Warning: fopen(/home/virtual/epih/journal/upload/ip_log/ip_log_2024-07.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /home/virtual/lib/view_data.php on line 95 Warning: fwrite() expects parameter 1 to be resource, boolean given in /home/virtual/lib/view_data.php on line 96 Risk factors for stomach cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health



Page Path
HOME > Epidemiol Health > Volume 42; 2020 > Article
Systematic Review
Risk factors for stomach cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Jalal Poorolajal1,2,3orcid, Leila Moradi1orcid, Younes Mohammadi1,4orcid, Zahra Cheraghi1,3orcid, Fatemeh Gohari-Ensaf1orcid
Epidemiol Health 2020;42:e2020004.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020004
Published online: February 2, 2020

1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

2Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

3Modeling of Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

4Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

Correspondence: Leila Moradi  Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan 65157838695, Iran  E-mail: leilamoradi073@gmail.com
• Received: December 11, 2019   • Accepted: February 2, 2020

©2020, Korean Society of Epidemiology

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • 1,034 Download
  • 137 Web of Science
  • 138 Crossref
  • 155 Scopus
    This report provides information on 14 behavioral and nutritional factors that can be addressed in stomach cancer prevention programs.
    PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched through December 2018. Reference lists were also screened. Observational studies addressing the associations between stomach cancer and behavioral factors were analyzed. Between-study heterogeneity was investigated using the χ2, τ2, and I2 statistics. The likelihood of publication bias was explored using the Begg and Egger tests and trim-and-fill analysis. Effect sizes were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model.
    Of 52,916 identified studies, 232 (including 33,831,063 participants) were eligible. The OR (95% CI) of factors associated with stomach cancer were as follows: Helicobacter pylori infection, 2.56 (95% CI, 2.18 to 3.00); current smoking, 1.61 (95% CI, 1.49 to 1.75); former smoking 1.43 (95% CI, 1.29 to 1.59); current drinking, 1.19 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.29); former drinking, 1.73 (95% CI, 1.17 to 2.56); overweight/obesity, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.74 to 1.08); sufficient physical activity, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.68 to 1.02); consumption of fruits ≥3 times/wk, 0.48 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.63); consumption of vegetables ≥3 times/wk, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.79); eating pickled vegetables, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.51); drinking black tea, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.20); drinking green tea, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.97); drinking coffee, 0.99 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.11); eating fish ≥1 time/wk 0.79 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.03); eating red meat ≥4 times/wk 1.31 (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.96), and high salt intake 3.78 (95% CI, 1.74 to 5.44) and 1.34 (95% CI, 0.88 to 2.03), based on two different studies.
    This meta-analysis provided a clear picture of the behavioral and nutritional factors associated with the development of stomach cancer. These results may be utilized for ranking and prioritizing preventable risk factors to implement effective prevention programs.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is the fifth most frequent type of cancer and the third-leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, responsible for over 1,000,000 new cases and an estimated 783,000 deaths in 2018 [1].
Many factors may play a role in the development of stomach cancer. Advanced age [2], male sex [1], ethnicity [3], and genetic factors [4] may contribute to the development of stomach cancer, but they are neither modifiable nor preventable. However, nutritional factors [5] and behavioral factors such as cigarette smoking [6] and drinking alcohol [6,7], as well as Helicobacter pylori infection [8], also contribute to the development of stomach cancer. These factors are largely modifiable and preventable, and therefore can be considered when designing effective prevention programs.
Efforts to improve screening programs and the early detection and treatment of stomach cancer are important, but taking action to address preventable factors that play a role in the development of stomach cancer is a priority. Ranking and prioritizing the factors that contribute to stomach cancer and implementing prevention programs can prevent thousands of cases of stomach cancer each year. Effective intervention strategies and prevention programs require a comprehensive understanding and a clear picture of the factors that promote stomach cancer. No comprehensive systematic review has yet been conducted to address all the potential behavioral and nutritional factors that play a pivotal role in the development of stomach cancer. This systematic review was conducted to address the associations between stomach cancer and 14 potentially modifiable behavioral and nutritional factors that may be addressed in prevention programs aimed at reducing the incidence of stomach cancer.
Eligibility criteria
The outcome of interest was pathologically confirmed stomach cancer, of any type (adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, sarcoma, or carcinoid) and location (cardia or non-cardia), among the general population, regardless of age, sex, race, ethnicity, and geographical region. The exposures of interest are listed below:
H. pylori infection, regardless of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) pathogenicity (positive vs. negative); Cigarette smoking (current/former smokers vs. non-smokers); Drinking alcohol (current/former drinkers vs. non-drinkers); Body mass index (BMI; overweight/obese vs. normal weight); Physical activity (sufficient vs. insufficient); Fruit consumption (≥7 times/wk vs. <7 times/wk and ≥3 times/wk vs. <3 times/wk); Vegetable consumption (≥7 times/wk vs. <7 times/wk and ≥3 times/wk vs. <3 times/wk); Consumption of pickled vegetables (yes vs. no); Drinking black tea (yes vs. no); Drinking green tea (yes vs. no); Drinking coffee (yes vs. no); Fish consumption (≥1 serving/wk vs. <1 serving/wk); Red meat consumption (≥4 times/wk vs. <4 times/wk); Salt intake (>5 g/d vs. ≤5 g/d); A BMI of 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 was classified as normal weight, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 as overweight, and ≥30.0 kg/m2 as obese.
At least 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per day (or 300 min/wk) was considered sufficient for adults [9].
Observational (cohort and case-control) studies addressing the association between stomach cancer and any of the above factors were included in the meta-analysis, irrespective of language, publication date, and the nationality, race, sex, and age of participants.
Information sources and search
PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched through December 2018. The reference lists of the included studies were also explored. The following terms were searched: (stomach cancer OR gastric cancer OR stomach neoplasms OR gastric neoplasms OR gastric malignancy OR stomach malignancy OR stomach tumor OR gastric tumor) AND (Helicobacter pylori OR H. pylori OR smoking OR cigarette OR tobacco products OR tobacco OR alcohol OR ethanol OR body mass index OR BMI OR overweight OR obesity OR obese OR physical activity OR exercise OR fruit OR vegetable OR pickled OR meat OR coffee OR tea OR fish OR salt OR sodium chloride).
Study selection
The search results of all databases were combined using EndNote, and duplicates were deleted. Then, 2 authors (LM and FG) independently screened the titles and abstracts and excluded ineligible studies. The full texts of potentially relevant studies were retrieved for further evaluation.
Data extraction
The data from the relevant studies were extracted by 2 authors (LM and JP) using an electronic data collection form prepared in Stata (StataCorp., College Station, TX, USA).
Methodological quality
The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) [10] was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Based on this scale, a maximum of 9 stars was assigned to each study. Studies that received 7 or more stars were labeled high-quality, and otherwise studies were classified as low-quality.
Heterogeneity and publication bias
The heterogeneity across studies was examined using the chi-square (χ2) test [11] and tau-square (τ2) test and was quantified by the I2 statistic [12]. According to the I2 value, heterogeneity was classified as low (<50%), moderate (50-74%), or high (≥75%).
The possibility of publication bias was explored by the Egger [13] and Begg [14] tests and the trim-and-fill method [15].
Summary measures
The effect measure of choice was the odds ratio (OR), rate ratio, or hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). However, we analyzed these effect measures separately.
The results were reported based on a random-effects model [16]. The data were analyzed at a significance level of 0.05 using Stata version 14.2 (StataCorp., College Station, TX, USA) and Review Manager version 5.3 (https://review-manager.software.informer.com/5.3/).
Sensitivity analysis
If the between-study heterogeneity was moderate to high (I2 ≥50%), the source of heterogeneity was investigated using a sequential algorithm [17].
Ethics statement
This study was a systematic review in which no human subject or animal was employed.
Description of studies
In total, 52,916 studies were identified, including 43,555 studies obtained by searching the electronic databases through December 2018 and 9,359 articles identified by searching the reference lists of the included studies. After excluding duplicates and ineligible studies, 232 studies with 33,831,063 participants (Supplementary Material 1) were included in the meta-analysis (Figure 1).
Synthesis of results

H. pylori infection

Based on 68 studies (Supplementary Material 2), the overall OR for positive versus negative H. pylori infection status was 2.56 (95% CI, 2.18 to 3.00). The overall effect measure showed that H. pylori infection significantly increased the risk of stomach cancer by more than 2.5-fold (p=0.001). Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2=86%). The overall effect became weaker (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.89 to 2.41; I2=47%) after performing a sensitivity analysis (Table 1).
The Begg test (p=0.004), but not the Egger test (p=0.122), revealed evidence of publication bias. Trim-and-fill analysis estimated 4 missing studies (Figure 2). The overall effect measure based on this analysis was an OR of 2.42 (95% CI, 2.06 to 2.83), which was slightly weaker than the originally reported overall effect measure.

