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No association between genetically predicted C-reactive protein levels and colorectal cancer survival in Korean: two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis
Chang Kyun Choi, Jung-Ho Yang, Min-Ho Shin, Sang-Hee Cho, Sun-Seog Kweon
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023039.   Published online March 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023039
  • 5,289 View
  • 168 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as a poor prognosis, but it remains unclear whether these associations are causal. This study examined the potential causality between CRP levels and CRC survival using 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).
METHODS
From the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a genome-wide association study (n=59,605), 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to log2-transformed CRP levels were extracted as instrumental variables for CRP levels. The associations between the genetically predicted CRP and CRC-specific and overall mortality among CRC patients (n=6,460) were evaluated by Aalen’s additive hazard model. The sensitivity analysis excluded a SNP related to the blood lipid profile.
RESULTS
During a median of 8.5 years of follow-up, among 6,460 CRC patients, 2,676 (41.4%) CRC patients died from all causes and 1,622 (25.1%) died from CRC. Genetically predicted CRP levels were not significantly associated with overall or CRC-specific mortality in CRC patients. The hazard difference per 1,000 person-years for overall and CRC-specific mortality per 2-fold increase in CRP levels was -2.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], -14.05 to 8.21) and -0.76 (95% CI, -9.61 to 8.08), respectively. These associations were consistent in a subgroup analysis according to metastasis and a sensitivity analysis excluding possible pleiotropic SNPs.
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings do not support a causal role for genetically predisposed CRP levels in CRC survival.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR)을 이용하여 대장암에서 C-reactive protein와 사망률 간의 관련성을 평가하였다. Two-sample MR은 한국유전체역학조사사업 (the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, KoGES) 참가자 59,605명에서 혈청 C-reactive protein에 대한 전장유전체 분석을 시행하여 7개의 단일염기다형성을 선별하였고, 화순암역학연구-대장암 (thw Hwasun Cancer Epidemiology Study-Colon and Rectum Cancer, HCES-CRC)에 등록된 6,460명 대장암 환자에서 그 7개 단일염기다형성과 사망률 간의 관련성을 평가한 결과를 이용하였다. 그 결과, 높은 혈청 C-reactive protein을 가지는 유전적 성향은 대장암 환자에서 사망률과의 통계적으로 유의한 관련성을 찾을 수 없었다.
Key Message
This study employed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to investigate the relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and mortality in colorectal cancer. The analysis utilized genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) data from 59,605 participants in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) for serum CRP and 6,460 colorectal cancer cases from the Hwasun Cancer Epidemiology Study-Colon and Rectum Cancer for mortality. Our findings suggest that there is no statistically significant association between genetically predisposed serum CRP levels and mortality. Consequently, our study does not support a causal effect of CRP on mortality in colorectal cancer.

Citations

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  • Mortality risk among adult americans living with cancer and elevated CRP
    Srikanta Banerjee, Jagdish Khubchandani, Shalika Tisinger, Kavita Batra, Maribeth Greenway
    Cancer Epidemiology.2024; 90: 102569.     CrossRef
Effect of Pap smears on the long-term survival of cervical cancer patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Korea
Xuan Quy Luu, Kyeongmin Lee, Jae Kwan Jun, Mina Suh, kyu-won Jung, Myong Cheol Lim, Kui Son Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022072.   Published online September 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022072
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to investigate the effect of cervical cancer screening by Papanicolaou (Pap) smears on the long-term survival of cervical cancer patients.
METHODS
We constructed a retrospective cohort of 14,903 women diagnosed with invasive cancer or carcinoma in situ in 2008 and 2009 and followed up until December 31, 2019, by using individual-level data from 3 national databases of the Korean National Cancer Screening Program, the Korean Central Cancer Registry, and death certificates. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of cervical cancer screening on mortality.
RESULTS
In total, 12,987 out of 14,867 patients (87.4%) were alive at the end of the follow-up period (median: 10.5 years). Screened patients had a 38% lower risk of cervical cancer death than never-screened patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.70). Screening was associated with 59% and 35% lower risks of death, respectively, in screened patients with localized and regional stages. Furthermore, lower HRs among women who received screening were observed in all age groups, especially women aged 50–59 years (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.69). The lowest HR for cervical cancer death was reported among patients screened within the past 2 years (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.63), and the HRs increased with increasing time intervals.
CONCLUSIONS
Pap smear screening significantly reduced the risk of cervical cancer-specific death in Korean women across all cancer stages.
