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Brief communication

August 29, 2018


Prophylactic efficacy of probiotics on travelers’ diarrhea: an adaptive meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018043.

Original Article

August 20, 2018


Predicting needlestick and sharps injuries and determining preventive strategies using a Bayesian network approach in Tehran, Iran
Hamed Akbari, Fakhradin Ghasemi, Hesam Akbari, Amir Adibzadeh
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018042.

Original Article

August 11, 2018


Androgen deprivation therapy is associated with decreased second primary lung cancer risk in the United States veterans with prostate cancer
Kyungsuk Jung, Jong Chul Park, Hyunseok Kang, Johann Christoph Brandes
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018040.

Original Article

August 8, 2018


The association between aggression and risk of Internet gaming disorder in Korean adolescents: the mediation effect of father-adolescent communication style
Eunjin Kim, Hyeon Woo Yim, Hyunsuk Jeong, Sun-Jin Jo, Hae Kook Lee, Hye Jung Son, Hyun-ho Han
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018039.

Original Article

August 5, 2018


Spatial inequalities and predictors of HIV/AIDS mortality risk in Hamadan, Iran: a retrospective cohort study
Somayeh Momenyan, Amir Kavousi, Jalal Poorolajal, Narges Momenyan
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018038.

Current Issue
Volume 40; 2018
Brief communication Prophylactic efficacy of probiotics on travelers’ diarrhea: an adaptive meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Jong-Myon Bae Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018043.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Original Article Predicting needlestick and sharps injuries and determining preventive strategies using a Bayesian network approach in Tehran, Iran
Hamed Akbari, Fakhradin Ghasemi, Hesam Akbari, Amir Adibzadeh Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018042.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The 2017 guideline for the prevention of travelers’ diarrhea (TD) by the International Society of Travel Medicine suggested that ‘there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of commercially available prebiotics or probiotics to prevent or treat TD.’ However, a meta-analysis published in 2007 reported significant efficacy of probiotics in the prevention of TD (summary relative risk [sRR], 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.91). This study aimed to synthesize the efficacy of probiotics on TD by updating the meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized human trials.
METHODS:
The search process was conducted by the adaptive meta-analysis method using the ‘cited by’ and ‘similar articles’ options provided by PubMed. The inclusion criteria were double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized human trials with hypotheses of probiotics as intervention and TD as an outcome. The adaptive meta-analysis was conducted using Stata software using the csi, metan, metafunnel, and metabias options.
RESULTS:
Eleven articles were selected for the meta-analysis. The sRR was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.91) and showed statistical significance. There was no heterogeneity (I-squared=28.4%) and no publication bias.
CONCLUSIONS:
Probiotics showed statistically significant efficacy in the prevention of TD.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Recent studies have shown that the rate of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs) is unacceptably high in Iranian hospitals. The aim of the present study was to use a systematic approach to predict and reduce these injuries.
METHODS:
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Eleven variables thought to affect NSIs were categorized based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework and modeled using a Bayesian network. A self-administered validated questionnaire was used to collect the required data. In total, 343 cases were used to train the model and 50 cases were used to test the model. Model performance was assessed using various indices. Finally, using predictive reasoning, several intervention strategies for reducing NSIs were recommended.
RESULTS:
The Bayesian network HFACS model was able to predict 86% of new cases correctly. The analyses showed that safety motivation and fatigue were the most important contributors to NSIs. Supervisors’ attitude toward safety and working hours per week were the most important factors in the unsafe supervision category. Management commitment and staffing were the most important organizational-level factors affecting NSIs. Finally, promising intervention strategies for reducing NSIs were identified and discussed.
CONCLUSIONS:
To reduce NSIs, both management commitment and sufficient staffing are necessary. Supervisors should encourage nurses to engage in safe behavior. Excessive working hours result in fatigue and increase the risk of NSIs.
Original Article Androgen deprivation therapy is associated with decreased second primary lung cancer risk in the United States veterans with prostate cancer
Kyungsuk Jung, Jong Chul Park, Hyunseok Kang, Johann Christoph Brandes Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018040.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Original Article The association between aggression and risk of Internet gaming disorder in Korean adolescents: the mediation effect of father-adolescent communication style
Eunjin Kim, Hyeon Woo Yim, Hyunsuk Jeong, Sun-Jin Jo, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018039.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
We investigated whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer patients was associated with a decreased risk for second primary lung cancer in US veterans.
METHODS:
