi-stage random cluster sampling in 2015-2016. The outcome variable was HTN, determined by measuring blood pressure in the right arm via a digital arm blood pressure monitor. Awareness, treatment, and control of HTN were assessed by a validated and reliable researcher-developed questionnaire. Other demographic and clinical variables were assessed via a demographic questionnaire.
RESULTS:
The overall prevalence of HTN was 17.3% (18.9 and 15.5% in men and women, respectively). The prevalence of HTN increased in both genders with age. The prevalence of awareness of HTN among people with HTN was 69.2%, of whom 92.4 and 59.9% were taking medication for HTN and had controlled HTN, respectively. Logistic regression identified age, body mass index, having diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and a positive family history of HTN as determinants of awareness of HTN.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results showed that HTN was highly prevalent in the community, especially in men and in middle-aged and older adults. Approximately 30.8% of patients were unaware of their disease, and there was less awareness among younger adults. Despite the high frequency of taking medication to treat HTN, it was uncontrolled in more than 40.1% of patients. Health policy-makers should therefore consider appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies for these high-risk groups.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Throughout the world, mines are dangerous workplaces with high accident rates. According to the Statistical Center of Iran, the number of occupational accidents in Iranian mines has increased in recent years. This study investigated and analyzed the human and organizational deficiencies that influenced Iranian mining accidents.
METHODS:
In this study, the data associated with 305 mining accidents were analyzed using a systems analysis approach to identify critical deficiencies in organizational influences, unsafe supervision, preconditions for unsafe acts, and workers’ unsafe acts. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was utilized to model the interactions among these deficiencies.
RESULTS:
Organizational deficiencies had a direct positive effect on workers’ violations (path coefficient, 0.16) and workers’ errors (path coefficient, 0.23). The effect of unsafe supervision on workers’ violations and workers’ errors was also significant, with path coefficients of 0.14 and 0.20, respectively. Likewise, preconditions for unsafe acts had a significant effect on both workers’ violations (path coefficient, 0.16) and workers’ errors (path coefficient, 0.21). Moreover, organizational deficiencies had an indirect positive effect on workers’ unsafe acts, mediated by unsafe supervision and preconditions for unsafe acts. Among the variables examined in the current study, organizational influences had the strongest impact on workers’ unsafe acts.
CONCLUSIONS:
Organizational deficiencies were found to be the main cause of accidents in the mining sector, as they affected all other aspects of system safety. In order to prevent occupational accidents, organizational deficiencies should be modified first.
Original Article Sleep quality and associated factors among the elderly living in rural Chiang Rai, northern Thailand
Weerakorn Thichumpa, Nopporn Howteerakul, Nawarat Suwannapong, Visasiri Tantrakul Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018018.
  • Abstract
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Original Article Is inadequate play area in schools associated with overweight among students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia? A comparative cross-sectional study
Tsedey Moges, Bereket Gebremichael, Solomon Shiferaw, Robel Yirgu Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018017.
  • Abstract
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of poor sleep quality and to identify associated factors among community-dwelling elderly individuals in northern Thailand.
METHODS:
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 266 randomly selected elderly people in a sub-district in rural Chiang Rai Province, northern Thailand. The participants were interviewed using the Thai version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
RESULTS:
Roughly 44.0% of the participants had poor sleep quality (PSQI score, >5), 9.4% used sleep medication, 27.1% had poor family relationships, and 12.0% had mild depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that being female (odds ratio [OR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 3.02), a higher education level (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.34 to 6.86 for primary school; OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.31 to 5.44 for higher than primary school), mild depression (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.11 to 6.36), and poor family relationships (OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.98 to 6.75) were significantly associated with poor sleep quality.
CONCLUSIONS:
The prevalence of poor sleep quality among the elderly was moderately high. Healthcare providers should regularly conduct screenings for sleep quality and depression; provide sleep health education; and conduct interventions to encourage participating in family activities, resolving conflicts, sharing ideas, and making compromises within the family.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The prevalence of childhood obesity has more than doubled since it was formally recognized as a global epidemic in 1997. With the increasingly dwindling space for private schools in Ethiopia, unresolved concerns exist among the public regarding the possible effect of limited play areas in schools on overweight/obesity. This study intended to determine and compare the levels of overweight/obesity among adolescents in private schools with and without adequate play area in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
METHODS:
A school-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,276 adolescents. Twenty private schools were grouped into 2 groups based on the size of the play area. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and anthropometric measurements and analyzed using descriptive statistical tests and logistic regression.
RESULTS:
The magnitude of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in schools with inadequate play area (19.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.4 to 22.7) than in schools with adequate play area (14.6%; 95% CI, 11.9 to17.5). Inadequacy of the play area was also positively associated with overweight/obesity in the multiple logistic regression analysis (odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.51). Using private car transportation to and from school (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.13 to 4.57), father’s educational status (secondary school and above: OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.62), and middle wealth quintile (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.33) were other factors significantly associated with overweight/obesity.
CONCLUSIONS:
Inadequate play area in schools was an important contributor to overweight/obesity. Sedentary behavior was also significantly associated with overweight/obesity.

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