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Systematic Review
The prevalence of Q fever in the Eastern Mediterranean region: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mozhgan Ahmadinezhad, Leila Mounesan, Amin Doosti-Irani, Manijeh Yousefi Behzadi
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022097.   Published online October 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022097
  • 6,115 View
  • 144 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Q fever, caused by the bacterium, is a major zoonotic disease around the world. This disease is common in the Eastern Mediterranean region; therefore, we conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis on its prevalence in humans, animals, and ticks in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
METHODS
Major Iranian and international databases were searched from 2000 to 2021. We extracted the prevalence of Q fever in blood samples from animals and milk samples from animals, ticks, and humans as the main outcome. We reported the prevalence of seropositivity and molecular positivity as point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS
In this review, 112 papers were identified. The overall seroprevalence of Q fever was 22.4% (95% CI, 19.8 to 25.1). The pooled prevalence of Q fever in ticks was 17.5% (95% CI, -1.3 to 36.4). The prevalence was 25.5% (95% CI, 16.1 to 34.9) in humans. The prevalence of Q fever in animal blood samples from goats, sheep, camels, cattle, cats, dogs, horses, and buffalo were 28.1%, 25.1%, 25.0%, 20.1%, 9.8%, 8.4%, 6.5%, and 6.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of Q fever in milk samples of animals was higher in cattle (20.3%) than in sheep (20.0%), goats (16.4%), and camels (3.3%).
CONCLUSIONS
Coxiella burnetii infections are common in humans and in a wide range of animal species, but they are still not recognized in many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region, thus presenting a significant threat to human and animal health in the region.
Summary

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Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship between Reproductive Performance and the Presence of Antibodies against Coxiellosis in Dairy Farm Milk Tanks in the Northwest of Spain
    Uxía Yáñez, Jacobo Álvarez, Cristina Pisón, Antía Acción, Juan J. Becerra, Antonio Jiménez, Philippe Gisbert, Pedro G. Herradón, Ana I. Peña, Alberto Prieto, José M. Díaz-Cao, Luis A. Quintela
    Animals.2024; 14(3): 367.     CrossRef
  • Two Cases of Acute Q Fever Diagnosed by mNGS and Literature Review
    娇 罗
    Advances in Clinical Medicine.2023; 13(07): 12005.     CrossRef
  • Zoonotic diseases transmitted from the camels
    Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Q fever and coxiellosis: implications for livestock and human health in the UK
    Nick Wheelhouse, Richard Vazquez, Lorenzo Viora, Jo E. B. Halliday
    Livestock.2023; 28(5): 221.     CrossRef
Review
Epidemiology of myocardial infarction in Korea: hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality
Rock Bum Kim, Jang-Rak Kim, Jin Yong Hwang
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022057.   Published online July 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022057
  • 8,627 View
  • 443 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Few studies have comprehensively presented epidemiological indicators of myocardial infarction in Korea. However, multiple published articles and open-source secondary data on the epidemiology of myocardial infarction are now available. This review summarized the hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of myocardial infarction in Korea using articles and open-source data from the Health Insurance Service and the Department of Statistics, surveys of sample populations, registries of patients, and other sources. The epidemiological indicators of myocardial infarction were compared between Korea and other high-income countries. The incidence of hospitalization due to myocardial infarction in Korea was 43.2 cases per 100,000 population in 2016 and has consistently increased since 2011. It was 2.4 times higher among men than among women. The estimated prevalence among adults over 30 years of age ranged from 0.34% to 0.70% in 2020; it was higher among men and increased with age. The mortality in 2020, which was 19.3 per 100,000 population in 2020, remained relatively stable in recent years. Mortality was higher among men than among women. Based on representative inpatient registry data, the proportion of ST-elevated myocardial infarction decreased until recently, and the median time from symptom onset to hospital arrival was approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes. The hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of myocardial infarction were lower in Korea than in other countries, although there was an increasing trend. Comprehensive national-level support and surveillance systems are needed to routinely collect accurate epidemiological indicators.
Summary
Korean summary
○우리나라의 심근경색증 발생률은 2016년 기준 인구 10만명 당 43.2명으로 추정되며 2011년 이후 증가하고 있음. ○ 30세 이상 인구에서 심근경색증 유병률은 0.34% (건강보험청구데이터) 또는 1.0% (국민건강영양조사)로 추정됨. ○ 전체인구에서 심근경색증으로 인한 사망률은 2019년 인구 10만명 당 18.8명으로 최근 큰 변화가 없거나 약간 감소하는 추세임.
Key Message
This review article showed the hospitalized incidence, prevalence, mortality, and features on patient registry of myocardial infarction in Korea from published articles and opened data sources.