Cigarette smoking

Based on 77 studies (Supplementary Material 3), the overall OR for current smokers versus never smokers was 1.61 (95% CI, 1.49 to 1.75). The overall effect measure showed that current smoking significantly increased the risk of stomach cancer by 61% (p=0.001). Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2=78%). The overall effect became slightly stronger (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.54 to 1.79; I2=49%) after performing a sensitivity analysis (Table 1).
In addition, based on 66 studies (Supplemental Material 4), the overall OR for former smokers versus never smokers was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.29 to 1.59). The overall effect measure showed that former smoking significantly increased the risk of stomach cancer by 43% (p=0.001). Between-study heterogeneity was moderate (I2=65%). The overall effect became slightly weaker (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.47; I2=44%) after performing a sensitivity analysis (Table 1).
The Begg test revealed no evidence of publication bias (p=0.722), but the Egger test did show evidence of publication bias (p=0.001). Trim-and-fill analysis estimated 19 missing studies, but the overall effect measure did not change significantly.

Drinking alcohol

Based on 84 studies (Supplementary Material 5), the overall OR for current drinkers versus never drinkers was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.10, 1.29). The overall effect measure showed that current drinking significantly increased the risk of stomach cancer by 19% (p= 0.001). Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2=83%). The overall effect became slightly weaker (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.11; I2=50%) after performing a sensitivity analysis (Table 1).
In addition, based on 16 studies (Supplementary Material 6), the overall OR for former drinking versus never drinking was 1.73 (95% CI, 1.17 to 2.56). The overall effect measure showed that former drinking significantly increased the risk of stomach cancer by 73% (p=0.004). Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2= 84%). The overall effect became slightly weaker (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.48 to 2.72; I2=48%) after performing a sensitivity analysis (Table 1). There was no evidence of publication bias.

Body mass index

Based on 25 studies (Supplementary Material 7), the overall OR for overweight/obesity versus normal weight was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.74 to 1.08). The overall effect measure showed that overweight/obesity had no significant effect on stomach cancer (p=0.240). Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2=86%). The overall effect changed slightly (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.26; I2=41%) after performing a sensitivity analysis (Table 1). There was no evidence of publication bias.

Sufficient physical activity

Based on 11 studies (Supplementary Material 8), the overall OR for sufficient versus insufficient physical activity was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.68 to 1.02). The overall effect measure showed that physical activity had no significant effect on stomach cancer (p=0.080), which seems negligible. Between-study heterogeneity was low (I2=45%). There was no evidence of publication bias.


Based on 13 studies (Supplementary Material 9), the overall OR for fruit consumption ≥3 times/wk versus fruit consumption <3 times/wk was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.63). The overall effect measure showed that fruit consumption significantly reduced the risk of stomach cancer by 48% (p=0.001). Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2=86%). The overall effect became slightly weaker (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.75; I2=42%) after performing a sensitivity analysis (Table 1). Both the Begg test (p=0.010) and the Egger test (p=0.001) revealed evidence of publication bias, but trim-and-fill analysis did not change the results.


Based on 18 studies (Supplementary Material 10), the OR for vegetable consumption ≥3 times/wk versus vegetable consumption <3 times/wk was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.79). The overall effect measure showed that vegetable consumption significantly reduced the risk of stomach cancer by 62% (p=0.001). Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2=74%). The overall effect became slightly weaker (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.84; I2=40%) after performing a sensitivity analysis (Table 1). There was no evidence of publication bias.

Pickled vegetable

Based on 19 studies (Supplementary Material 11), the overall OR for consuming versus not consuming pickled vegetables was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.51). The overall effect measure showed that consuming pickled vegetables significantly increased the risk of stomach cancer by 28% (p=0.001). Between-study heterogeneity was low (I2=39%). There was no evidence of publication bias.

Black tea

Based on 15 studies (Supplementary Material 12), the overall OR for drinking versus not drinking black tea was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.20). The overall effect measure showed that drinking black tea had no significant effect on stomach cancer (p=0.970). Between-study heterogeneity was moderate (I2=62%). The overall effect became slightly stronger (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.07; I2=34%) after performing a sensitivity analysis (Table 1). No evidence of publication bias was revealed.

Green tea

Based on 16 studies (Supplementary Material 13), the overall OR for drinking versus not drinking green tea was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.97). The overall effect measure showed that drinking green tea had no significant effect on stomach cancer (p=0.010). Between-study heterogeneity was low (I2=22%). No evidence of publication bias was seen.


Based on 14 studies (Supplementary Material 14), the overall OR for drinking coffee versus not drinking coffee was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.11). The overall effect measure showed that coffee drinking had no significant effect on stomach cancer (p=0.820). Between-study heterogeneity was moderate (I2=29%). There was no evidence of publication bias.


Based on 11 studies (Supplementary Material 15), the OR for eating fish ≥1 time/wk versus <1 time/wk was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.03). The overall effect showed that fish consumption had no significant effect on stomach cancer (p=0.080). Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2=76%). The overall effect became stronger (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.83; I2=45%) after performing a sensitivity analysis (Table 1). No evidence of publication bias was seen.

Red meat

Based on 11 studies (Supplementary Material 16), the overall OR for eating red meat ≥4 times/wk versus <4 times/wk was 1.31 (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.96). The overall effect measure showed that consumption of red meat had no significant effect on stomach cancer (p=0.080). Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2=83%). The overall effect changed slightly (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.09; I2= 11%) after performing a sensitivity analysis (Table 1). There was no evidence of publication bias.


Only 2 studies addressed the association between high salt intake and stomach cancer. The results of the two studies are reported separately rather than a pooled OR because of the number of studies was limited. According to these studies, the OR for salt intake of >5 g/d versus ≤5 g/d was 3.78 (95% CI, 1.74 to 5.44) [18] and 1.34 (95% CI, 0.88 to 2.03) [19], respectively. Both studies reported that a high intake of salt significantly increased the risk of stomach cancer.
Figure 3 presents a unified overview of the associations between stomach cancer and all nutritional and behavioral factors. As shown in this figure, H. pylori infection, current and former cigarette smoking, current and former alcohol drinking, and pickled vegetable consumption were found to significantly increase the risk of stomach cancer. In contrast, sufficient physical activity, fruit consumption, and vegetable consumption significantly reduced the risk of stomach cancer. Meanwhile, BMI, drinking black tea, green tea, and coffee, and eating fish and red meat had no statistically significant effects on the risk of stomach cancer.
According to our findings, H. pylori infection and smoking were the first and second most powerful risk factors for stomach cancer, respectively, whereas fruit and vegetable consumption were the first and second most powerful protective factors against stomach cancer, respectively.
The magnitudes of the measures of association reported in this systematic review may be used for ranking and prioritizing the relative importance of risk and protective factors. However, it should be kept in mind that these factors vary in terms of their physiological modus operandi and their units of exposure. Therefore, direct comparisons are often unwarranted [20]. In other words, the mere fact that the ORs of some risk factors for stomach cancer are higher than the ORs of other risk factors is not a sufficient basis for ranking and prioritizing risk factors. Instead, the prevalence of risk factors in the community is an essential criterion that must be taken into account when ranking and prioritizing risk factors. When the association between a particular risk factor and the outcome of interest is strong (a high OR), but the prevalence of that risk factor is low in the community, the overall impact of the risk factor on the disease burden in the community is low. In contrast, when a particular risk factor is common in the community, the overall impact of the factor on the outcome of interest may be tremendous even if the association between the risk factor and the outcome is not as strong (a low OR). Therefore, ranking and prioritizing the behavioral and nutritional factors affecting stomach cancer risk depends on both the strength of the associations (the magnitude of ORs) and the prevalence of the factors in the community.
Our results indicated that H. pylori infection was strongly associated with the development of stomach cancer. Based on the available evidence, H. pylori infection induces stomach cancer through direct and indirect pathways. The direct action of H. pylori on gastric epithelial cells is thought to be mediated by the induction of protein modulation and genetic mutations. Its indirect action on gastric epithelial cells is thought to be through inflammation. Both pathways work together to promote gastric carcinogenesis [21]. In addition, CagA apparently interacts with some host proteins that regulate cell growth, cell motility, and cell polarity. These interactions with CagA induce morphological transformations that may predispose cells to epigenetic changes involved in gastric carcinogenesis [22].
Our results revealed a positive relationship between cigarette smoking and the development of stomach cancer. Cigarette smoke contains over 7,000 toxic chemicals, including human carcinogens [23]. These toxins and carcinogens can cause direct DNA damage. Since DNA controls cells’ normal growth and function, DNA damage can alter cells’ growth patterns, and abnormal gastric epithelial cells with DNA damage can turn into cancer [24,25].
This systematic review showed that drinking alcohol increased the risk of developing stomach cancer. Acetaldehyde, the first and most toxic metabolite of ethanol, is a human carcinogen that can induce DNA lesions by inhibiting DNA methylation and by interacting with retinoid metabolism [26]. DNA lesions may lead to cell mutations, which convert a normal cell into cancer [27]. In addition, alcohol can act as an irritant and cause mucosal damage. The damaged cells may try to repair themselves, which could lead to DNA changes that can be a step toward cancer [28].
According to our results, the risk of stomach cancer of former drinkers was higher than that of current drinkers. One possible explanation for this finding is that former drinkers might be heavy drinkers who had drunk alcohol for many years, but were forced to quit drinking alcohol because of severe liver and gastric complications.
Pickled vegetables may increase the risk of stomach cancer because they contain large amounts of salt and because key nutrients are lost in vegetables under acidic and oxygenic conditions [29,30]. Furthermore, pickled vegetables are considered to be a possible source of nitrosamines, which may contribute to gastric carcinogenesis. The contamination of pickled vegetables with fungi has also been postulated to contribute to the incidence of stomach cancer [31].
Based on our findings, fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a substantial reduction in stomach cancer risk. It has been postulated that the anti-carcinogenic effects of fruits and vegetables may be attributed to the antioxidant effect of their vitamin content, especially vitamin C and beta-carotene. Antioxidants neutralize reactive oxygen free radicals, which cause DNA damage [32,33]. Damaged DNA may lead to genetic modifications and carcinogenesis [24,25].
Our results showed a protective, but non-significant accusation between stomach cancer and overweight and obesity. However, the between-study heterogeneity was high (I2=86%). When we performed a sensitivity analysis, the overall effect changed from protective to a significant risk elevation (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.26). Chen et al. [34]. conducted a meta-analysis including studies published before 2013 that were indexed in MEDLINE and EMBASE to address the association between gastric cancer and BMI. They reported that the relative risk of gastric cancer was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07) for overweight and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.12) for obesity, and neither of those associations was statistically significant. Based on the current evidence, BMI does not seem to have a significant effect on the incidence of stomach cancer.
This systematic review has a few limitations and potential biases. There were some studies, mostly old, that seemed potentially eligible to be included in this meta-analysis, but neither their full texts nor their corresponding authors were accessible. This issue might have introduced selection bias in our results. Furthermore, several epidemiological studies that investigated the associations between stomach cancer and some nutritional and behavioral risk factors were excluded from the meta-analysis because they were not consistent with the inclusion criteria of this review. This issue may also raise the possibility of selection bias.
This meta-analysis provided a clear picture of several behavioral and nutritional factors that play pivotal roles in the development of stomach cancer. These results are helpful and may be utilized for ranking and prioritizing preventable risk factors to implement effective interventions and community-based prevention programs. We reemphasize that both the strength of associations and the prevalence of factors in the community should be taken into account when ranking and prioritizing stomach cancer–associated factors.
Supplementary materials are available at http://www.e-epih.org/.


