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Original Article

February 13, 2019


Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Korean women aged 19-79 years: the 2016 Korean Study of Women’s Health-Related Issues
Eunji Choi, Ha Na Cho, Da Hea Seo, Boyoung Park, Sohee Park, Juhee Cho, Sue Kim, Yeong-Ran Park, Kui Son Choi, Yumie Rhee
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019005.

Perspective

February 12, 2019


Health effects of exposure to radon: implications of the radon bed mattress incident in Korea
Songwon Seo, Wi-Ho Ha, Jin-Kyu Kang, Dalnim Lee, Soojin Park, Tae-Eun Kwon, Young Woo Jin
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019004.

Original Article

January 24, 2019


Dietary patterns, nutrition, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in the west of Iran
Behjat Marzbani, Javad Nazari, Farid Najafi, Behnaz Marzbani, Sara Shahabadi, Mahin Amini, Mehdi Moradinazar, Yahya Pasdar, Ebrahim Shakiba, Saeed Amini
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019003.

Original Article

January 9, 2019


A large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson infections associated with chocolate cake in Busan, Korea
Youngduck Eun, Hyesun Jeong, Seungjin Kim, Wonseo Park, Byoungseon Ahn, Dongkeun Kim, Eunhee Kim, Eunhee Park, Sunhee Park, Inyeong Hwang, et al.
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019002.

Review

January 7, 2019


Freshwater snails as the intermediate host of trematodes in Iran: a systematic review
Samira Dodangeh, Ahmad Daryani, Mehdi Sharif, Shirzad Gholami, Elham Kialashaki, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Shahabeddin Sarvi
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019001.