Summary
Korean summary
한국은 자궁경부암 발생과 사망을 낮추기 위하여 국가암검진사업으로 자궁경부암 검진을 실시하고 있다. 이 연구는 2008-2009년 자궁경부암 진단을 받은 30세-79세 14,903명을 대상으로 과거 자궁경부세포검진 여부에 따른 장기생존율을 추적 조사하였다. 그 결과 자궁경부암 검진을 받은 환자에서 사망 위험비가 약 38% 낮았으며, 2년 이내에 검진을 받은 환자군에서 사망 위험이 가장 낮았다.
Key Message
The Korean National Cancer Screening Program (KNCSP) has provided cervical cancer screening by Pap smear test. However, the survival, particularly long-term survival of cervical cancer patients, has never been evaluated in the KNCSP. This study reports a significant improvement in the long-term survival of screened cervical cancer patients, which persist in subgroup analysis by cancer stage. Patients who were screened within two years before the diagnosis had the best survival.
Income-based disparities in the risk of distant-stage cervical cancer and 5-year mortality after the introduction of a National Cancer Screening Program in Korea
Erdenetuya Bolormaa, Seung-Ah Choe, Mia Son, Myung Ki, Domyung Paek
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022066.   Published online August 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022066
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  • 3 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study assessed the socioeconomic gradient in the risk of distant-stage cervical cancer (CC) at presentation and 5-year mortality for new CC patients after the introduction of a national Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in Korea.
METHODS
All new CC cases from 2007 to 2017 were retrieved from the Korea Central Cancer Registry database linked with the National Health Information Database of the National Health Insurance Service. The age-standardized cumulative incidence of CC, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of distant metastasis at presentation, and adjusted all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HRs) within 5 years post-diagnosis were assessed according to the income gradient.
RESULTS
The 11-year age-standardized cumulative incidence of CC ranged from 48.9 to 381.5 per 100,000 women, with the richest quintile having the highest incidence. Of 31,391 new cases, 8.6% had distant metastasis on presentation, which was most frequent among Medical Aid beneficiaries (9.9%). Distant-stage CC was more likely when the income level was lower (OR, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]), 1.28 to 1.67 for the lowest compared to the richest) and among Medical Aid beneficiaries (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.82). The 5-year mortality was greater in the lower-income quintiles and Medical Aid beneficiaries than in the richest quintile.
CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of CC was higher in the richest quintile than in the lower income quintiles, while the risk of distant-stage CC and mortality was higher for women in lower income quintiles in the context of the NCSP. A more focused approach is needed to further alleviate disparities in the timely diagnosis and treatment of CC.
Summary
Korean summary
새로이 자궁경부암을 진단받은 여성에서 소득수준에 따른 진단시 원격 전이가 있을 위험도와 진단 이후 5년 사망위험도를 연령과 체질량 지수등의 개인 수준의 위험 요인을 보정하여 구했다. 소득 수준이 낮을수록, 의료급여 환자일수록 진단시 원격 전이가 있을 위험과 5년 내 사망 위험이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 자궁경부암에 대한 전국민 대상 선별 검사가 있지만 여전히 소득 수준에 따른 자궁경부암의 적시 진단과 진단 후 생존의 불평등이 남아 있으며 이에 대한 추가 정책이 필요하다.
Key Message
This study adds empirical evidence for an income-based disparity in the cancer stage at presentation and five-year survival among cervical cancer patients even in the presence of a universal screening program.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Individual and joint effect of socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors on cancer in Korea
    Chi Lan Tran, Kui Son Choi, Sun‐Young Kim, Jin‐Kyoung Oh
    Cancer Medicine.2023; 12(16): 17389.     CrossRef
  • Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of dementia: health insurance database in South Korea-based retrospective cohort study
    Jin-Sung Yuk, Jin San Lee, Joong Hyun Park
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Disparities in Cancer Incidence across Income Levels in South Korea
    Su-Min Jeong, Kyu-Won Jung, Juwon Park, Nayeon Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Mina Suh
    Cancers.2023; 15(24): 5898.     CrossRef
The probability of diagnostic delays for tuberculosis and its associated risk factors in northwest Iran from 2005 to 2016: a survival analysis using tuberculosis surveillance data
Reza Ebrahimoghli, Hassan Ghobadi, Davoud Adham, Parviz Jangi, Abbas Abbasi-Ghahramanloo, Eslam Moradi-Asl
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022060.   Published online July 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022060
  • 7,120 View
  • 273 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Early diagnosis is essential for effective tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Therefore, this study examined the risk of delays in TB diagnosis and associated factors in Ardabil Province in northwest Iran from 2005 to 2016.