Prostate cancer diagnoses in the US Veterans Affairs Cancer Registry between 1999 and 2008 were identified. Use of hormonal therapy and diagnoses of second primary lung cancer were determined from the registry. Synchronous prostate and lung cancers, defined as 2 diagnoses made within 1 year, were excluded from the analysis. Cancer-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models.
RESULTS:
Among the 63,141 identified patients with prostate cancer, 18,707 subjects were eligible for the study. Hormonal therapy was used in 38% of patients and the median follow-up period was 28 months. ADT use was associated with longer lung cancer-free survival in prostate cancer patients (log-rank p=0.01). After adjusting for age, race, smoking and prostate cancer stage, ADT use was associated with decreased lung cancer risk by 15, 21, and 24% after 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
ADT in prostate cancer patients may be associated with decreased second primary lung cancer risk among US veterans.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Open and supportive communication between parents and children is known to reduce adolescents’ delinquent behavior. Recently, the risk of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been increasing in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of parent-child communication styles on the relationship between adolescent aggressiveness and risk of IGD.
METHODS:
Participants in this study were 402 first-year students from 4 middle schools in Seoul who enrolled in the Internet user Cohort for Unbiased Recognition of gaming disorder in Early adolescence (iCURE) and completed baseline assessment in 2016. The structural equation model was constructed based on an aggression questionnaire, the Internet game use-elicited symptom screen, a mother-child communication inventory, and a father-child communication inventory.
RESULTS:
Adolescents’ aggressiveness was found to be related to their risk of IGD. The father-child communication style mediated the relationship between aggression and risk of IGD. However, the mother-child communication style had no mediating effect.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our findings suggest that fathers should make an effort to improve open and positive communication skills with their children, because the father-child communication style plays an important role in the relationship between adolescent aggressiveness and risk of IGD.
Original Article Spatial inequalities and predictors of HIV/AIDS mortality risk in Hamadan, Iran: a retrospective cohort study
Somayeh Momenyan, Amir Kavousi, Jalal Poorolajal, Narges Momenyan Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018038.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Original Article Knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS among Iranian women
Ehsan Zarei, Roghayeh Khabiri, Maryam Tajvar, Shirin Nosratnejad Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018037.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Understanding the geographic variation of HIV/AIDS mortality risk and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection could help identify high-burden areas. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of predictors of the time interval between HIV diagnosis to death, while accounting for spatial correlations across counties, and to assess patterns of spatial inequalities in the risk of HIV/AIDS mortality in Hamadan Province, Iran.
METHODS:
This retrospective study was conducted on 585 patients. The outcome in this study was the time period between the date of HIV/AIDS diagnosis and the date of death. A Weibull regression model with spatial random effects was used.
RESULTS:
According to multivariate analysis, there were significant associations between age, tuberculosis co-infection, and marital status and the risk of death. In terms of spatial inequalities, a cluster of counties was identified with a somewhat higher death hazard in the north, northwest, northeast, and central regions. Additionally, a cluster with a somewhat lower hazard was identified in the south, southwest, southeast, and west regions.
CONCLUSIONS:
The spatial pattern of HIV/AIDS death risk could reflect inequalities in access to antiretroviral therapy and public health services. Our results underscore the importance of attention to vulnerable groups in urban areas.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This study investigated the knowledge of Iranian women about HIV/AIDS and whether they had accepting attitudes towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sought to identify factors correlated with their knowledge and attitudes.
METHODS:
The data analyzed in the present study were taken from Iran’s Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, a national survey conducted in 2015. In total, 42,630 women aged 15-49 years were identified through multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling and interviewed. Associations of the socio-demographic characteristics of participants with their knowledge and attitudes were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS:
The majority (79.0%) of Iranian women had heard about HIV/AIDS, but only 19.1% had a comprehensive knowledge. In addition, only 15.4% of women had accepting attitudes toward people with HIV. Being older, married, more highly educated, and wealthier were factors associated with having more comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and living in urban areas was associated with having more positive attitudes toward people with HIV.
CONCLUSIONS:
The relatively poor knowledge of Iranian women and the low prevalence of accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV highlight the need to develop policies and interventions to overcome this issue, which would be a basis for further prevention of HIV/AIDS in Iran.

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