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  • Impact of Nontreatment Duration and Keratopathy on Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Fabry Disease: A Nationwide Cohort Study
    Aram Yang, Sinae Kim, Yong Jun Choi
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(2): 479.     CrossRef
  • Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Organic Nitrates in Mortality Reduction Following Acute Myocardial Infarction in Hyperlipidemia Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study
    An-Sheng Lee, Chung-Lieh Hung, Thung-Shen Lai, Ching-Hu Chung
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2024; 14(1): 124.     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular, Neurological, and Immunological Adverse Events and the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine
    Dongwon Yoon, Ha-Lim Jeon, Ju Hwan Kim, Hyesung Lee, Ju-Young Shin
    JAMA Network Open.2024; 7(1): e2352597.     CrossRef
  • Prognostic role of sarcopenia on major adverse cardiac events among patients who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention: a retrospective cohort study
    Mi Hwa Won, Kyeong Ho Yun, Heeseon Kim, Youn-Jung Son
    European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Fact Sheet on Cardiac Rehabilitation for Cardiovascular Disease in South Korea
    Ki-Hong Kim, Jae-Young Han
    Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine.2023; 47(5): 318.     CrossRef
  • Acute myocardial infarction diagnosed in emergency departments: a report from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) of Korea, 2018–2022
    Shin Ahn, Eunsil Ko, Young Sun Ro
    Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine.2023; 10(S): S42.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiologic trends of patients who visited nationwide emergency departments: a report from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) of Korea, 2018–2022
    Hyun Ho Yoo, Young Sun Ro, Eunsil Ko, Jin-Hee Lee, So-hyun Han, Taerim Kim, Tae Gun Shin, Seongjung Kim, Hansol Chang
    Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine.2023; 10(S): S1.     CrossRef
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of the intervention effect of curcumin on rodent models of myocardial infarction
    Bing-Yao Pang, Ya-Hong Wang, Xing-Wang Ji, Yan Leng, Hou-Bo Deng, Li-Hong Jiang
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Epidemiological data on nutritional disorders and outcomes in hospitalized Thai children: an analysis of data from the National Health Database 2015-2019
Suchaorn Saengnipanthkul, Jeeraparn Phosuwattanakul, Kaewjai Thepsuthammarat, Nalinee Chongviriyaphan
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022047.   Published online May 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022047
  • 6,691 View
  • 256 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is a frequently overlooked health issue. We aimed to assess the prevalence and pattern of nutritional disorders in hospitalized Thai children from the National Health Database.
METHODS
Hospitalized children aged 1 month to 18 years diagnosed with nutritional disorders between 2015 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed using the National Health Security Office data. Based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, Clinical Modification, nutritional disorders were classified into 3 major forms of malnutrition: undernutrition (E40-E46), overweight and obesity (E66), and micronutrient deficiencies (D50-D53, E50-E56, E58, E60-E61, and E63).
RESULTS
Out of 5,188,033 hospitalized children, malnutrition was identified in 115,254 (2.2%). Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), overweight and obesity, and micronutrient deficiencies were prevalent in 0.21%, 0.27%, and 1.81%, respectively. Among those with micronutrient deficiencies, 95.0% had iron deficiency anemia, 2.2% had vitamin D deficiency, and 0.7% had zinc deficiency. Children aged under 5 years mostly had PEM, followed by iron deficiency anemia. Teenagers commonly had obesity and vitamin D deficiency. Patients with PEM who were admitted with common diseases had significantly longer hospital stays and higher hospital costs and mortality rates than those without PEM.
CONCLUSIONS
Hospitalized children had various nutritional disorders, particularly PEM, which was associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Nutritional screening tools should be utilized for the early detection and treatment of malnutrition. Specific International Classification of Diseases codes for nutritional care services and intervention should be available. Additionally, nutritional interventions should be reimbursed, along with nutritional education and empowerment of healthcare providers, to improve hospital care service and improve patient outcomes.
Summary
Key Message
Malnutrition is common among hospitalized Thai children, particularly protein energy malnutrition; it increases mortality, length of hospital stay, and hospital costs as well as exerts long-term effects on growth and development. Prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing over the past 5 years, the vast majority involved patients 5 – 13 years of age.