METHODS
This longitudinal retrospective cohort study was conducted using data obtained from the Iranian National Tuberculosis Control Program at the provincial level between 2005 and 2016. The total delay in diagnosis was defined as the time interval (days) between the onset of symptoms and TB diagnosis. Survival analysis was conducted to analyze the delay in diagnosis. Associated factors were identified using a Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS
A total of 1,367 new TB cases were identified. The 12-year median diagnostic delay was 45 days (interquartile range [IQR], 30-87). The annual median diagnostic delay decreased from 68 days (IQR, 33-131) in 2005 to 31 days (IQR, 30-62) in 2016. The probability of a delay in TB diagnosis decreased by 5.0% each year (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.07). Residence in a non-capital county (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.92) and referral from the private health system (HR, 0.74%; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.84) were significantly associated with an increased risk of delay in TB diagnosis over the 12-year study period.
CONCLUSIONS
The median delay decreased during the study period. We identified factors associated with a longer delay in TB diagnosis. These findings may be useful for further TB control plans and policies in Iran.
Summary
Key Message
A longitudinal analysis of tuberculosis surveillance data from northwest Iran showed that during the 12-year period from 2005 to 2016, a total of 1,367 tuberculosis cases were registered, of whom 942 patients had a prolonged diagnostic delay (>30 days) and the probability of a delay in tuberculosis diagnosis decreased by 5.0% each year.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Assessing heterogeneity of patient and health system delay among TB in a population with internal migrants in China
    Ruoyao Sun, Zheyuan Wu, Hongyin Zhang, Jinrong Huang, Yueting Liu, Meiru Chen, Yixiao Lv, Fei Zhao, Yangyi Zhang, Minjuan Li, Jiaqi Yan, Hongbing Jiang, Yiqiang Zhan, Jimin Xu, Yanzi Xu, Jianhui Yuan, Yang Zhao, Xin Shen, Chongguang Yang
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Patterns and predictors of smoking relapse among inpatient smoking intervention participants: a 1-year follow-up study in Korea
Seung Eun Lee, Chul-Woung Kim, Hyo-Bin Im, Myungwha Jang
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021043.   Published online June 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021043
  • 11,124 View
  • 416 Download
  • 12 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to identify relapse patterns in smokers who participated in an inpatient treatment program and to investigate factors related to relapse.
METHODS
The participants comprised 463 smokers who participated in an inpatient treatment operated by the Daejeon Tobacco Control Center from 2015 to 2018. Participants received high-intensity smoking cessation intervention for 5 consecutive days, including pharmacotherapy and behavioral support, and continued with follow-up for 1 year to determine whether they maintained smoking cessation after discharge from inpatient treatment. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis.
RESULTS
Participants’ relapse rate within 1 year was 72.8%, and 59.8% of participants smoked again within 6 months after participation. A higher number of counseling sessions was significantly associated with a lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.32 for ≥9 vs. ≤5 counseling sessions). Conversely, higher relapse rates were significantly associated with the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.43 to 2.55 for use vs. no use), and higher levels of baseline expired carbon monoxide (CO) (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.06 for expired CO concentrations of 10-19 ppm vs. expired CO concentrations <10 ppm).
CONCLUSIONS
High-intensity smoking cessation interventions in hospital settings can be effective for smoking cessation in smokers with high nicotine dependence. In addition, the results suggest that for quitters to maintain long-term abstinence, they should receive regular follow-up counseling for 1 year after completing a high-intensity smoking cessation intervention.
Summary
Korean summary
• 한국은 국가금연정책의 일환으로 중증고도흡연자를 위해 고강도의 입원형 금연 중재 프로그램을 운영하고 있다. • 고강도 금연 중재를 받은 후 첫 6개월은 재흡연이 가장 빈번히 일어나는 시기였다. • 장기 금연을 유지하기 위해서는 고강도 금연 중재 후에도 1년간 지속적인 추후 상담이 이루어져야 한다.
Key Message
• South Korea operates a high-intensity inpatient treatment program for heavy smokers. • Relapse typically occurred in the first 6 months after completing the intervention. • Continuous 1 year follow-up counseling is important for long-term abstinence.