The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare for this study.


The Vice-Chancellor of Research and Technology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences funded this study (No. 9610266919).


Conceptualization: JP. Data curation: JP, LM, YM, ZC. Formal analysis: JP, LM. Funding acquisition: JP. Methodology: JP, LM, FGE. Writing – original draft: JP, ZC, YM. Writing – review & editing: LM, YM, ZC, FGE.

These results were obtained as part of an MSc thesis in Epidemiology. We would like to appreciate the Vice-Chancellor for Research and Technology of the Hamadan University of Medical Sciences for approval and financial support of this study.
Figure 1.
Flow of information through the various phases of the systematic review.
Figure 2.
Trim-and-fill analysis estimating the number of possible missing studies for the association between stomach cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. The squares represent the possible missing studies.
Figure 3.
The associations (95% confidence intervals) between stomach cancer and nutritional and behavioral factors in a single view. Protective factors are shown in green (dark green, significant; light green, non-significant) and risk factors are shown in red (dark red, significant; light red, non-significant).
Table 1.
Results of the sensitivity analysis
Variables Sensitivity analysis
Study (n) χ2 I2 (%) OR (95% CI) Study (n) χ2 I2 (%) OR (95% CI)
Helicobacter pylori 68 0.001 86 2.56 (2.18, 3.00) 49 0.003 47 2.13 (1.89, 2.41)
 Current 95 0.001 78 1.61 (1.49, 1.75) 73 0.001 49 1.66 (1.54, 1.79)
 Former 52 0.001 65 1.43 (1.29, 1.59) 50 0.001 44 1.35 (1.24, 1.47)
 Current 72 0.001 83 1.19 (1.10, 1.29) 60 0.001 50 1.05 (0.99, 1.11)
 Former 11 0.001 84 1.73 (1.17, 2.56) 9 0.050 48 2.01 (1.48, 2.72)
Body mass index 14 0.001 86 0.89 (0.74, 1.08) 10 0.090 41 1.14 (1.03, 1.26)
Physical activity 7 0.090 45 0.83 (0.68, 1.02) NA - - -
Fruit consumption 14 0.001 86 0.48 (0.37, 0.63) 11 0.070 42 0.64 (0.55, 0.75)
Vegetable consumption 9 0.001 74 0.62 (0.49. 0.79) 6 0.140 40 0.70 (0.58, 0.84)
Pickled vegetable consumption 16 0.060 39 1.28 (1.09, 1.51) NA - - -
Black tea intake 13 0.002 62 1.00 (0.84, 1.20) 12 0.120 34 0.94 (0.83,1.07)
Green tea intake 16 0.220 22 0.88 (0.80, 0.97) NA - - -
Coffee intake 12 0.160 29 0.99 (0.88, 1.11) NA - - -
Fish consumption 11 0.001 76 0.79 (0.61, 1.03) 9 0.070 45 0.68 (0.55, 0.83)
Red meat consumption 7 0.001 83 1.31 (0.87, 1.96) 4 0.340 11 0.91 (0.77, 1.09)

OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; NA, not available.

  • 1. Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68:394-424.ArticlePubMed
  • 2. Hisamichi S, Sasaki R, Sugawara N, Yanbo T, Yamagata S. Stomach cancer in various age groups (Japan) as detected by gastric mass survey. J Am Geriatr Soc 1979;27:439-443.ArticlePubMed
  • 3. Dockerty JD, Marshall S, Fraser J, Pearce N. Stomach cancer in New Zealand: time trends, ethnic group differences and a cancer registry-based case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 1991;20:45-53.ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 4. Sun H, Wu X, Wu F, Li Y, Yu Z, Chen X, et al. Associations of genetic variants in the PSCA, MUC1 and PLCE1 genes with stomach cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population. PLoS One 2015;10:e0117576.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 5. Mathew A, Gangadharan P, Varghese C, Nair MK. Diet and stomach cancer: a case-control study in South India. Eur J Cancer Prev 2000;9:89-97.ArticlePubMed
  • 6. Praud D, Rota M, Pelucchi C, Bertuccio P, Rosso T, Galeone C, et al. Cigarette smoking and gastric cancer in the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project. Eur J Cancer Prev 2018;27:124-133.ArticlePubMed
  • 7. Minami Y, Kanemura S, Oikawa T, Suzuki S, Hasegawa Y, Miura K, et al. Associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking with stomach cancer survival: a prospective patient cohort study in Japan. Int J Cancer 2018;143:1072-1085.ArticlePubMed
  • 8. González CA, Sala N, Rokkas T. Gastric cancer: epidemiologic aspects. Helicobacter 2013;18 Suppl 1:34-38.ArticlePubMed
  • 9. World Health Organization. Physical activity and young people; 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 12]. Available from: https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_young_people/en/.
  • 10. Wells G, Shea B, O’connell DL, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses; 2018 [cited 2020 Feb 10]. Available from: http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp.
  • 11. Higgins JP, Green S. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions; 2008 [cited 2020 Feb 10]. Available from: https://www.radioterapiaitalia.it/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/cochrane-handbook-for-systematic-reviews-of-interventions.pdf.
  • 12. Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003;327:557-560.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 13. Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997;315:629-634.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 14. Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 1994;50:1088-1101.ArticlePubMed
  • 15. Duval S, Tweedie R. A nonparametric “trim and fill” method of accounting for publication bias in meta-analysis. J Am Stat Assoc 2000;95:89-98.Article
  • 16. DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 1986;7:177-188.ArticlePubMed
  • 17. Patsopoulos NA, Evangelou E, Ioannidis JP. Sensitivity of between-study heterogeneity in meta-analysis: proposed metrics and empirical evaluation. Int J Epidemiol 2008;37:1148-1157.ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 18. Zhang Z, Zhang X. Salt taste preference, sodium intake and gastric cancer in China. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011;12:1207-1210.PubMed
  • 19. Zhong C, Li KN, Bi JW, Wang BC. Sodium intake, salt taste and gastric cancer risk according to Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, histological type and tumor site in China. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012;13:2481-2484.ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 20. Szklo M, Nieto FJ. Epidemiology: beyond the basics. 4th. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2019. p 115.
  • 21. Chiba T, Marusawa H, Seno H, Watanabe N. Mechanism for gastric cancer development by Helicobacter pylori infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;23:1175-1181.ArticlePubMed
  • 22. Hatakeyama M, Higashi H. Helicobacter pylori CagA: a new paradigm for bacterial carcinogenesis. Cancer Sci 2005;96:835-843.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 23. World Health Organization. World No Tobacco Day 2017: beating tobacco for health, prosperity, the environment and national development; 2017 [cited 2017 Jun 1]. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/no-tobacco-day/en/.
  • 24. Dyke GW, Craven JL, Hall R, Garner RC. Smoking-related DNA adducts in human gastric cancers. Int J Cancer 1992;52:847-850.ArticlePubMed
  • 25. Pfeifer GP, Denissenko MF, Olivier M, Tretyakova N, Hecht SS, Hainaut P. Tobacco smoke carcinogens, DNA damage and p53 mutations in smoking-associated cancers. Oncogene 2002;21:7435-7451.ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 26. Seitz HK, Stickel F. Molecular mechanisms of alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer 2007;7:599-612.ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 27. Deman J, Van Larebeke N. Carcinogenesis: mutations and mutagens. Tumour Biol 2001;22:191-202.ArticlePubMed
  • 28. Huh K, Kwon TH, Shin US, Kim WB, Ahn BO, Oh TY, et al. Inhibitory effects of DA-9601 on ethanol-induced gastrohemorrhagic lesions and gastric xanthine oxidase activity in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;88:269-273.ArticlePubMed
  • 29. Kim HJ, Lim SY, Lee JS, Park S, Shin A, Choi BY, et al. Fresh and pickled vegetable consumption and gastric cancer in Japanese and Korean populations: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Sci 2010;101:508-516.ArticlePubMed
  • 30. Yalim S, Ozdemir Y. Effects of preparation procedures on ascorbic acid retention in pickled hot peppers. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2003;54:291-296.ArticlePubMed
  • 31. Yang CS. Research on esophageal cancer in China: a review. Cancer Res 1980;40:2633-2644.PubMed
  • 32. Akyön Y. Effect of antioxidants on the immune response of Helicobacter pylori. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002;8:438-441.ArticlePubMed
  • 33. Drake IM, Davies MJ, Mapstone NP, Dixon MF, Schorah CJ, White KL, et al. Ascorbic acid may protect against human gastric cancer by scavenging mucosal oxygen radicals. Carcinogenesis 1996;17:559-562.ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 34. Chen Y, Liu L, Wang X, Wang J, Yan Z, Cheng J, et al. Body mass index and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of a population with more than ten million from 24 prospective studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2013;22:1395-1408.ArticlePubMed