Citations

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  • The Low Sensitivity and Specificity of a Nutrition Screening Tool in Real Circumstances in a Tertiary Care Hospital Setting
    Nithit Semsawat, Oraporn Dumrongwongsiri, Phanphen Phoonlapdacha
    Children.2023; 10(4): 747.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Special Article
Obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Ga Bin Lee, Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022041.   Published online April 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022041
  • 12,067 View
  • 607 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We investigated trends in obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Korean adult population.
METHODS
Data from 60,098 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2011 and 2020 aged ≥19 were used. The age-standardized prevalence and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated for obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2), hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or under treatment), diabetes (hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, or under treatment), and hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or under treatment).
RESULTS
Over the past decade (2011-2020), the age-standardized APCs (95% confidence intervals) for obesity, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia were 3.0% (2.1 to 3.8), 0.1% (-1.3 to 1.5), 1.5% (-1.0 to 4.0) and 8.0% (5.7 to 10.3), respectively, in men; and -0.2% (-1.5 to 1.2), -0.5% (-1.9 to 0.9), -0.1% (-2.3 to 2.2) and 5.9% (3.9 to 8.0), respectively, in women. In 2020 compared to the previous 3 years (2017-2019), obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia increased in men (6.0, 1.8, 1.9, and 2.8%p, respectively), but an increase was not apparent in women (2.5, -1.1, 0.8, and 0.7%p, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
An increase in major chronic diseases was observed in Korean adults, especially men, during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the future, effective intervention strategies need to be developed according to the characteristics of the target groups.
Summary
Korean summary
한국인의 비만, 고혈압, 당뇨 및 고지혈증 유병률은 지난 10년간 전반적으로 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 특히, 코로나 19가 유행한 2020년에 남성의 주요 만성질환 유병률은 지난 3년 평균치와 비교하였을 때 모두 유의하게 증가하였다. 반면, 여성에서 만성질환 유병률의 뚜렷한 증가는 관찰되지 않았다.
Key Message
During COVID-19 pandemic, the overall increase in major chronic diseases was observed in Korean adults, and this trend was prominent in men. Accordingly, target-specific intervention strategies need to be developed to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the future.

Citations

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  • Sleep Deficit as a Risk Factor for Hypertension in Korean Adults
    Mi-Joon Lee, Bum-Jeun Seo, Inmyung Song
    Sustainability.2023; 15(3): 2586.     CrossRef
  • Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Obesity: COBLL1 Genetic Variants Interact with Dietary Fat Intake to Modulate the Incidence of Obesity
    Junkyung Kwak, Dayeon Shin
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(4): 3758.     CrossRef
  • Identifying the Associations of Nightly Fasting Duration and Meal Timing with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Data from the 2016–2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey
    Junkyung Kwak, Kyeong-A Jang, Haeng-Ran Kim, Min-Sook Kang, Kyung Won Lee, Dayeon Shin
    Nutrients.2023; 15(6): 1385.     CrossRef
  • Changes in the Prevalences of Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Korean Children during the COVID-19 Outbreak
    Kyungchul Song, Juyeon Yang, Hye Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Myeongseob Lee, Junghwan Suh, Ahreum Kwon, Ho-Seong Kim, Hyun Wook Chae
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2023; 64(4): 269.     CrossRef
  • Revisiting the Diabetes Crisis in Korea: Call for Urgent Action
    Jun Sung Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Changes in dietary habits and chronic diseases before and after COVID-19 by regions using data from the 2018-2020 Korea Community Health Survey and Consumer Behavior Survey for Foods: a cross-sectional study
    Surim Park, Eun-hee Jang, Seungmin Lee
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2023; 28(2): 124.     CrossRef
  • Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among Korean adolescents: the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS) 2006 to 2020
    Eunji Kim, Ga Bin Lee, Dong Keon Yon, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Changes in food and nutrient intakes in Korean adults before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic : data from the 2011-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Kyungwon Oh, Suyeon Park, Sihyun Park, Sungha Yun, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
    Epidemiology and Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical Features and Visual Prognosis of Retinal Vein Occlusion in Those under 50 Years Old
    Soyeon Jung, Haeeun Shin, Hee Seung Chin
    Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society.2023; 64(6): 490.     CrossRef
  • Korea hypertension fact sheet 2022: analysis of nationwide population-based data with a special focus on hypertension in the elderly
    Hyeon Chang Kim, Hokyou Lee, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Gabin Lee, Eunji Kim, Moses Song, Jenny Moon, Yeeun Seo
    Clinical Hypertension.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comorbidity in patients with arterial hypertension in therapeutic practice
    D.V. Korsunsky, S.A. Berns, A.R. Novikova, O.M. Drapkina
    Profilakticheskaya meditsina.2023; 26(8): 100.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Baekhogainsam-tang on Metabolism through Modulation of the Gut Microbiota and Gene Expression in High-Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Syndrome Animal Model
    Min-Jin Cho, Song-Yi Han, Soo Kyoung Lim, Eun-Ji Song, Young-Do Nam, Hojun Kim
    Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation.2023; 33(3): 1.     CrossRef
  • Hypertension in the Russian population during the COVID-19 pandemic: sex differences in prevalence, treatment and its effectiveness. Data from the ESSE-RF3 study
    Yu. A. Balanova, O. M. Drapkina, V. A. Kutsenko, A. E. Imaeva, A. V. Kontsevaya, S. A. Maksimov, G. A. Muromtseva, M. B. Kotova, N. S. Karamnova, S. E. Evstifeeva, A. V. Kapustina, O. A. Litinskaya, M. S. Pokrovskaya, E. M. Filichkina, O. E. Ivlev, L. I.
    Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention.2023; 22(8S): 3785.     CrossRef
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    Hyeon Chang Kim
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    Pius Kim, Hae Ran Kim
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    Ji-Young Kwon, Sang-Wook Song
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COVID-19: Original Article
Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the community based on participants in the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Ah-Ra Kim, Dohsik Minn, Su Hwan Kim, Hyeon Nam Do, Byoungguk Kim, Young Sill Choi, Dong-Hyun Kim, Eun-Jee Oh, Kyungwon Oh, Donghyok Kwon, Jun-Wook Kwon, Sung Soon Kim, June-Woo Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022028.   Published online February 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022028
  • 8,250 View
  • 372 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a nationwide cross-sectional surveillance system that assesses the health and nutritional status of the Korean population. To evaluate the occurrence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the community, we investigated the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the sera of KNHANES participants.
METHODS
Subjects were recruited between April 24 and December 12, 2020. In total, 5,284 subjects aged 10-90 years from 17 regions participated. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were screened using the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay. Positive samples were verified using 4 different SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays and the plaque reduction neutralizing test. The final seropositivity criteria were a positive screening test and at least 1 positive result from the 5 additional tests.
RESULTS
Almost half (49.2%; 2,600/5,284) of participants were from metropolitan areas, 48.9% were middle-aged (40-69 years), and 20.5% were in their 20s or younger. The seropositivity rate was 0.09% (5/5,284). Three of the 5 antibody-positive subjects had a history of infection, of whom 2 were infected abroad and 1 was infected in a local cluster outbreak.
CONCLUSIONS
The low SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in Korea indicates that there have been few coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases due to successful COVID-19 management measures (e.g., diagnostic tests for overseas arrivals, national social distancing, and strict quarantine measures). Moreover, asymptomatic infections were uncommon due to active polymerase chain reaction testing. However, hidden infections may exist in the community, requiring the continuation of quarantine and vaccination measures.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19에 대한 방역대책 및 예방접종 정책 수립을 위한 과학적 근거를 확보하기 위하여 2020년도 국민건강영양조사(이하 국건영) 참여자 5,284명에 대해 코로나19 항체보유율을 조사함. 그 결과 2020년도 국건영 참여자의 항체양성률은 0.09%(5/5,284)였으며, 이중 확진 이력이 있는 사람은 3명이었음. 따라서 지역사회 미진단 감염자는 2명으로 확인됨. 국내 항체보유율은 해외 사례에 비해 낮으며, 이는 적극적인 방역관리에 따른 것으로 사료되며, 지역사회에 미진단 감염자가 존재함이 확인되어 이들에 대한 철저한 관리가 요구됨.
Key Message
The low SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in Korea indicates that there have been few COVID-19 cases due to successful management measures, however, hidden infections may exist in the community, requiring the continuation of quarantine and vaccination measures.