Citations

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  • Residential Treatment Exclusively for Tobacco Use Disorder: A Narrative Review
    Symen Kornelis Spoelstra, Robert C. van de Graaf, Arie Dijkstra
    Journal of Addiction Medicine.2024; 18(1): 33.     CrossRef
  • Experiences with smoking habits and the need for cessation among habitual smokers in Japan: a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews
    Kae Shiratani, Junko Shimasawa, Mayumi Mizutani
    BMC Primary Care.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Neurobiology of Stress-Induced Nicotine Relapse
    Xinyu Wang, Yun Chen, Jing Dong, Jing Ge, Xiaoliu Liu, Jianfeng Liu
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(3): 1482.     CrossRef
  • Tobacco control in Qatar from 2002 to 2022: 20 years of progress and challenges
    Mohamed Ghaith Al-Kuwari, Abdulhmeed Ahmad Al-Khenji, Wadha Ahmad Al-Baker, Mohamed Osman Bala
    Journal of Public Health Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Impact of Military Tobacco Control Policy: A Systematic Review
    Muhamad Arham Bin Hashim, Khairul Fikri Bin Sebri, Muhammad Faiz Bin Mohd Hanim, Diyana Shereen Binti Anwar, Nawwal Alwani Binti Mohd Radzi, Ahmad Farhan Bin Ahmad Fuad, Budi Aslinie Binti Md Sabri
    Military Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Applicability of machine learning algorithm to predict the therapeutic intervention success in Brazilian smokers
    Miyoko Massago, Mamoru Massago, Pedro Henrique Iora, Sanderland José Tavares Gurgel, Celso Ivam Conegero, Idalina Diair Regla Carolino, Maria Muzanila Mushi, Giane Aparecida Chaves Forato, João Vitor Perez de Souza, Thiago Augusto Hernandes Rocha, Samile
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(3): e0295970.     CrossRef
  • How a 5-Day Stay in the Tobacco-Free Environment of the Stoptober House Supports Individuals to Quit Smoking: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study
    Floor A. Van den Brand, Thomas Martinelli, Charlotte I. de Haan-Bouma, Gert-Jan Meerkerk, Bjorn Winkens, Gera E. Nagelhout
    European Addiction Research.2024; 30(2): 103.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Risk Score to Predict Short-term Smoking Relapse Following an Inpatient Smoking Cessation Intervention
    Hwang Sik Shin, Yoon Hyung Park, Sung Soo Lee, Yong Jin Cho, Jun Tack Kwon, Youngs Chang, Mee-Ri Lee, Young Hwangbo
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2024; 36(4): 329.     CrossRef
  • Attitudes and influencing factors associated with smoking cessation: An online cross-sectional survey in China
    Jian-Hua Wang, Yu-Feng Yang, Shi-Lei Zhao, Hai-Tao Liu, Lei Xiao, Li Sun, Xi Wu, Dong-Chao Yuan, Li-Yao Ma, Bao-Zhao Ju, Jian-Ping Liu
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2023; 21(June): 1.     CrossRef
  • The smoking and vaping model, A user-friendly model for examining the country-specific impact of nicotine VAPING product use: application to Germany
    Luz María Sánchez-Romero, Alex C. Liber, Yameng Li, Zhe Yuan, Jamie Tam, Nargiz Travis, Jihyoun Jeon, Mona Issabakhsh, Rafael Meza, David T. Levy
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors Related to Smoking Relapse Within Six-Months of Smoking Cessation Among Inpatients
    Ji Eun Bae, Chul-Woung Kim, Seung Eun Lee, Myungwha Jang
    Research in Community and Public Health Nursing.2023; 34: 307.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with long-term smoking relapse in those who succeeded in smoking cessation using regional smoking cessation programs
    Seung Hun Lee, Yu Hyeon Yi, Young In Lee, Hyo Young Lee, Kyoung-Min Lim
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Health Statistics
A comparison of breast cancer survival across different age groups: a multicentric database study in Penang, Malaysia
King Fang Tan, Farzaana Adam, Hasmah Hussin, Noor Mastura Mohd Mujar
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021038.   Published online May 25, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021038
  • 14,001 View
  • 380 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
This study compared breast cancer survival and the prognostic factors across different age groups of women in Penang, Malaysia. Data on 2,166 women with breast cancer who had been diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 were extracted from the Penang Breast Cancer Registry and stratified into 3 age groups: young (< 40 years old), middle-aged (40-59 years old), and elderly (≥ 60 years). The overall and relative survival rates were calculated using the life table method, median survival time was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons between groups were conducted using the log-rank test. Prognostic factors were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model. The 5-year overall and breast cancer-specific survival rates for women with breast cancer in Penang were 72.9% and 75.2%, with a mean survival time of 92.5 months and 95.1 months, respectively. The 5-year breast cancer-specific survival rates for young, middle-aged, and elderly women were 74.9%, 77.8%, and 71.4%, respectively, with a mean survival time of 95.7 months, 97.5 months, and 91.2 months. There was a significant difference in breast cancer survival between age groups, with elderly women showing the lowest survival rate, followed by young and middle-aged women. Disease stage was the most prominent prognostic factor for all age groups. Survival rates and prognostic factors differed according to age group. Treatment planning for breast cancer patients should be age-specific to promote better cancer care and survival.
