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Epidemiologic Investigation

November 13, 2017


Vaccination history in elementary school children enrolled in the varicella epidemic investigations held in Jeju-si, Korea in the first half of 2017
Hyun-Suk Oh, Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017053.

Epidemiologic Investigation

November 12, 2017


Healthcare worker infected with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Korea, 2015
Hae-Sung Nam, Mi-Yeon Yeon, Jung Wan Park, Jee-Young Hong, Ji Woong Son
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017052.

Original Article

November 5, 2017


Decomposing economic disparities in risky sexual behaviors among people who inject drugs in Tehran: Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis
Mehdi Noroozi, Hamid Sharifi, Alireza Noroozi, Fatemah Rezaei, Mohammad Rafi Bazrafshan, Bahram Armoon
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017049.

Lecture

October 30, 2017


Shared decision making: relevant concepts and facilitating strategies
Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017048.

Methods

October 27, 2017


Network meta-analysis: application and practice using Stata
Sungryul Shim, Byung-Ho Yoon, In-Soo Shin, Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017047.

Current Issue
Volume 39; 2017
Epidemiologic Investigation Vaccination history in elementary school children enrolled in the varicella epidemic investigations held in Jeju-si, Korea in the first half of 2017
Hyun-Suk Oh, Jong-Myon Bae Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017053.
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Epidemiologic Investigation Healthcare worker infected with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Korea, 2015
Hae-Sung Nam, Mi-Yeon Yeon, Jung Wan Park, Jee-Young Hong, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017052.
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The reported incidence rate of varicella infection in Jeju-do is higher compared with the national average. This study aimed to examine varicella vaccination history and evaluate clinical manifestation of varicella cases in Jeju-do.
METHODS:
Based on the guideline suggested by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), two epidemic investigations for varicella infection were conducted in the first half of 2017. The history of varicella vaccination was confirmed using the Integrated Control System for Diseases and Health operated by the KCDC.
RESULTS:
Out of a total of 60 elementary school children as the study subjects, all had been previously vaccinated against varicella. Twenty cases (33%) showed mild clinical manifestations and no complications.
CONCLUSIONS:
As the government of Jeju-do has supplied a single-labeled vaccine since 2011, there is a need to evaluate the type of vaccination failure such as primary or secondary.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
During the outbreak of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in Korea in 2015, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) confirmed a case of MERS in a healthcare worker in Daejeon, South Korea. To verify the precise route of infection for the case, we conducted an in-depth epidemiological investigation in cooperation with the KCDC.
METHODS:
We reviewed the MERS outbreak investigation report of the KCDC, and interviewed the healthcare worker who had recovered from MERS. Using the media interview data, we reaffirmed and supplemented the nature of the exposure.
RESULTS:
The healthcare worker, a nurse, was infected while performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for a MERS patient in an isolation room. During the CPR which lasted for an hour, a large amount of body fluid was splashed. The nurse was presumed to have touched the mask to adjust its position during the CPR. She suggested that she was contaminated with the MERS patient’s body fluids by wiping away the sweat from her face during the CPR.
CONCLUSIONS:
The possible routes of infection may include the following: respiratory invasion of aerosols contaminated with MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) through a gap between the face and mask; mucosal exposure to sweat contaminated with MERS-CoV; and contamination during doffing of personal protective equipment. The MERS guidelines should reflect this case to decrease the risk of infection during CPR.
Original Article Decomposing economic disparities in risky sexual behaviors among people who inject drugs in Tehran: Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis
Mehdi Noroozi, Hamid Sharifi, Alireza Noroozi, Fatemah Rezaei, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017049.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Lecture Shared decision making: relevant concepts and facilitating strategies
Jong-Myon Bae Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017048.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
To our knowledge, no previous study has systematically assessed the role of economic status in risky sexual behavior among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran. In this study, we used Blinder-Oaxaca (BO) decomposition to explore the contribution of economic status to inequality in unprotected sex among PWID in Tehran and to decompose it into its determinants.
METHODS:
Behavioral surveys among PWID were conducted in Tehran, the capital city of Iran, from November 2016 to April 2017. We employed a cross-sectional design and snowball sampling methodology. We constructed the asset index (weighted by the first principal component analysis factor) using socioeconomic data and then divided the variable into 3 tertiles. We used the BO method to decompose the economic inequality in unprotected sex.
RESULTS:
Of the 520 recruited individuals, 20 were missing data for variables used to define their economic status, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Not having access to harm reduction programs was the largest factor contributing to the economic disparity in unprotected sex, accounting for 5.5 percentage points of the 21.4% discrepancy. Of the unadjusted total economic disparity in unprotected sex, 52% was unexplained by observable characteristics included in the regression model. The difference in the prevalence of unprotected sex between the high-income and low-income groups was 25%.
CONCLUSIONS:
Increasing needle syringe program coverage and improving human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge are essential for efforts to eliminate inequalities in HIV risk behaviors among PWID.
Abstract
As the paradigm in healthcare nowadays is the evidence-based, patient-centered decision making, the issue of shared decision making (SDM) is highlighted. The aims of this manuscript were to look at the relevant concepts and suggest the facilitating strategies for overcoming barriers of conducting SDM. While the definitions of SDM were discordant, several concepts such as good communication, individual autonomy, patient participants, and patient-centered decision-making were involved. Further, the facilitating strategies of SDM were to educate and train physician, to apply clinical practice guidelines and patient decision aids, to develop valid measurement tools for evaluation of SDM processes, and to investigate the impact of SDM.
Methods Network meta-analysis: application and practice using Stata
Sungryul Shim, Byung-Ho Yoon, In-Soo Shin, Jong-Myon Bae Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017047.
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Perspective National human genome projects: an update and an agenda
Joon Yong An Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017045.
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Abstract
This review aimed to arrange the concepts of a network meta-analysis (NMA) and to demonstrate the analytical process of NMA using Stata software under frequentist framework. The NMA tries to synthesize evidences for a decision making by evaluating the comparative effectiveness of more than two alternative interventions for the same condition. Before conducting a NMA, 3 major assumptions—similarity, transitivity, and consistency—should be checked. The statistical analysis consists of 5 steps. The first step is to draw a network geometry to provide an overview of the network relationship. The second step checks the assumption of consistency. The third step is to make the network forest plot or interval plot in order to illustrate the summary size of comparative effectiveness among various interventions. The fourth step calculates cumulative rankings for identifying superiority among interventions. The last step evaluates publication bias or effect modifiers for a valid inference from results. The synthesized evidences through five steps would be very useful to evidence-based decision-making in healthcare. Thus, NMA should be activated in order to guarantee the quality of healthcare system.
Abstract
Population genetic and human genetic studies are being accelerated with genome technology and data sharing. Accordingly, in the past 10 years, several countries have initiated genetic research using genome technology and identified the genetic architecture of the ethnic groups living in the corresponding country or suggested the genetic foundation of a social phenomenon. Genetic research has been conducted from epidemiological studies that previously described the health or disease conditions in defined population. This perspective summarizes national genome projects conducted in the past 10 years and introduces case studies to utilize genomic data in genetic research.

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