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  • Protective effect of vaccination on the risk of cardiovascular disease after SARS-CoV-2 infection
    Jihun Song, Seulggie Choi, Seogsong Jeong, Joo young Chang, Sun Jae Park, Yun Hwan Oh, Ji Soo Kim, Yoosun Cho, Kyeonghyang Byeon, Jun Yong Choi, Seju Lee, Sang Min Park
    Clinical Research in Cardiology.2024; 113(2): 235.     CrossRef
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    In Hwa Jeong, Jong-Hun Kim, Min-Jung Kwon, Jayoung Kim, Hee Jin Huh, Byoungguk Kim, Junewoo Lee, Jeong-hyun Nam, Eun-Suk Kang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jaehoon Jung, Sunyoung Kim, Byungsung Kim, Miji Kim, Jisoo Yang, Dongmin Chung, Changwon Won
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(17): 10666.     CrossRef
  • Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during the third wave of COVID-19 in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea
    Kyuhyun Yoon, Jayeun Kim, Kyong Ran Peck, Hyun Soo Kim, Hyukmin Lee, Yoo-Sung Hwang, Soon Young Lee, Sung-il Cho, Hun Jae Lee, Yeong-gyeong Kim, Byoungguk Kim, June-Woo Lee, Ah-Ra Kim, Hyeon Nam Do, Dong-Hyun Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022085.     CrossRef
Original Article
Estimation and change of edentulism among the Korean population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2018
Na-Hyeon Yu, Ah Ra Shin, Song Vogue Ahn, Keun-Bae Song, Youn-Hee Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021020.   Published online April 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021020
  • 10,248 View
  • 302 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To estimate the prevalence of edentulism according to the socio-demographic variables of Korean adults between 2007 and 2018 and to analyze the trends.
METHODS
This study was conducted using raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2007 to 2018. Edentulism was defined as the absence of upper and lower teeth or the retained root of the missing teeth. To obtain the prevalence of edentulism, complex sample frequency analysis and regression analysis were performed according to the socio-demographic variables to represent the national population. The Korean population structure in 2005 was exploited as a standard population to calculate age-standardized edentulism.
RESULTS
The prevalence of edentulism in 2016-2018 was 9.7% in the Korean elderly, and the change of age-standardized edentulism steadily declined over time from 2007, 12.8%. In particular, it decreased by approximately 20% in the period between 2016 and 2018 compared to that in 2007 for those in their 80s. The trend of the prevalence according to gender decreased significantly in women. According to the level of education, the greatest decrease was seen in the group with the lowest education, although the prevalence itself was higher than that seen in those who were more educated.
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of edentulism among the older Korean population has decreased over time. However, the concern is on those with lower education and men as these groups are still at higher risk for edentulism.
Summary
Korean summary
치아상실은 구강건강의 지표로써 현재 국외에서는 무치악 유병률 추이 파악뿐만 아니라 다국 간의 비교가 이루어지고 있지만 아시아의 주요국가 중 하나인 한국의 무치악 유병률 추이에 대해서는 아직 연구되지 않았다. 연구 결과, 2016-2018년 한국 노인의 무치악 유병률은 9.72%였으며, 연령표준화된 무치악 유병률의 변화는 2007 년 12.8 %에서 꾸준히 감소했다. 결론적으로 무치악으로 어려움을 겪을 수 있는 교육수준이 낮은 노인과 남성에 대해선 지속적인 관심이 필요하다.
Key Message
Tooth loss is an indicator of oral health. At present, not only the trend of edentulous prevalence is being identified abroad, but also multi-country comparisons are being made, but the trend of edentulous prevalence in Korea, one of the major Asian countries, has not been studied. As a result of the study, the prevalence of edentulous in Korea in 2016-2018 was 9.72%, and the change in the age-standardized edentulous prevalence steadily decreased from 12.8% in 2007. In conclusion, continuous attention is needed for the elderly and men with low educational standards who may suffer from edentulous.