Summary
Key Message
The relationship between breast cancer survival and age at diagnosis has been explored, but information between survival at different age groups remains unclear, in addition to conflicting study results. This multicentre study was conducted to compare breast cancer survival across different age groups in an Asian setting.

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  • Illuminating the breast cancer survival rates among Southeast Asian women: A systematic review and meta-analysis spanning four decades
    Duc Tran Quang, Thanh Luong Thi, Khanh Nguyen Di, Chi Vu Thi Quynh, Huyen Nguyen Thi Hoa, Quang Phan Ngoc
    Current Problems in Cancer.2024; 48: 101062.     CrossRef
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    Han Lei, Baojie Hua, Yingying Mao, Wei Cui, Caiping Mao, Shaoxue Yang, Jiayu Li
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    Tingting Cai, Tingting Zhou, Qingmei Huang, Fulei Wu, Feixia Ni, Changrong Yuan
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    Jun Lu, Pinbo Liu, Ran Zhang
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    Mohd Nasrullah Nik Ab Kadir, Najib Majdi Yaacob, Siti Norbayah Yusof, Imi Sairi Ab Hadi, Kamarul Imran Musa, Seoparjoo Azmel Mohd Isa, Balqis Bahtiar, Farzaana Adam, Maya Mazuwin Yahya, Suhaily Mohd Hairon
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Original Articles
Factors associated with in-hospital death in patients with nosocomial infections: a registry-based study using community data in western Iran
Salman Khazaei, Erfan Ayubi, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Masud Shojaeian, Leili Tapak
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020037.   Published online June 1, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020037
  • 13,881 View
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  • 2 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Objectives
Determining the predictors of in-hospital death related to nosocomial infections is an essential part of efforts made in the overall health system to improve the delivery of health care to patients. Therefore, this study investigated the predictors of in-hospital death related to nosocomial infections.
Methods
This registry-based, longitudinal study analyzed data on 8,895 hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in Hamadan Province, Iran from March 2017 to December 2019. The medical records of all patients who had been admitted to the hospitals were extracted from the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Software. The effects of the type and site of infection, as well as age group, on in-hospital death were estimated using univariate and multivariable Cox regression models.
Results
In total, 4,232 (47.8%) patients with HAIs were males, and their mean age was 48.25±26.22 years. In both sexes, most nosocomial infections involved Gram-negative bacteria and the most common site of infection was the urinary tract. Older patients had a higher risk of in-hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 3.69 for males; aHR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.62 for females). In both sexes, compared with urinary tract infections, an increased risk of in-hospital death was found for ventilator-associated events (VAEs) (by 95% for males and 93% for females) and bloodstream infections (BSIs) (by 67% for males and 82% for females).
Conclusion
We found that VAEs, BSIs, and fungal infections were independently and strongly associated with increased mortality.
Summary

Citations

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The survival rate of patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia and its trends in recent years in Iran
Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Hossein Ali Adineh, Iraj Zareban, Mehdi Mohammadi, Mahtab Maghsoodlu
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018048.   Published online October 3, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018048
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  • 286 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Thalassemia is a common genetic disease in Iran, especially in the north and south of Iran. The present study sought to determine the survival rate of patients with thalassemia in highly endemic regions of Iran and its variation in patients born before and after 1971.
METHODS
The present historical cohort study extracted data from the health records of patients with beta-thalassemia major, beta-thalassemia intermedia, and sickle beta-thalassemia who had presented to thalassemia treatment centers in the past years. The collected data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier test, the log-rank test, and the chi-square test.