Current Issue
Volume 41; 2019
Original Article Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Korean women aged 19-79 years: the 2016 Korean Study of Women’s Health-Related Issues
Eunji Choi, Ha Na Cho, Da Hea Seo, Boyoung Park, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019005.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Perspective Health effects of exposure to radon: implications of the radon bed mattress incident in Korea
Songwon Seo, Wi-Ho Ha, Jin-Kyu Kang, Dalnim Lee, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019004.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
While the prevalence of obesity in Asian women has remained stagnant, studies of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Asian women are scarce. This study aimed to examine the recent prevalence of obesity in Korean women aged between 19 years and 79 years and to analyze socioeconomic inequalities in obesity.
METHODS:
Data were derived from the 2016 Korean Study of Women’s Health-Related Issues. The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity using Asian standard body mass index (BMI) categories: low (<18.5 kg/m2 ), normal (18.5-22.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2 ), and obese (≥25.0 kg/ m2 ). As inequality-specific indicators, the slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were calculated, with adjustment for age and self-reported health status.
RESULTS:
Korean women were classified into the following BMI categories: underweight (5.3%), normal weight (59.1%), overweight (21.2%), and obese (14.4%). The SII and RII revealed substantial inequalities in obesity in favor of more urbanized women (SII, 4.5; RII, 1.4) and against of women who were highly educated (SII, -16.7; RII, 0.3). Subgroup analysis revealed inequalities in obesity according to household income among younger women and according to urbanization among women aged 65-79 years.
CONCLUSIONS:
Clear educational inequalities in obesity existed in Korean women. Reverse inequalities in urbanization were also apparent in older women. Developing strategies to address the multiple observed inequalities in obesity among Korean women may prove essential for effectively reducing the burden of this disease.
Abstract
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material formed by the slow decay of uranium and thorium found in the earth’s crust or construction materials. Internal exposure to radon accounts for about half of the natural background radiation dose to which humans are exposed annually. Radon is a carcinogen and is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. An association between radon and lung cancer has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies on mine workers and the general population with indoor radon exposure. However, associations have not been clearly established between radon and other diseases, such as leukemia and thyroid cancer. Radiation doses are assessed by applying specific dose conversion coefficients according to the source (e.g., radon or thoron) and form of exposure (e.g., internal or external). However, regardless of the source or form of exposure, the effects of a given estimated dose on human health are identical, assuming that individuals have the same sensitivity to radiation. Recently, radiation exceeding the annual dose limit of the general population (1 mSv/yr) was detected in bed mattresses produced by D company due to the use of a monazite-based anion powder containing uranium and thorium. This has sparked concerns about the health hazards for mattress users caused by radiation exposure. In light of this event, this study presents scientific information about the assessment of radon and thoron exposure and its human implications for human health, which have emerged as a recent topic of interest and debate in society.
Original Article Dietary patterns, nutrition, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in the west of Iran
Behjat Marzbani, Javad Nazari, Farid Najafi, Behnaz Marzbani, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019003.
  • Abstract
  • View article
Original Article A large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson infections associated with chocolate cake in Busan, Korea
Youngduck Eun, Hyesun Jeong, Seungjin Kim, Wonseo Park, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019002.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Korean summary
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Unhealthy dietary patterns are the most important changeable risk factors for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer among under-50 year women in the west of Iran.
METHODS:
All women under 50 years old with pathologically confirmed breast cancer between 2013 and 2015 who were referred to oncology clinics in the west of Iran, and 408 under-50 women referred to other outpatient clinics who were without breast or other cancers at the time of the study and 2 years later were selected as the control group. The data were collected using the middle-aged periodical care form of the Iranian Ministry of Health and analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression in Stata.
RESULTS:
The most powerful risk factor for breast cancer was fried foods; the odds ratio of consuming fried foods more than once a month for breast cancer was 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 9.4). A dose-response model indicated that increasing vegetable and fruit consumption up to 90 servings per month decreased the odds of breast cancer, but consuming more than 90 servings per month increased the risk.
CONCLUSIONS:
Inadequate consumption of vegetables and consumption of soft drinks, industrially produced juices, fried foods, and sweets were identified as risk factors for breast cancer. In response to these findings, it is necessary to raise awareness and to provide education about healthy diets and the need to change unhealthy dietary patterns.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
This study aimed to reveal the epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson in Busan Metropolitan City and to identify points for improvement to prevent of food-borne disease outbreak.
METHODS:
This was a case-control study. The control group comprised asymptomatic students in the same classes of the cases. The presence or absence of symptoms, ingestion of each food provided by school meal service, and commonly ingested foods in addition to those foods in meal service were investigated. Moreover, specimens collected from rectal swab, preserved foods, and environmental surface were tested.
RESULTS:
Of the 6,092 subjects, 1,111 (1,083 students, 22 school personnel, and 6 foodservice employees) were included in the case group; this corresponded to an 18.4% attack rate. Symptoms included diarrhea (n=1,051, 94.6%), abdominal pain (n=931, 83.8%), febrile sensation (n=502, 45.2%), and vomiting (n=275, 24.8%). The epidemic curves of each 10 schools were unimodal. Investigation of food intake showed a significantly high odds ratio for chocolate cake in 5 out of the 10 schools. Laboratory test detected Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson both in rectal swab specimens of 9 schools and in collected preserved chocolate cakes of 9 schools. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis test result showed that Salmonella enterica seorvar Thompson isolated from human and foods were the same.
CONCLUSIONS:
The source of infection for the Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson outbreak in the 10 schools of Busan Metropolitan City is chocolate cake. Traceback investigation for origin of contaminated food in food-borne disease outbreak and safety control during food production should be more enhanced.
Review Freshwater snails as the intermediate host of trematodes in Iran: a systematic review
Samira Dodangeh, Ahmad Daryani, Mehdi Sharif, Shirzad Gholami, et al. Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019001.
  • Abstract
  • View article
  • Supplementary data
Abstract
Freshwater snails, as the first intermediate hosts of trematodes, can cause health hazards in animals and humans. Recently, the World Health Organization has included Iran in a list of 6 countries known to have serious problems with fascioliasis. In addition, cercarial dermatitis is a job-related disease that is seen often in paddy workers, agricultural labourers, and fishermen in Iran, particularly in Mazandaran Province. Many studies have been conducted in Iran to survey larval trematodes in freshwater snails. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive data exist regarding infections in gastropods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the types and prevalence of cercarial infections in snails in Iran. Electronic English-language and Persian-language databases were searched to identify 24 published articles reporting the prevalence of trematode infections in snails (9 species from 6 families) in various provinces of Iran. In total, 4.4% of gastropods were infected with the larval stages of trematodes. According to the studies reviewed in this meta-analysis‚ the highest infection prevalence was found in Radix auricularia (9.9%). Twelve larval species of trematodes were identified, and the highest prevalence of cercariae was found for Echinostomatidae cercariae (4.3%). Among the provinces explored, West Azerbaijan had the highest prevalence of infected snails (16.9%). The presence of trematodes in snails could pose a serious health problem in Iran. Thus, further studies are necessary to characterize these infections in other provinces.

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