Citations

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  • A preclinical study comparing single- and double-root 3D-printed Ti–6Al–4V implants
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    Sae‐Rom Lee, Mi Ah Han, Jong Park, So Yeon Ryu, So Yeong Kim
    Journal of Public Health Dentistry.2022; 82(4): 378.     CrossRef
  • High exposure to phthalates is associated with HbA1c worsening in type 2 diabetes subjects with and without edentulism: a prospective pilot study
    Alessandro Mengozzi, Fabrizia Carli, Samantha Pezzica, Edoardo Biancalana, Amalia Gastaldelli, Anna Solini
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Hyeonjeong Go, Eun-Kyong Kim, Hoi-In Jung, Song Vogue Ahn, Hosung Shin, Atsuo Amano, Youn-Hee Choi
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Systematic Review
Distribution pattern and prevalence of West Nile virus infection in Nigeria from 1950 to 2020: a systematic review
Idris Nasir Abdullahi, Anthony Uchenna Emeribe, Peter Elisha Ghamba, Pius Omoruyi Omosigho, Zakariyya Muhammad Bello, Bamidele Soji Oderinde, Samuel Ayobami Fasogbon, Lawal Olayemi, Isa Muhammad Daneji, Muhammad Hamis Musa, Justin Onyebuchi Nwofe, Nkechi Blessing Onukegbe, Chukwudi Crescent Okume, Sanusi Musa, Abubakar Muhammad Gwarzo, Odunayo Oyetola Rahmat Ajagbe
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020071.   Published online November 26, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020071
  • 10,714 View
  • 227 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne viral infection. This study investigated the pooled prevalence pattern and risk factors of WNV infection among humans and animals in Nigeria.
METHODS
A systematic review was conducted of eligible studies published in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from January 1, 1950 to August 30, 2020. Peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies describing WNV infections in humans and animals were systematically reviewed. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochrane Q statistic.
RESULTS
Eighteen out of 432 available search output were eligible and included for this study. Of which 13 and 5 were WNV studies on humans and animals, respectively. Although 61.5% of the human studies had a low risk of bias, they all had high heterogeneity. The South West geopolitical zone of Nigeria had the highest pooled prevalence of anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM; 7.8% in humans). The pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG) was 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9 to 8.3) and 76.5% (95% CI, 74.0 to 78.8), respectively. The WNV RNA prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.9), while 14.3% (95% CI, 12.9 to 15.8) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. In animals, the pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and IgG was 90.3% (95% CI, 84.3 to 94.6) and 3.5% (95% CI, 1.9 to 5.8), respectively, while 20.0% (95% CI, 12.9 to 21.4) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Age (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 1.87 to 7.45; p<0.001) and level of education (no formal education: OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 17.2; p<0.05; primary: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.80 to 29.6; p<0.01) were significant risk factors for WNV IgM seropositivity in humans.
CONCLUSIONS
The findings of this study highlight the endemicity of WNV in animals and humans in Nigeria and underscore the need for the One Health prevention and control approach.
Summary