RESULTS
Of the total of 5,491 medical records (2,647 men and 2,634 women; mean age, 23.81±11.32 years), 3,936 belonged to patients with beta-thalassemia major, and 999 and 89 to patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia and sickle beta-thalassemia, respectively. In 467 cases, the type of thalassemia was not clear. The cumulative survival rate was calculated as 0.92, 0.83, 0.74, and 0.51 by ages 25, 35, 45, and 55, respectively. The hazard ratio of death was 4.22 (p<0.05) for beta-thalassemia major and 0.77 for beta-thalassemia intermedia (p=0.70). It was calculated as 1.45 for men patients and as 3.82 for single patients.
CONCLUSIONS
The present study showed relatively high survival rates in patients with thalassemia. The survival of patients was unfavorable in poorer regions (Zahedan and Iranshahr). Factors including women gender, a higher level of education, being married, and living in metropolises decreased the risk of death at younger ages and improved survival.
Summary

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    Michael Angastiniotis
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    Kunapa Iam-arunthai, Tawatchai Suwanban, Pravinwan Thungthong, Supat Chamnanchanunt, Suthat Fucharoen
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    Nursing Open.2023; 10(4): 2329.     CrossRef
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    Soteris Soteriades, Michael Angastiniotis, Dimitrios Farmakis, Androulla Eleftheriou, Aurelio Maggio
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Application of a non-parametric non-mixture cure rate model for analyzing the survival of patients with colorectal cancer in Iran
Mehdi Azizmohammad Looha, Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Maryam Nasserinejad, Hadis Najafimehr, Mohammad Reza Zali
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018045.   Published online September 17, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018045
  • 10,880 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are considered to have been cured when the mortality rate of individuals with the disease returns to the same level as expected in the general population. This study aimed to assess the impact of various risk factors on the cure fraction of CRC patients using a real dataset of Iranian CRC patients with a non-mixture non-parametric cure model.
METHODS
This study was conducted on the medical records of 512 patients who were definitively diagnosed with CRC at Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 2001 to 2007. A non-mixture non-parametric cure rate model was applied to the data after using stepwise selection to identify the risk factors of CRC.
RESULTS
For non-cured cases, the mean survival time was 1,243.83 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1,174.65 to 1,313.00) and the median survival time was 1,493.00 days (95% CI, 1,398.67 to 1,587.33). The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 92.9% (95% CI, 91.0 to 95.0) and 73.4% (95% CI, 68.0 to 79.0), respectively. Pathologic stage T1 of the primary tumor (estimate=0.58; p=0.013), a poorly differentiated tumor (estimate=1.17; p<0.001), a body mass index (BMI) between 18.6 and 24.9 kg/m2 (estimate=−0.60; p=0.04), and a BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 kg/m2 (estimate=−1.43; p<0.001) had significant impacts on the cure fraction of CRC in the multivariate analysis. The proportion of cured patients was 64.1% (95% CI, 56.7 to 72.4).
CONCLUSIONS
This study found that the pathologic stage of the primary tumor, tumor grade, and BMI were potential risk factors that had an impact on the cure fraction. A non-mixture non-parametric cure rate model provides a flexible framework for accurately determining the impact of risk factors on the long-term survival of patients with CRC.
Summary

Citations

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  • Post‐diagnosis adiposity and colorectal cancer prognosis: A Global Cancer Update Programme (CUP Global) systematic literature review and meta‐analysis
    Nerea Becerra‐Tomás, Georgios Markozannes, Margarita Cariolou, Katia Balducci, Rita Vieira, Sonia Kiss, Dagfinn Aune, Darren C. Greenwood, Laure Dossus, Ellen Copson, Andrew G. Renehan, Martijn Bours, Wendy Demark‐Wahnefried, Melissa M. Hudson, Anne M. Ma
    International Journal of Cancer.2024; 155(3): 400.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of prognostic factors in long-term survival of male and female patients with colorectal cancer using non-mixture cure model based on the Weibull distribution
    Mehdi Azizmohammad Looha, Elaheh Zarean, Fatemeh Masaebi, Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Reza Zali
    Surgical Oncology.2021; 38: 101562.     CrossRef
  • Actual survival after resection of primary colorectal cancer: results from a prospective multicenter study
    Inge van den Berg, Robert R. J. Coebergh van den Braak, Jeroen L. A. van Vugt, Jan N. M. Ijzermans, Stefan Buettner
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Spatial inequalities and predictors of HIV/AIDS mortality risk in Hamadan, Iran: a retrospective cohort study
Somayeh Momenyan, Amir Kavousi, Jalal Poorolajal, Narges Momenyan
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018038.   Published online August 5, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018038
  • 11,758 View
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  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Understanding the geographic variation of HIV/AIDS mortality risk and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection could help identify high-burden areas. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of predictors of the time interval between HIV diagnosis to death, while accounting for spatial correlations across counties, and to assess patterns of spatial inequalities in the risk of HIV/AIDS mortality in Hamadan Province, Iran.