Figure & Data



    Citations to this article as recorded by  
    • Gastric dysplasia in random biopsies: the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection and alcohol consumption in the presence of a lesion
      Ana Isabel Ferreira, Tiago Lima Capela, Vítor Macedo Silva, Sofia Xavier, Pedro Boal Carvalho, Joana Magalhães, José Cotter
      Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology.2024; 59(2): 125.     CrossRef
    • Incidence of Stomach, Liver, and Colorectal Cancers by Geography and Social Vulnerability Among American Indian and Alaska Native Populations, 2010–2019
      Stephanie C Melkonian, Melissa A Jim, Avid Reza, Lucy A Peipins, Donald Haverkamp, Nathania Said, J Danielle Sharpe
      American Journal of Epidemiology.2024; 193(1): 58.     CrossRef
    • Personalizing age of gastric cancer screening based on comorbidity in China: Model estimates of benefits, affordability and cost-effectiveness optimization
      Shuxia Qin, Xuehong Wang, Sini Li, Meiyu Wu, Xiaomin Wan
      Preventive Medicine.2024; 179: 107851.     CrossRef
    • First evidence on the causal association between green tea and gastrointestinal health: a two sample mendelian randomization study
      Zhixiong Jiang, Renlan Li, Yi Li
      CyTA - Journal of Food.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Dose–response association between cigarette smoking and gastric cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis
      Matteo Rota, Irene Possenti, Valeria Valsassina, Claudia Santucci, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Giovanni Corrao, Cristina Bosetti, Claudia Specchia, Silvano Gallus, Alessandra Lugo
      Gastric Cancer.2024; 27(2): 197.     CrossRef
    • Risk Factors of Gastric Cancer and Lifestyle Modification for Prevention
      Kwang-Pil Ko
      Journal of Gastric Cancer.2024; 24(1): 99.     CrossRef
    • Uncovering the ceRNA Network Related to the Prognosis of Stomach Adenocarcinoma Among 898 Patient Samples
      Zhe Liu, Fang Liu, Olutomilayo Olayemi Petinrin, Fuzhou Wang, Yu Zhang, Ka-Chun Wong
      Biochemical Genetics.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Pro-Inflammatory Diet as a Risk Factor for Stomach Cancer: Findings from a Multicenter Study in Central and Western China
      Dan Li, Donglin Zhang, Minjuan Wang, Jianfeng Hao, Yongquan Shi, Dake Chu
      Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare.2024; Volume 17: 901.     CrossRef
    • Lung ultrasound score evaluation of the effect of pressure-controlled ventilation volume-guaranteed on patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted radical gastrectomy
      Jian Tan, Cheng-Ming Bao, Xiao-Yuan Chen
      World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery.2024; 16(6): 1717.     CrossRef
    • A review of the world's salt reduction policies and strategies – preparing for the upcoming year 2025
      Ting Nie, Siqi Huang, Yuxin Yang, Anna Hu, Jianing Wang, Zeneng Cheng, Wenjie Liu
      Food & Function.2024; 15(6): 2836.     CrossRef
    • Unraveling the causal role of immune cells in gastrointestinal tract cancers: insights from a Mendelian randomization study
      Yu-xiang Wang, Chao-ping Zhou, Da-tian Wang, Jun Ma, Xue-hu Sun, Yao Wang, Ya-ming Zhang
      Frontiers in Immunology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Targeting notch-related lncRNAs in cancer: Insights into molecular regulation and therapeutic potential
      Raihan Siddique, Gaurav Gupta, Johar MGM, Ashwani Kumar, Harpreet Kaur, I.A. Ariffin, Atreyi Pramanik, Waleed Hassan Almalki, Haider Ali, Moyad Shahwan, Neeraj Patel, Krishna Murari, Riya Mishra, Riya Thapa, Asif Ahmad Bhat
      Pathology - Research and Practice.2024; 257: 155282.     CrossRef
    • Disulfidptosis-related lncRNA signature reveals immune microenvironment and novel molecular subtyping of stomach adenocarcinoma
      Jinze Li, Chuqi Xia, Yilin Song, Lu Zhang, Wei Shang, Ning Xu, Qiyu Lu, Daoming Liang
      Heliyon.2024; 10(8): e29005.     CrossRef
    • The differences in gastric cancer epidemiological data between SEER and GBD: a joinpoint and age-period-cohort analysis
      Zenghong Wu, Kun Zhang, Weijun Wang, Mengke Fan, Rong Lin
      Journal of Big Data.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Comparative Efficacy of Endogenous Stem Cells Recruiting Hydrogels and Stem Cell-loaded Hydrogels in Knee Cartilage Regeneration: A Meta- analysis
      Wanyun Feng, Chaohua Zhu, Ruoxiang Miao, Danni Li, Xi Xiong, Ruyu Wang, Guobin Liu, Jun Ma
      Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy.2024; 19(7): 993.     CrossRef
    • Modifiable and Non-Modifiable Factors Associated with Gastric Cancer
      Noora Al-Naimi, Maryam Aljumaily, Rawdhah Al-Amer, Aya Hamdan, Reema Tayyem
      Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal.2024; 12(1): 181.     CrossRef
    • Advancing gastrointestinal cancer diagnostics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating microRNA-1246 as a non-invasive biomarker
      Amir Hossein Aalami, Ali Shahriari, Mohammad Mazaheri, Farnoosh Aalami, Amirhossein Sahebkar
      Biomarkers.2024; 29(5): 233.     CrossRef
    • A Five-gene Signature based on MicroRNA for Predicting Prognosis and Immunotherapy in Stomach Adenocarcinoma
      Tianwei Wang, Piji Chen, Tingting Li, Jianong Li, Dong Zhao, Fanfei Meng, Yujie Zhao, Zhendong Zheng, Xuefei Liu
      Current Medicinal Chemistry.2024; 31(17): 2378.     CrossRef
    • Associations of dietary factors with gastric cancer risk: insights from NHANES 2003–2016 and mendelian randomization analyses
      Yigang Zhang, Sen Wang, Qingya Li, Hongda Liu, Zhe Xuan, Fengyuan Li, Zheng Li, Yiwen Xia, Tianlu Jiang, Penghui Xu, Lang Fang, Linjun Wang, Diancai Zhang, Hao Xu, Li Yang, Zekuan Xu
      Frontiers in Genetics.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The association between dietary fiber intake and gastric cancer: a pooled analysis of 11 case–control studies
      Giulia Collatuzzo, Jacqueline Cortez Lainez, Claudio Pelucchi, Eva Negri, Rossella Bonzi, Domenico Palli, Monica Ferraroni, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Guo-Pei Yu, Nuno Lunet, Samantha Morais, Lizbeth López-Carrillo, David Zaridze, Dmitry Maximovitch, Marcela Guevara
      European Journal of Nutrition.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • In silico prospective analysis of the medicinal plants activity on the CagA oncoprotein from Helicobacter pylori
      Rafaela Viana Vieira, Gabrielle Caroline Peiter, Fabrício Freire de Melo, Ana Carla Zarpelon-Schutz, Kádima Nayara Teixeira
      World Journal of Clinical Oncology.2024; 15(5): 653.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence of cagA, cagM, vacA and oipA genes in isolates of Helicobacter pylori obtained from hospital patients in Northeast Brazil
      Thaynara Millena de Oliveira Bezerra, Keyla Vitória Marques Xavier, Ana Carolina de Oliveira Luz, Isabella Macário Ferro Cavalcanti, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Tereza Cristina Leal- Balbino
      Brazilian Journal of Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Mutations in Helicobacter pylori infected patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal type of gastric cancer and familial gastric cancer
      Andrzej Hnatyszyn, Marlena Szalata, Aleksandra Zielińska, Karolina Wielgus, Mikołaj Danielewski, Piotr Tomasz Hnatyszyn, Andrzej Pławski, Jarosław Walkowiak, Ryszard Słomski
      Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Unveiling the Younger Face of Gastric Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies
      Kai Kang, Mary Angelica Bagaoisan, YuXin Zhang
      Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The association between major gastrointestinal cancers and red and processed meat and fish consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the observational studies
      Jalal Poorolajal, Younes Mohammadi, Marzieh Fattahi-Darghlou, Fatemeh Almasi-Moghadam, Atalel Fentahun Awedew
      PLOS ONE.2024; 19(6): e0305994.     CrossRef
    • Involvement of microRNA modifications in anticancer effects of major polyphenols from green tea, coffee, wine, and curry
      Tomokazu Ohishi, Sumio Hayakawa, Noriyuki Miyoshi
      Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.2023; 63(24): 7148.     CrossRef
    • Characteristics of gastric cancer around the world
      María J. López, Junior Carbajal, Alejandro L. Alfaro, Luis G. Saravia, Daniel Zanabria, Jhajaira M. Araujo, Lidia Quispe, Alejandra Zevallos, José L. Buleje, Cristina Eunbee Cho, Marisol Sarmiento, Joseph A. Pinto, Williams Fajardo
      Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology.2023; 181: 103841.     CrossRef
    • Association of Dietary Antioxidant Vitamin Intake and Gastric Cancer Risk According to Smoking Status and Histological Subtypes of Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Korea
      Shin Ah Kim, Jung Hyun Kwak, Chang Soo Eun, Dong Soo Han, Yong Sung Kim, Kyu Sang Song, Bo Youl Choi, Hyun Ja Kim
      Nutrition and Cancer.2023; 75(2): 652.     CrossRef
    • Cancer and brassinosteroids: Mechanisms of action, SAR and future perspectives
      Marcos Lorca, David Cabezas, Ileana Araque, Andrés Terán, Santiago Hernández, Marco Mellado, Luis Espinoza, Jaime Mella
      Steroids.2023; 190: 109153.     CrossRef
    • Risk factors for gastric cancer: A comprehensive analysis of observational studies
      Yuqing Hui, Chunyi Tu, Danlei Liu, Huijie Zhang, Xiaobing Gong
      Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Smoking history and severe atrophic gastritis assessed by pepsinogen are risk factors for the prevalence of synchronous gastric cancers in patients with gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection: a multicenter prospective cohort study
      Waku Hatta, Tomoyuki Koike, Sho Asonuma, Hideki Okata, Kaname Uno, Tomoyuki Oikawa, Wataru Iwai, Makoto Yonechi, Daisuke Fukushi, Shoichi Kayaba, Ryosuke Kikuchi, Motoki Ohyauchi, Jun Fushiya, Ryuhei Maejima, Yasuhiko Abe, Masashi Kawamura, Junya Honda, Y
      Journal of Gastroenterology.2023; 58(5): 433.     CrossRef
    • Association between soy products, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products and gastric cancer risk in Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects: a case-control study in Korea
      Jung Hyun Kwak, Chang Soo Eun, Dong Soo Han, Yong Sung Kim, Kyu Sang Song, Bo Youl Choi, Hyun Ja Kim
      Nutrition Research and Practice.2023; 17(1): 122.     CrossRef
    • Evaluation of polygenic risk score for risk prediction of gastric cancer
      Xiao-Yu Wang, Li-Li Wang, Lin Xu, Shu-Zhen Liang, Meng-Chao Yu, Qiu-Yue Zhang, Quan-Jiang Dong
      World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology.2023; 15(2): 276.     CrossRef
    • Mediating Role of Lifestyle Behaviors in the Association between Education and Cancer: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
      Alessandra Macciotta, Alberto Catalano, Maria Teresa Giraudo, Elisabete Weiderpass, Pietro Ferrari, Heinz Freisling, Sandra M. Colorado-Yohar, Carmen Santiuste, Pilar Amiano, Alicia K. Heath, Heather A. Ward, Sofia Christakoudi, Paolo Vineis, Deependra Si
      Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.2023; 32(1): 132.     CrossRef
    • Food Environment Index is Inversely Associated with Gastric Cancer Incidence in the United States
      Shenghui Wu, Yanning Liu, Martie Thompson, Adam Hege
      Nutrition and Cancer.2023; 75(4): 1123.     CrossRef
    • Willingness to Undergo Gastroscopy for Early Gastric Cancer Screening and Its Associated Factors During the COVID-19 Pandemic – A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study in China
      Kejia Ma, Xuejie Chen, Xin Xiang, Xueyi Mao, Ningxin Zhu, Tianyu Wang, Shuyu Ye, Xiaoyan Wang, Minzi Deng
      Patient Preference and Adherence.2023; Volume 17: 505.     CrossRef
    • Constructing a novel mitochondrial-related gene signature for evaluating the tumor immune microenvironment and predicting survival in stomach adenocarcinoma
      Jingjia Chang, Hao Wu, Jin Wu, Ming Liu, Wentao Zhang, Yanfen Hu, Xintong Zhang, Jing Xu, Li Li, Pengfei Yu, Jianjun Zhu
      Journal of Translational Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Clinical prognostic value of OSGIN2 in gastric cancer and its proliferative effect in vitro
      Peipei Wang, Ying Zhu, Xinru Jia, Xiangchang Ying, Leitao Sun, Shanming Ruan
      Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Yoghurt Intake and Gastric Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 16 Studies of the StoP Consortium
      Giulia Collatuzzo, Eva Negri, Claudio Pelucchi, Rossella Bonzi, Federica Turati, Charles S. Rabkin, Linda M. Liao, Rashmi Sinha, Domenico Palli, Monica Ferraroni, Lizbeth López-Carrillo, Nuno Lunet, Samantha Morais, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J. Weinste
      Nutrients.2023; 15(8): 1877.     CrossRef
    • Risk of cancer in patients with insomnia: Nationwide retrospective cohort study (2009–2018)
      Kichul Yoon, Cheol Min Shin, Kyungdo Han, Jin Hyung Jung, Eun Hyo Jin, Joo Hyun Lim, Seung Joo Kang, Yoon Jin Choi, Dong Ho Lee, Dong Keon Yon
      PLOS ONE.2023; 18(4): e0284494.     CrossRef
    • Overview and countermeasures of cancer burden in China
      Yian Wang, Qijia Yan, Chunmei Fan, Yongzhen Mo, Yumin Wang, Xiayu Li, Qianjin Liao, Can Guo, Guiyuan Li, Zhaoyang Zeng, Wei Xiong, He Huang
      Science China Life Sciences.2023; 66(11): 2515.     CrossRef
    • The Influence of Helicobacter pylori on Human Gastric and Gut Microbiota
      Marcello Fiorani, Ege Tohumcu, Livio Enrico Del Vecchio, Serena Porcari, Giovanni Cammarota, Antonio Gasbarrini, Gianluca Ianiro
      Antibiotics.2023; 12(4): 765.     CrossRef
    • Spatial and temporal analysis of gastric cancer incidence in northwest Iran
      Mohsen Soleimani, Mohammad Reza Saeini, Ahmad Jalilvand
      GeoJournal.2023; 88(4): 4555.     CrossRef
    • The prevalence and determinant of overweight and obesity among residents aged 40–69 years in high-risk regions for upper gastrointestinal cancer in southeast China
      Xiang Feng, Jinhua Zhu, Zhaolai Hua, Qiuping Shi, Jinyi Zhou, Pengfei Luo
      Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • BASP1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and is correlated with immune infiltration in gastric cancer
      Tao Wang, Xiaojing Liu, Tong Wang, Lei Zhan, Mingjun Zhang
      FEBS Open Bio.2023; 13(8): 1507.     CrossRef
    • Cancer incidence in Southern Iran, 2015−2018: A population based study on cancer registry profile of Fars province
      Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Masoumeh Ghoddusi Johari‬, Hamid Reza Niazkar, Zahra Khosravizadegan, Ahmad Monabati, Babak Shiraziyeganeh
      Health Science Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals the Vital Role of AKR1B1 in Immune Infiltration and Clinical Outcomes of Gastric Cancer
      Zhiyue Zhao, Zhibin Hao, Zheng Zhang, Xianbao Zhan
      DNA and Cell Biology.2023; 42(7): 372.     CrossRef
    • Risk factor profiles for gastric cancer prediction with respect to Helicobacter pylori: A study of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan
      Shahid Aziz, Simone König, Muhammad Umer, Tayyab Saeed Akhter, Shafqat Iqbal, Maryum Ibrar, Tofeeq Ur-Rehman, Tanvir Ahmad, Alfizah Hanafiah, Rabaab Zahra, Faisal Rasheed
      Artificial Intelligence in Gastroenterology.2023; 4(1): 10.     CrossRef
    • Functional activity of the monocyte immune link in gastric adenocarcinoma
      O. V. Smirnova, E. S. Ovcharenko
      Medical Immunology (Russia).2023; 25(5): 1117.     CrossRef
    • Clinical supervision of chronic atrophic gastritis
      M. A. Livzan, O. V. Gaus, M. A. Lisovskiy, S. I. Mozgovoi, V. A. Rubtsov, M. N. Parygina
      Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology.2023; (3): 148.     CrossRef
    • Critical Analysis of Risk Factors and Machine-Learning-Based Gastric Cancer Risk Prediction Models: A Systematic Review
      Zeyu Fan, Ziju He, Wenjun Miao, Rongrong Huang
      Processes.2023; 11(8): 2324.     CrossRef
    • Helicobacter pylori infection altered gastric microbiota in patients with chronic gastritis
      Zhaolai Hua, Le Xu, Jiahui Zhu, Ling Xiao, Bin Lu, Jianping Wu, Zhenfeng Wu, Qihai Zhou, Junfeng Zhang
      Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The influence of obesity on the risk of development of selected gastrointestinal cancers
      Anita Marcinkiewicz, Karolina Borowska-Waniak, Aneta Łukaszczyk, Aleksandra Ochotnicka, Anna Opala, Maja Borowska, Kinga Skorupińska, Dominik Michalik
      Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews.2023; 11(4): 44.     CrossRef
    • Extension of resection after positive intraoperative pathology during surgery for gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma: a retrospective cohort study
      Patrick S. Plum, Atakan G. Barutcu, Aylin Pamuk, Christoph Mallmann, Seung-Hun Chon, Costanza Chiapponi, Martin Dübbers, Martin Hellmich, Stefan P. Moenig, Alexander Quaas, Arnulf H. Hoelscher, Christiane J. Bruns, Hakan Alakus