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Original Articles
Diabetes and prediabetes prevalence among young and middle-aged adults in India, with an analysis of geographic differences: findings from the National Family Health Survey
Siddardha G. Chandrupatla, Isma Khalid, Tejdeep Muthuluri, Satyanarayana Dantala, Mary Tavares
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020065.   Published online September 18, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020065
  • 11,892 View
  • 332 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to approximate the prevalence of hyperglycemia in India.
METHODS
The study was conducted using the Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16 (also known as the National Family Health Survey-4), which surveyed 811,808 individuals using a stratified, multistage, cluster sampling design. This cross-sectional survey recorded socio-demographic and anthropometric data, including blood glucose levels, of adults aged 18 years to 54 years.
RESULTS
The final analysis included 718,597 individuals, of whom 49.90% (weighted) were males. The overall prevalence of diabetes was 6.65% and that of prediabetes was 5.57%. A positive association was seen with urban residence, geographic region, sex, age, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and hypertension. Approximately two-thirds of individuals with diabetes lived in urban areas, and about half of the urban population was considered overweight/obese. South India showed a higher prevalence of diabetes (prevalence ratio, 2.01; p<0.001) than northern India.
CONCLUSIONS
Hyperglycemia (diabetes and prediabetes) has a high prevalence in India and is a major public health issue. Diabetes is unevenly distributed based on geographic location and urbanization. Prevention, early detection, and treatment strategies should consider this uneven distribution of diabetes.
Summary

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An alarmingly high and increasing prevalence of obesity in Jordan
Kamel Ajlouni, Yousef Khader, Anwar Batieha, Hashem Jaddou, Mohammed El-Khateeb
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020040.   Published online June 6, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020040
  • 13,026 View
  • 204 Download
  • 26 Web of Science
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity in Jordan, to assess related trends, and to determine associated factors and comorbidities.
METHODS
A multipurpose national household survey of Jordanian adults was conducted over a 4-month period in 2017. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including waist circumference (WC; measured midway between the iliac crest and the lower rib margin), body mass index (BMI), hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were obtained to categorize participants with regard to overweight and obesity.
RESULTS
This study included 4,056 persons (1,193 men and 2,863 women) aged 18 years to 90 years (mean±standard deviation, 43.8±14.2 years). According to the International Diabetes Federation WC criteria, the age-standardized prevalence of obesity was 60.4% among men and 75.6% among women, while approximately three-quarters of men and women were overweight or obese as defined by BMI. The age-adjusted odds of obesity in 2017 were approximately twice those in 2009 in men (odds ratio [OR], 1.98) and women (OR, 1.96). In the multivariate analysis, age, region of residence, and marital status were significantly associated with obesity in both genders. Obesity was significantly associated with increased odds of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after adjusting for age.
CONCLUSIONS
The rate of obesity in Jordan is high and increasing, and obesity is associated with other metabolic abnormalities. Well-defined programs to control and prevent obesity, as well as intersectoral action, are urgently required to reverse current trends.
Summary

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    Anas M. Alsughayer, Tamara Z. Dabbagh, Rashid H. Abdel-Razeq, Ghada N. Al-Jussani, Salam Alhassoon, Maher A. Sughayer
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Risk factors for low back pain among elementary school students in western Iran using penalized logistic regression
Forouzan Rezapur-Shahkolai, Elham Gheysvandi, Leili Tapak, Iman Dianat, Akram Karimi-Shahanjarini, Rashid Heidarimoghadam
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020039.   Published online June 2, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020039
  • 11,016 View
  • 277 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and its risk factors among elementary-school students.
METHODS
In this cross-sectional study, 693 elementary students from Hamadan city, western Iran, were selected by multistage stratified cluster sampling. Data were collected through interviews using questionnaires. Posture and psychosocial elements were assessed using the observational Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) checklist and the standard Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Penalized logistic regression with the group smoothly-clipped absolute deviation regularization method was used for variable selection and data analysis (α=0.05). The chi-square test was also used.
RESULTS
In total, 26.6% of the students (7-12 years old) reported LBP in the last month. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 3.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80 to 5.26), watching TV for more than 3 hours a day (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.46 to 4.68), very short seat backrests (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.61 to 5.90), excessively curved seat backrests (OR, 4.36; 95% CI, 2.08 to 9.13), very short desks (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.61 to 7.35), a family history of LBP (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.58 to 3.91), carrying a school bag on one shoulder (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.03 to 3.54), and RULA scores of 3 (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.13 to 4.50) or 4 (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.37 to 5.91) were associated with LBP.
CONCLUSIONS
A high prevalence of LBP was found among elementary-school students. This study underscores the importance of recognizing vulnerable children and teenagers and developing interventional health promotion programs to prevent LBP based on an appropriate consideration of its contributory factors.
Summary