METHODS
This retrospective study was conducted on 585 patients. The outcome in this study was the time period between the date of HIV/AIDS diagnosis and the date of death. A Weibull regression model with spatial random effects was used.
RESULTS
According to multivariate analysis, there were significant associations between age, tuberculosis co-infection, and marital status and the risk of death. In terms of spatial inequalities, a cluster of counties was identified with a somewhat higher death hazard in the north, northwest, northeast, and central regions. Additionally, a cluster with a somewhat lower hazard was identified in the south, southwest, southeast, and west regions.
CONCLUSIONS
The spatial pattern of HIV/AIDS death risk could reflect inequalities in access to antiretroviral therapy and public health services. Our results underscore the importance of attention to vulnerable groups in urban areas.
Summary

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  • Prevalence, Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern, and Associated Factors of Enteric Bacterial Pathogens Among HIV Infected Patients with Diarrhea Attending the ART Clinic of Dilla University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia
    Asaye Mitiku, Zerihin Solomon, Berhanu Gidisa, Kasie Gebeyhu, Haymanot Tewabe, Demissew Shenkute, Melkayehu Kassa, Addisu Gize
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2023; Volume 16: 4227.     CrossRef
  • Análise da tendência da mortalidade por doenças definidoras e não definidoras de HIV/aids segundo características sociodemográficas, por Unidade da Federação e Brasil, 2000-2018
    Ana Paula da Cunha, Marly Marques da Cruz
    Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Spatial variability of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission in a province in the Brazilian Rainforest: An ecological study
    Marcus Matheus Quadros Santos, Bianca Alessandra Gomes do Carmo, Taymara Barbosa Rodrigues, Bruna Rafaela Leite Dias, Cleyton Abreu Martins, Glenda Roberta Oliveira Naiff Ferreira, Andressa Tavares Parente, Cíntia Yollete Urbano Pauxis Aben-Atha, Sand
    Geospatial Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical, health systems and neighbourhood determinants of tuberculosis case fatality in urban Blantyre, Malawi: a multilevel epidemiological analysis of enhanced surveillance data
    McEwen Khundi, Peter MacPherson, Helena R. A. Feasey, Rebeca Nzawa Soko, Marriott Nliwasa, Elizabeth L. Corbett, James R. Carpenter
    Epidemiology and Infection.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Spatial and temporal analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus in an area of social vulnerability in Northeast Brazil
    Géssyca Cavalcante de Melo, Emilia Carolle Azevedo de Oliveira, Iane Brito Leal, Carolina Piedade Morais de Freitas Soares Silva, Roberta Andrade Beltrão, Allan Dantas dos Santos, Renata Karina Reis, Marco Antônio Prado Nunes, Karina Conceição Gomes Macha
    Geospatial Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study
Erdaw Tachbele, Gobena Ameni
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016049.   Published online November 6, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016049
  • 16,256 View
  • 368 Download
  • 24 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia.
METHODS
A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models.
RESULTS
Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0%) were censored and 35 (10.0%) died. Twenty-two (62.9%) of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21%) at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72), a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51), and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86) or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27) functional status, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45), and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97).
CONCLUSIONS
Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives.