      International Journal of Surgery.2023; 109(8): 2324.     CrossRef
    • Vegetarian diets and the risk of gastrointestinal cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies
      Tongtong Bai, Juanjuan Peng, Xinqi Zhu, Chengyu Wu
      European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology.2023; 35(11): 1244.     CrossRef
    • Lifestyle habits and gastric cancer in an East Asian population: a Mendelian randomization study
      Yuegui Tan, Zhao Wei, Kun Liu, Yuzhen Qin, Wenqi Hui
      Frontiers in Oncology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Complete Mesogastric Excision for Gastric Cancer: is it the Future of Gastric Cancer Surgery?
      Georgios D Lianos, Christina D Bali, Konstantinos Vlachos, Panagiota Drosou, Stefano Rausei, Michail Mitsis, Dimitrios Schizas
      Personalized Medicine.2023; 20(5): 461.     CrossRef
    • Toxic mechanisms of cadmium and exposure as a risk factor for oral and gastrointestinal carcinomas
      Ali Tavakoli Pirzaman, Pouyan Ebrahimi, Shokat Niknezhad, Turan vahidi, Dariush Hosseinzadeh, Sousan Akrami, Arash M Ashrafi, Mohammad Moeen Velayatimehr, Rezvan Hosseinzadeh, Sohrab Kazemi
      Human & Experimental Toxicology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Role of microorganisms in the developmental, prognostic, and therapeutics of gastric cancer
      Sadaf Wajahat
      Iranian Journal of Blood and Cancer.2023; 15(4): 272.     CrossRef
    • Association of Mediterranean Diet Adherence with Disease Progression Characteristics, Lifestyle Factors and Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer Patients
      Eleni Pavlidou, Sousana K. Papadopoulou, Maria Tolia, Maria Mentzelou, Nikolaos Tsoukalas, Olga Alexatou, Theodora Tsiouda, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Evmorfia Psara, Vasileios Bikos, Nikolaos Kavantzas, Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Antonios Dakanalis, Theofanis Vorvol
      Medical Sciences.2023; 11(4): 74.     CrossRef
    • Nutrigenomics and microbiome shaping the future of personalized medicine: a review article
      Neemat M. Kassem, Yassmin A. Abdelmegid, Mahmoud K. El-Sayed, Rana S. Sayed, Mahmoud H. Abdel-Aalla, Hebatallah A. Kassem
      Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology.2023; 21(1): 134.     CrossRef
      Silvana Barbosa SANTIAGO, Gabriela Rodrigues de SOUSA, Amanda Ferreira Paes Landim RAMOS, Gisele Aparecida FERNANDES, Maria Paula CURADO, Mônica Santiago BARBOSA
      Arquivos de Gastroenterologia.2023; 60(4): 419.     CrossRef
    • Understanding knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to dietary sodium intake in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore
      Cindy Mei Jun Chan, Borame Sue Lee Dickens, Mary Foong-Fong Chong
      Public Health Nutrition.2023; 26(12): 2802.     CrossRef
    • Emerging Trends in Metal‐based Anticancer Agents: Drug Design to Clinical Trials and their Mechanism of Action
      Achamo Temesgen, Hanabe Chowdappa Ananda Murthy, Amare Zereffa Enyew, Rajappan Revathi, Ramachandran Venkatesha Perumal
      ChemistrySelect.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Gastric Cancer Risk: Answers From Case-Control Study
      Maryam Aljumaily, Noora Al-Naimi, Rawdhah Al-Amer, Aya Hamdan, Sabika Allehdan, Tareq Al-Jaberi, Ahmad Hushki, Yaser Rayyan, Reema Tayyem
      American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Decreased expression of TRIM3 gene predicts a poor prognosis in gastric cancer
      Javad Farhadi, Ladan Goshayeshi, Alireza Motavalizadehkakhky, Jamshid Mehrzad, Hassan Mehrad-Majd
      Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer.2022; 53(1): 179.     CrossRef
    • Association between the Persistence of Obesity and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
      Joo Hyun Lim, Cheol Min Shin, Kyung-Do Han, Seung Woo Lee, Eun Hyo Jin, Yoon Jin Choi, Hyuk Yoon, Young Soo Park, Nayoung Kim, Dong Ho Lee
      Cancer Research and Treatment.2022; 54(1): 199.     CrossRef
    • Decisional balance, self-leadership, self-efficacy, planning, and stages of change in adopting exercise behaviors in patients with stomach cancer: A cross-sectional study
      Myung Kyung Lee
      European Journal of Oncology Nursing.2022; 56: 102086.     CrossRef
    • Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori
      Amnon Sonnenberg
      Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Functional polysaccharide lentinan: Role in anti-cancer therapies and management of carcinomas
      Sagar Trivedi, Krishna Patel, Veena Belgamwar, Kamlesh Wadher
      Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine.2022; 2: 100045.     CrossRef
    • Ultrasound Image-Guided Nerve Block Combined with General Anesthesia under an Artificial Intelligence Algorithm on Patients Undergoing Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer during and after Operation
      Wanqiu Fan, Liuyingzi Yang, Jing Li, Biqian Dong, Osamah Ibrahim Khalaf
      Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
    • The impact of excessive salt intake on human health
      Robert W. Hunter, Neeraj Dhaun, Matthew A. Bailey
      Nature Reviews Nephrology.2022; 18(5): 321.     CrossRef
    • Gastric epithelial histology and precancerous conditions
      Hang Yang, Wen-Juan Yang, Bing Hu
      World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology.2022; 14(2): 396.     CrossRef
    • ELP6 and PLIN5 Mutations Were Probably Prognostic Biomarkers for Patients With Gastric Cancer
      Ji Di, Yan Chai, Xin Yang, Haibin Dong, Bo Jiang, Faxiang Ji
      Frontiers in Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • H. pylori Infection and Virulence Factors cagA and vacA (s and m Regions) in Gastric Adenocarcinoma from Pará State, Brazil
      Igor Brasil-Costa, Cintya de Oliveira Souza, Leni Célia Reis Monteiro, Maria Elisabete Silva Santos, Edivaldo Herculano Correa De Oliveira, Rommel Mario Rodriguez Burbano
      Pathogens.2022; 11(4): 414.     CrossRef
    • Investigating the Prognostic Significance of Pyroptosis-Related Genes in Gastric Cancer and Their Impact on Cells’ Biological Functions
      Jie Yin, Gang Che, Wankun Wang, Shitu Chen, Jian Liu
      Frontiers in Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Epidemiology of stomach cancer
      Milena Ilic, Irena Ilic
      World Journal of Gastroenterology.2022; 28(12): 1187.     CrossRef
    • Effect of Apatinib Combined with Seggio on the Expression of Serum AFP and CA724 and Long-Term Survival Rate in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer Undergoing Comfortable Nursing Intervention
      Dawei Ren, Mi Feng, Shengmin Zhang, Yun Zhang, Ji Li, Suneet Kumar Gupta
      Journal of Healthcare Engineering.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
    • Parent Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Outcomes from the Translational ‘Time for Healthy Habits’ Trial: Secondary Outcomes from a Partially Randomized Preference Trial
      Rebecca J. Wyse, Jacklyn K. Jackson, Megan L. Hammersley, Fiona Stacey, Rachel A. Jones, Anthony Okely, Amanda Green, Sze Lin Yoong, Christophe Lecathelinais, Christine Innes-Hughes, Joe Xu, Karen Gillham, Chris Rissel
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(10): 6165.     CrossRef
    • Tea consumption and gastric cancer: a pooled analysis from the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project consortium
      Georgia Martimianaki, Gianfranco Alicandro, Claudio Pelucchi, Rossella Bonzi, Matteo Rota, Jinfu Hu, Kenneth C. Johnson, Charles S. Rabkin, Linda M. Liao, Rashmi Sinha, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Michela Dalmartello, Nuno Lunet, Samantha Morais, Domenico Palli, Moni
      British Journal of Cancer.2022; 127(4): 726.     CrossRef
    • Sex and gender disparities in patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: data from the AGAMENON-SEOM registry
      J. Gallego Plazas, A. Arias-Martinez, A. Lecumberri, E. Martínez de Castro, A. Custodio, J.M. Cano, R. Hernandez, A.F. Montes, I. Macias, A. Pieras-Lopez, M. Diez, L. Visa, R.V. Tocino, N. Martínez Lago, M.L. Limón, M. Gil, P. Pimentel, M. Mangas, M. Gran
      ESMO Open.2022; 7(3): 100514.     CrossRef
    • Vitamin D—The Nutritional Status of Post-Gastrectomy Gastric Cancer Patients—Systematic Review
      Tomasz Muszyński, Karina Polak, Aleksandra Frątczak, Bartosz Miziołek, Beata Bergler-Czop, Antoni Szczepanik
      Nutrients.2022; 14(13): 2712.     CrossRef