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  • Identification of factors related to behaviors associated with musculoskeletal pain among elementary students
    Forouzan Rezapur-Shahkolai, Elham Gheysvandi, Akram Karimi-Shahanjarini, Leili Tapak, Rashid Heidarimoghadam, Iman Dianat
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Reviews
The global prevalence of dental healthcare needs and unmet dental needs among adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mahin Ghafari, Samira Bahadivand-Chegini, Tayebeh Nadi, Amin Doosti-Irani
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019046.   Published online October 27, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019046
  • 13,666 View
  • 244 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Access to dental healthcare services is a major determinant of dental health in communities. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the global prevalence of dental needs and of unmet dental needs in adolescents.
METHODS
PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched in June 2018. The summary measures included the prevalence of met and unmet dental needs. A meta-analysis was performed using the inverse variance method to obtain pooled summary measures. Out of 41,661 retrieved articles, 57 were ultimately included.
RESULTS
The pooled prevalence of orthodontic treatment needs was 46.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.0 to 53.0), that of general treatment needs was 59.0% (95% CI, 42.0 to 75.0), that of periodontal treatment needs was 71.0% (95% CI, 46.0 to 96.0), and that of malocclusion treatment needs was 39.0% (95% CI, 28.0 to 50.0). The pooled prevalence of unmet dental needs was 34.0% (95% CI, 27.0 to 40.0).
CONCLUSIONS
The highest and lowest prevalence of unmet dental needs were found in Southeast Asia and Europe, respectively. The prevalence of dental needs was higher in the countries of the Americas and Europe than in other World Health Organization (WHO) regions. The prevalence of unmet dental needs was higher in Southeast Asia and Africa than in other WHO regions.
Summary

Citations

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  • Perception of malocclusion and school performance in adolescents: a systematic review
    Ana Carla Souza COSTA, Djessyca Miranda e PAULO, Maria Tereza Campos VIDIGAL, Walbert de Andrade VIEIRA, Andres Felipe Millan CARDENAS, Luiz Renato PARANHOS
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Meta-analysis of the prevalence of depression among breast cancer survivors in Iran: an urgent need for community supportive care programs
Hassan Ahmadi Gharaei, Mostafa Dianatinasab, Seyyed Mostafa Kouhestani, Mohammad Fararouei, Hossein Moameri, Reza Pakzad, Reza Ghaiasvand
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019030.   Published online July 4, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019030
  • 12,766 View
  • 297 Download
  • 12 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Depression, which is the most common comorbidity in breast cancer (BC) patients, has adverse effects on patients’ quality of life, disease progress, and survival.
METHODS
The protocol of this study was registered in PROSPERO (registration No. CRD42019121494). We electronically searched published studies through January 2019 with the aim of finding articles that investigated the prevalence of depression among BC survivors. Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were searched to obtain relevant published studies. This review included 14 cross-sectional and 4 cohort studies published from 2000 to 2018. We used a random-effects model to conduct the meta-analysis and generated a summary estimate for the pooled prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A subgroup analysis was also conducted based on the depression assessment tool used and the study design.
RESULTS
The total sample size of the studies contained 2,799 women with BC, including 1,228 women who were diagnosed with depression. The pooled prevalence of depression among Iranian women with BC was 46.83% (95% CI, 33.77 to 59.88) with significant heterogeneity (I2 =98.5%; p<0.001). The prevalence of depression ranged from 14.00% (95% CI, 4.91 to 23.09) to 95.90% (95% CI, 91.97 to 99.83). The results of the subgroup analyses suggested that the depression assessment tool, year of publication, and study design were sources of heterogeneity.
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings indicate a high prevalence of depression among BC patients, underscoring the urgent need for clinicians and health authorities to provide well-defined social and psychological supportive care programs for these patients.
Summary

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Original Article
Trends in the prevalence and management of diabetes in Korea: 2007-2017
Ji-Yeon Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019029.   Published online July 4, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019029
  • 15,036 View
  • 300 Download
  • 37 Web of Science
  • 36 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study analyzed Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2017 to assess trends in the prevalence, treatment, and control of diabetes in Korean adults ≥30 years of age.
METHODS
Prevalent diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose level ≥126 mg/dL, self-reported use of anti-diabetic treatment (insulin or oral anti-diabetic drugs), or diabetes diagnosis by a physician. Target levels were defined as glycosylated hemoglobin <6.5% or <7.0%, blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, and total cholesterol <200 mg/dL. All survey waves were age-standardized to the 2005 Korean census population.
RESULTS
Diabetes prevalence increased from 9.6% in 2007-2009 to 10.8% in 2016-2017 (p<0.001). Impaired fasting glucose prevalence significantly increased in both genders and almost every age group. Diabetes awareness and glycemic control did not show an increasing trend; however, the treatment rate and proportion of people diagnosed with diabetes achieving target blood pressure and total cholesterol levels improved from 57.2% to 63.5% (p=0.008), from 41.1% to 53.2% (p<0.001), and from 65.0% to 78.0% (p<0.001), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
From 2007 to 2017, the prevalence of diabetes increased moderately in Korea, whereas the diabetes treatment rate and the proportion of people diagnosed with diabetes achieving target blood pressure and total cholesterol levels improved. However, awareness of diabetes and glycemic control require significant improvements. A national-level action plan is required to raise awareness about diabetes and prediabetes, with the goal of improving glycemic control and minimizing the occurrence of adverse health outcomes.
Summary
Korean summary
지난 2007년-2017년 동안 우리나라 30세 이상 성인의 당뇨병 유병률은 소폭 증가하였으며, 당뇨환자의 치료율, 혈압 조절율, 총콜레스테롤 조절율은 증가 추세를 보였다. 그러나 당뇨병 인지율과 당뇨 환자의 혈당 조절율은 현재의 추세대로라면 Health Plan 2020의 목표치를 달성하기 어려울 것으로 보이며, 개선이 필요하다.