    • Serum Pepsinogen as a Biomarker for Gastric Cancer in the United States: A Nested Case–Control Study Using the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial Data
      Haejin In, Srawani Sarkar, Jessica Ward, Patricia Friedmann, Michael Parides, Julie Yang, Meira Epplein
      Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.2022; 31(7): 1426.     CrossRef
    • A prospective cohort study on the association between waterpipe tobacco smoking and gastric cancer mortality in Northern Vietnam
      Hung Xuan Le, Dung Thi Thuy Truong, Long Bao Tran, Phuoc Hong Le, Binh Uyen Duong Pham, Koji Wada, Shunya Ikeda, Ariuntuul Garidkhuu, Can Van Phan, Ngoan Tran Le
      BMC Cancer.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Microbiota and the Immune System—Actors in the Gastric Cancer Story
      Marek Majewski, Paulina Mertowska, Sebastian Mertowski, Konrad Smolak, Ewelina Grywalska, Kamil Torres
      Cancers.2022; 14(15): 3832.     CrossRef
    • Benefit-to-harm ratio and cost-effectiveness of government-recommended gastric cancer screening in China: A modeling study
      Shuxia Qin, Xuehong Wang, Sini Li, Chongqing Tan, Xiaohui Zeng, Meiyu Wu, Ye Peng, Liting Wang, Xiaomin Wan
      Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Machine learning: A non-invasive prediction method for gastric cancer based on a survey of lifestyle behaviors
      Siqing Jiang, Haojun Gao, Jiajin He, Jiaqi Shi, Yuling Tong, Jian Wu
      Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Effects of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Gastric Cancer Cells
      Jia Chen, Xingyu Wang, Jianlin Zhang, Jiawei Chang, Chuanjun Han, Zhouwei Xu, Hongzhu Yu, Yuvaraja Teekaraman
      Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
    • Microbial Proteins in Stomach Biopsies Associated with Gastritis, Ulcer, and Gastric Cancer
      Shahid Aziz, Faisal Rasheed, Tayyab Saeed Akhter, Rabaab Zahra, Simone König
      Molecules.2022; 27(17): 5410.     CrossRef
    • The role of bariatric and metabolic surgery in the development, diagnosis, and treatment of endometrial cancer
      Robert C. Ross, Yetunde M. Akinde, Philip R. Schauer, Carel W. le Roux, Donal Brennan, Amelia M. Jernigan, Marco Bueter, Vance L. Albaugh
      Frontiers in Surgery.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • A prognostic signature of pyroptosis-related lncRNAs verified in gastric cancer samples to predict the immunotherapy and chemotherapy drug sensitivity
      Yanan Wang, Xiaowei Chen, Fei Jiang, Yan Shen, Fujin Fang, Qiong Li, Chuanli Yang, Yu Dong, Xiaobing Shen
      Frontiers in Genetics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Prediction of gastric cancer risk by a polygenic risk score of Helicobacter pylori
      Xiao-Yu Wang, Li-Li Wang, Shu-Zhen Liang, Chao Yang, Lin Xu, Meng-Chao Yu, Yi-Xuan Wang, Quan-Jiang Dong
      World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology.2022; 14(9): 1844.     CrossRef
    • The origin of gastric cancer stem cells and their effects on gastric cancer: Novel therapeutic targets for gastric cancer
      Ying Yang, Wen-Jian Meng, Zi-Qiang Wang
      Frontiers in Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Analysis of the Preventive Action of Rivaroxaban against Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis in Patients after Laparoscopic Radical Gastrectomy
      Qinhui Dong, Xiayin Zhu, Yafen Gao, Zhengrong Wang, Dexing Zheng, Jian Zhu, Pan Zheng
      Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
    • LASTR is a novel prognostic biomarker and predicts response to cancer immunotherapy in gastric cancer
      Jun-Yan Liu, Jing Yao, Jia-Jia Liu, Tao He, Fang-Jie Wang, Tian-Yu Xie, Jian-Xin Cui, Xiao-Dong Yang
      Frontiers in Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Diet and carcinogenesis of gastric cancer
      Gautam Maddineni, Jesse J. Xie, Bhaumik Brahmbhatt, Pritesh Mutha
      Current Opinion in Gastroenterology.2022; 38(6): 588.     CrossRef
    • The stomach cancer prognosis map is the basis for the formation of a register of patients with precancerous diseases
      A. Yu. Baranovsky, T. L. Tsvetkova
      Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology.2022; (9): 39.     CrossRef
    • A Survey on the Actual Use of and Reasons for Heated Tobacco Products in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
      Hisaaki Isaji, Kiyofumi Yamada
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(19): 12465.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence of Her2-neu status and its clinicopathological association in newly diagnosed gastric cancer patients
      Joseph Kattan, Fady el Karak, Fadi Farhat, Dany Abi Gerges, Walid Mokaddem, Georges Chahine, Saad Khairallah, Najla Fakhruddin, Jawad Makarem, Fadi Nasr
      BMC Cancer.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Topical issues of prevention of stomach cancer: A review
      Yury P. Uspenskiy, Natalia V. Baryshnikova, Alexey A. Krasnov, Sergey V. Petlenko, Vera A. Apryatina
      Consilium Medicum.2022; 24(5): 358.     CrossRef
    • Helicobacter pylori-Positive Gastric Biopsies—Association with Clinical Predictors
      Anca Negovan, Andreea-Raluca Szőke, Simona Mocan, Claudia Bănescu
      Life.2022; 12(11): 1789.     CrossRef
    • Meat Intake, Cooking Methods, Doneness Preferences and Risk of Gastric Adenocarcinoma in the MCC-Spain Study
      Elena Boldo, Nerea Fernández de Larrea, Marina Pollán, Vicente Martín, Mireia Obón-Santacana, Marcela Guevara, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Jose María Canga, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Inés Gómez-Acebo, Guillermo Fernández-Tardón, Mercedes Vanaclocha-Espi, Rocío Olme
      Nutrients.2022; 14(22): 4852.     CrossRef
    • The Regulatory Network of Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis and Its Potential Therapeutic Active Ingredients of Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on Bioinformatics, Molecular Docking, and Molecular Dynamics Simulation
      Peng Yang, Peng Liu, Junmao Li, Mohammad Jahoor Alam
      Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
    • IL-17 Receptor Signaling through IL-17A or IL-17F Is Sufficient to Maintain Innate Response and Control of Helicobacter pylori Immunopathogenesis
      Beverly R. E. A. Dixon, Tiffany J. Lee, Diana C. Contreras Healey, Jing Li, Jeremy A. Goettel, M. Blanca Piazuelo, Holly M. Scott Algood
      ImmunoHorizons.2022; 6(2): 116.     CrossRef
    • Gastric cancer risk is reduced by a predominance of antioxidant factors in the oxidative balance: a hospital-based case-control study in Korea
      Jimi Kim, Jeonghee Lee, Il Ju Choi, Young-Il Kim, Jeongseon Kim
      Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022089.     CrossRef
    • Coffee consumption and gastric cancer: a pooled analysis from the Stomach cancer Pooling Project consortium
      Georgia Martimianaki, Paola Bertuccio, Gianfranco Alicandro, Claudio Pelucchi, Francesca Bravi, Greta Carioli, Rossella Bonzi, Charles S. Rabkin, Linda M. Liao, Rashmi Sinha, Ken Johnson, Jinfu Hu, Domenico Palli, Monica Ferraroni, Nuno Lunet, Samantha Mo
      European Journal of Cancer Prevention.2022; 31(2): 117.     CrossRef
    • Hydrogen inhibits the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells by modulating lncRNA MALAT1/miR-124-3p/EZH2 axis
      Baocheng Zhu, Hengguan Cui, Weiqiang Xu
      Cancer Cell International.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Diet and cancer of the esophagus and stomach
      Shu Wen Tay, James Weiquan Li, Kwong Ming Fock
      Current Opinion in Gastroenterology.2021; 37(2): 158.     CrossRef
    • Gastric Cancer Risk Prediction Using an Epidemiological Risk Assessment Model and Polygenic Risk Score
      Boyoung Park, Sarah Yang, Jeonghee Lee, Il Ju Choi, Young-Il Kim, Jeongseon Kim
      Cancers.2021; 13(4): 876.     CrossRef
    • Transcriptome Analysis of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue from Severely Obese Patients Highlights Deregulation Profiles in Coding and Non-Coding Oncogenes
      Federica Rey, Letizia Messa, Cecilia Pandini, Rossella Launi, Bianca Barzaghini, Giancarlo Micheletto, Manuela Teresa Raimondi, Simona Bertoli, Cristina Cereda, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Raffaella Cancello, Stephana Carelli
      International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2021; 22(4): 1989.     CrossRef
    • Risk of gastric cancer in the environs of industrial facilities in the MCC-Spain study
      Javier García-Pérez, Virginia Lope, Nerea Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Antonio J. Molina, Adonina Tardón, Juan Alguacil, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Víctor Moreno, Marcela Guevara, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, José J. Jiménez-Moleón, Inés Gómez-Acebo, Ana Molina-Barceló,
      Environmental Pollution.2021; 278: 116854.     CrossRef
    • Factors Related to Lacking Knowledge on the Recommended Daily Salt Intake among Medical Professionals in Mongolia: A Cross-Sectional Study
      Naoko Hikita, Enkhtungalag Batsaikhan, Satoshi Sasaki, Megumi Haruna, Ariunaa Yura, Otgontogoo Oidovsuren
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(8): 3850.     CrossRef
    • A Physically Active Status Affects the Circulating Profile of Cancer-Associated miRNAs
      Martina Faraldi, Laura Gerosa, Marta Gomarasca, Veronica Sansoni, Silvia Perego, Ewa Ziemann, Giuseppe Banfi, Giovanni Lombardi
      Diagnostics.2021; 11(5): 820.     CrossRef
    • Association between obesity and the risk of gastric cancer in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: A nationwide cohort study
      In Young Choi, Yoon Jin Choi, Dong Wook Shin, Kyung Do Han, Keun Hye Jeon, Su‐Min Jeong, Jung Eun Yoo
      Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.2021; 36(10): 2834.     CrossRef
    • Dose–Effect Relationship Between Gastric Cancer and Common Digestive Tract Symptoms and Diagnoses in Anhui, China
      Mengsha Tang, Xingrong Shen, Jing Chai, Jing Cheng, Debin Wang
      Cancer Management and Research.2021; Volume 13: 4955.     CrossRef
    • Metaplot: A new Stata module for assessing heterogeneity in a meta-analysis
      Jalal Poorolajal, Shahla Noornejad, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
      PLOS ONE.2021; 16(6): e0253341.     CrossRef
    • NF-κB in Gastric Cancer Development and Therapy
      Supattra Chaithongyot, Phatcharida Jantaree, Olga Sokolova, Michael Naumann
      Biomedicines.2021; 9(8): 870.     CrossRef
    • Does coffee, tea and caffeine consumption reduce the risk of incident breast cancer? A systematic review and network meta-analysis
      Shu Wang, Xiang Li, Yue Yang, Jingping Xie, Mingyue Liu, Ya Zhang, Yingshi Zhang, Qingchun Zhao
      Public Health Nutrition.2021; 24(18): 6377.     CrossRef
    • Risk factors for gastric cancer: a large-scale, population-based case-control study
      Rui Zhang, He Li, Ni Li, Ju-Fang Shi, Jiang Li, Hong-Da Chen, Yi-Wen Yu, Chao Qin, Jian-Song Ren, Wan-Qing Chen, Jie He
      Chinese Medical Journal.2021; 134(16): 1952.     CrossRef
    • Gastric cancer mortality related to direct radiographic and endoscopic screening: A retrospective study
      Hiroaki Hagiwara, Fumitaka Moki, Yukiko Yamashita, Kazuki Saji, Keigo Iesaki, Hiromitsu Suda
      World Journal of Gastroenterology.2021; 27(33): 5595.     CrossRef
    • Factores de riesgo para cáncer gástrico: ¿cuál es su papel?
      Ricardo Oliveros Wilches, Helena Facundo Navia, Ana Deise Bonilla Castañeda, Raúl Eduardo Pinilla Morales
      Revista colombiana de Gastroenterología.2021; 36(3): 366.     CrossRef
    • Development and External Validation of a Nomogram for Predicting Overall Survival in Stomach Cancer: A Population-Based Study
      Haonan Ji, Huita Wu, Yu Du, Li Xiao, Yiqin Zhang, Qiuhua Zhang, Xin Wang, Wenfeng Wang, Nahrizul Adib Kadri
      Journal of Healthcare Engineering.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
    • Fruit consumption and multiple health outcomes: An umbrella review
      Liuqiao Sun, Xiaoping Liang, Yaoyao Wang, Sui Zhu, Qian Ou, Hang Xu, Fangyuan Li, Xuying Tan, Zhiwei Lai, Liuzhen Pu, Xingyi Chen, Jun Wei, Feng Wu, Huilian Zhu, Lijun Wang
      Trends in Food Science & Technology.2021; 118: 505.     CrossRef
    • Testing and Treating Helicobacter pylori Infection in Individuals With Family History of Gastric Cancer is Cost-effective
      Sheila D. Rustgi, Aaron Oh, Chin Hur
      Gastroenterology.2021; 161(6): 2051.     CrossRef
    • Factors for the Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
      Jalal Poorolajal, Fatemeh Heidarimoghis, Manoochehr Karami, Zahra Cheraghi, Fatemeh Gohari-Ensaf, Fatemeh Shahbazi, Bushra Zareie, Pegah Ameri, Fatemeh Sahraei
      Journal of Research in Health Sciences.2021; 21(3): e00520.     CrossRef
    • Risk Prediction for Gastric Cancer Using GWAS-Identifie Polymorphisms, Helicobacter pylori Infection and Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors in a Japanese Population
      Naoyo Ishikura, Hidemi Ito, Isao Oze, Yuriko N. Koyanagi, Yumiko Kasugai, Yukari Taniyama, Yukino Kawakatsu, Tsutomu Tanaka, Seiji Ito, Masahiro Tajika, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Yasumasa Niwa, Keitaro Matsuo
      Cancers.2021; 13(21): 5525.     CrossRef
    • Long noncoding RNA NR2F1-AS1 plays a carcinogenic role in gastric cancer by recruiting transcriptional factor SPI1 to upregulate ST8SIA1 expression
      Fang Zuo, Yong Zhang, Jianting Li, Shaoxiang Yang, Xiaolu Chen
      Bioengineered.2021; 12(2): 12345.     CrossRef
    • Histórico familiar de câncer gástrico em pacientes dispépticos indicados à triagem endoscópica
      Maria Carolina Pereira Rodrigues, Victor Pereira Lima, Flavia Ferreira Monari, Roberta de Araújo e Silva, Liana Mara Rocha Teles, Eveline Pinheiro Beserra, Maria Alzete de Lima, Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira Serra
      Acta Paulista de Enfermagem.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Contributing factors common to COVID‑19 and gastrointestinal cancer
      Ronald Kostoff, Michael Briggs, Darja Kanduc, Darla Shores, Leda Kovatsi, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Alan Porter, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Demetrios Spandidos
      Oncology Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Perfil de citocinas Th1, Th2, Th17 y otras citocinas pro inflamatorias (IL-1β, IL-6 y TNFα) en el plasma de pacientes con cáncer gástrico
      Carmen Villagran, Rafael Fernández-Botrán, Elisa Hernandez, Federico Nave, Irmgardt A. Wellmann, Jose F. Muñoz-Valle
      Ciencia, Tecnologí­a y Salud.2021; 8(2): 166.     CrossRef
      E. S. Gershtein, N. A. Ognerubov, V. L. Chang, V. V. Delektorskaya, E. A. Korotkova, N. Yu. Sokolov, S. B. Polikarpova, I. S. Stilidi, Nikolay Evgenievich Kushlinskii
      Russian Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics.2020; 65(6): 347.     CrossRef
    • Gastric carcinoma: Insights into risk factors, methods of diagnosis, possible lines of management, and the role of primary care
      AliyahM Marghalani, ThekraO Bin Salman, FawazJ Faqeeh, MohammedK Asiri, AhmedM Kabel
      Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care.2020; 9(6): 2659.     CrossRef
    • Progress in cancer mortality, incidence, and survival: a global overview
      Claudia Santucci, Greta Carioli, Paola Bertuccio, Matteo Malvezzi, Ugo Pastorino, Paolo Boffetta, Eva Negri, Cristina Bosetti, Carlo La Vecchia
      European Journal of Cancer Prevention.2020; 29(5): 367.     CrossRef
    • Pathways of Gastric Carcinogenesis, Helicobacter pylori Virulence and Interactions with Antioxidant Systems, Vitamin C and Phytochemicals
      James W. T. Toh, Robert B. Wilson
      International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2020; 21(17): 6451.     CrossRef
    • Alterations in Gastric Microbial Communities Are Associated with Risk of Gastric Cancer in a Korean Population: A Case-Control Study
      Madhawa Gunathilake, Jeonghee Lee, Il Ju Choi, Young-Il Kim, Jaekyung Yoon, Woo Jun Sul, Jihyun F. Kim, Jeongseon Kim
      Cancers.2020; 12(9): 2619.     CrossRef
    • Identification of Key Genes in Gastric Cancer by Bioinformatics Analysis
      Xinyu Chong, Rui Peng, Yan Sun, Luyu Zhang, Zheng Zhang
      BioMed Research International.2020; 2020: 1.     CrossRef
    • Anti-Cancer Effects of Green Tea Epigallocatchin-3-Gallate and Coffee Chlorogenic Acid
      Sumio Hayakawa, Tomokazu Ohishi, Noriyuki Miyoshi, Yumiko Oishi, Yoriyuki Nakamura, Mamoru Isemura
      Molecules.2020; 25(19): 4553.     CrossRef
    • Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals an Association Between Cancer Cell Stemness, Gene Mutations, and the Immune Microenvironment in Stomach Adenocarcinoma
      Zaisheng Ye, Miao Zheng, Yi Zeng, Shenghong Wei, Yi Wang, Zhitao Lin, Chen Shu, Yunqing Xie, Qiuhong Zheng, Luchuan Chen
      Frontiers in Genetics.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef

    Related articles

    Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health