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Review
Freshwater snails as the intermediate host of trematodes in Iran: a systematic review
Samira Dodangeh, Ahmad Daryani, Mehdi Sharif, Shirzad Gholami, Elham Kialashaki, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Shahabeddin Sarvi
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019001.   Published online January 7, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019001
  • 17,842 View
  • 419 Download
  • 16 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Freshwater snails, as the first intermediate hosts of trematodes, can cause health hazards in animals and humans. Recently, the World Health Organization has included Iran in a list of 6 countries known to have serious problems with fascioliasis. In addition, cercarial dermatitis is a job-related disease that is seen often in paddy workers, agricultural labourers, and fishermen in Iran, particularly in Mazandaran Province. Many studies have been conducted in Iran to survey larval trematodes in freshwater snails. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive data exist regarding infections in gastropods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the types and prevalence of cercarial infections in snails in Iran. Electronic English-language and Persian-language databases were searched to identify 24 published articles reporting the prevalence of trematode infections in snails (9 species from 6 families) in various provinces of Iran. In total, 4.4% of gastropods were infected with the larval stages of trematodes. According to the studies reviewed in this meta-analysis‚ the highest infection prevalence was found in Radix auricularia (9.9%). Twelve larval species of trematodes were identified, and the highest prevalence of cercariae was found for Echinostomatidae cercariae (4.3%). Among the provinces explored, West Azerbaijan had the highest prevalence of infected snails (16.9%). The presence of trematodes in snails could pose a serious health problem in Iran. Thus, further studies are necessary to characterize these infections in other provinces.
Summary

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Epidemiologic Investigation
A foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with cross-contamination from squid in Korea
Sun-Wha Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018056.   Published online November 13, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018056
  • 13,572 View
  • 244 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Water-borne diseases caused by Vibrio parahemolyticus are often known to cause gastritis when raw or undercooked seafood is eaten. It is very rare that Vibrio gastritis caused by ingesting non-seafood products occurs on a large scale. On September 19, 2017, a large-scale Vibrio gastritis occurred after the city residents consumed food at a bazaar held in a welfare center in Jungnang-gu, Seoul.
METHODS
The total number of visitors was approximately 299, and 237 (79.3%) of them showed symptoms. Among those who showed symptoms, 116 (48.9%) consulted the hospital, and 53 (45.6%) were hospitalized. Among the 299 exposed individuals, 174 (58.1%) responded to this survey: 163 (93.6%) with and 11 (6.4%) without symptoms. This study was retrospectively conducted by investigating the exposed individuals. To investigate the spread of infection, medical staff of hospitals in the epidemic area were interviewed, exposed individuals surveyed, microbiological testing conducted, and ingredient handling and cooking processes investigated.
RESULTS
A total of 237 individuals, including 6 food handlers, were affected (prevalence, 79.2%). During the microbiological testing, V. parahemolyticus was found in 34 patients and 4 food handlers. In the consumption analysis, the relative risk of kimbap was 6.79 (confidence interval 1.10 to 41.69). In-depth investigation found that squid, an ingredient of Korean pancake, and egg sheets, an ingredient of kimbap, were prepared using the same cutting board and knife, which were thought to be the cause of cross-contamination that led to a large-scale outbreak of Vibrio gastritis.
CONCLUSIONS
A recent large-scale outbreak of Vibrio gastritis occurred due to the cross-contamination with kimbap during the preparation process of squid rather than the actual consumption of seafood. Thus, a more stringent hygiene management is necessary during the processing and management of food to prevent infections associated with V. parahemolyticus.
Summary
Korean summary
비브리오 장염은 흔히 날 것이나 덜 익힌 해산물을 섭취하였을 경우 잘 생기는 것으로 알려져 있다. 그러나 해산물을 처리하는 과정에서 생긴 교차 감염에 의해서도 비브리오 장염이 생길 수 있으며 이로 인하여 대규모의 유행이 발생할 수 있다. 이에 보다 철저한 위생관리와 교육이 필요하다

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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health