Summary

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    Muhammed Siraj, Sisay Gedamu, Belachew Tegegne
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    Balta Bargude, Fanta Amanuel
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    Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale, Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye, Haileab Fekadu Wolde
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2021; Volume 13: 31.     CrossRef
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    Firew Tiruneh, Lalisa Chewaka, Dinaol Abdissa
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2021; Volume 13: 73.     CrossRef
  • Rate and Predictors of Mortality Among Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia
    Haddis Birhanu, Atsede Alle, Molla Yigzaw Birhanu
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2021; Volume 13: 251.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of Mortality Among Adult HIV-Infected Patients Taking Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Harari Hospitals, Ethiopia
    Abdi Birhanu, Tariku Dingeta, Moti Tolera
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2021; Volume 13: 727.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of survival pattern and its predictors among HIV positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southern Ethiopia public health facilities: a retrospective cohort study
    Abewa Kebede, Fasil Tessema, Gadisa Bekele, Zerihun Kura, Hailu Merga
    AIDS Research and Therapy.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prognostic Factors of Mortality among Adult Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in India: A Hospital Based Retrospective Cohort Study
    Nitin Joseph, Ushasti Sinha, Nishtha Tiwari, Pritha Ghosh, Patneedi Sindhu
    BioMed Research International.2019; 2019: 1.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of mortality among adult patients enrolled on Antiretroviral Therapy in Hiwotfana specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia: Retrospective Cohort study
    Eticha Endalkachew Mekonnen
    Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research.2018; : 007.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Mortality among Adult HIV Patients Initiating ART in Rural Setting of HIV Care and Treatment Services in North Western Tanzania: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    Daniel Wilfred Gunda, Igembe Nkandala, Semvua Bukheti Kilonzo, Boniface Bartholomew Kilangi, Bonaventura Cornel Mpondo
    Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.2017; 2017: 1.     CrossRef
Analysis of survival data in thalassemia patients in Shiraz, Iran
Abdolreza Rajaeefard, Mahmoud Hajipour, Hamid Reza Tabatabaee, Jafar Hassanzadeh, Shahab Rezaeian, Zahra Moradi, Mehdi Sharafi, Mohsen Shafiee, Ali Semati, Sanaz Safaei, Maryam Soltani
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015031.   Published online July 7, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015031
  • 18,685 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The survival rate of thalassemia patients has not been conclusively established, and the factors associated with survival remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the survival rate of thalassemia among patients in southern Iran and to identify the factors associated with mortality from thalassemia.
METHODS
This retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a retrospective review of the medical records of 911 beta-thalassemia patients in 2014. Data analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS
Overall, 212 patients (23.3%) died, and 26.8% had thalassemia intermedia. The 20-year, 40-year, and 60-year survival rates were 85%, 63%, and 54%, respectively. Both crude and adjusted analyses found that education, marital status, ferritin levels, and comorbidities were related to mortality.
CONCLUSIONS
Sociodemographic and hematological factors were found to be significantly associated with the survival rate of thalassemia. Addressing these factors may help healthcare providers and physicians to provide the best possible care and to improve the survival rate.
Summary

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  • Economic burden in the management of transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients in Malaysia from a societal perspective
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  • Changing patterns in the epidemiology of β‐thalassemia
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  • Molecular characterization of β-thalassemia intermedia in the West Bank, Palestine
    Rashail Faraon, Mahmoud Daraghmah, Fekri Samarah, Mahmoud A. Srour
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  • The survival rate of patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia and its trends in recent years in Iran
    Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Hossein Ali Adineh, Iraj Zareban, Mehdi Mohammadi, Mahtab Maghsoodlu
    Epidemiology and Health.2018; 40: e2018048.     CrossRef
  • The era of comparable life expectancy between thalassaemia major and intermedia: Is it time to revisit the major‐intermedia dichotomy?
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  • Trends in 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-Year Survival Rates of Beta-Thalassemia Patients in Southern Iran, 1995-2016: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    Jafar Hassanzadeh, Alireza Mirahmadizadeh, Mehran Karimi, Yousef Veisani, Shahab Rezaeian
    Journal of Public Health Research.2017; 6(3): jphr.2017.1001.     CrossRef
Predictors of Colorectal Cancer Survival in Golestan, Iran: A Population-based Study
Mohammad Aryaie, Gholamreza Roshandel, Shahryar Semnani, Mohsen Asadi-Lari, Mohsen Aarabi, Mohammad Ali Vakili, Vahideh Kazemnejhad, Seyed Mehdi Sedaghat, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran
Epidemiol Health. 2013;35:e2013004.   Published online June 20, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2013004
  • 16,524 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>We aimed to investigate factors associated with colorectal cancer survival in Golestan, Iran.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>We used a population based cancer registry to recruit study subjects. All patients registered since 2004 were contacted and data were collected using structured questionnaires and trained interviewers. All the existing evidences to determine the stage of the cancer were also collected. The time from first diagnosis to death was compared in patients according to their stage of cancer using the Kaplan-Meir method. A Cox proportional hazard model was built to examine their survival experience by taking into account other covariates.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>Out of a total of 345 subjects, 227 were traced. Median age of the subjects was 54 and more than 42% were under 50 years old. We found 132 deaths among these patients, 5 of which were non-colorectal related deaths. The median survival time for the entire cohort was 3.56 years. A borderline significant difference in survival experience was detected for ethnicity (log rank test, p=0.053). Using Cox proportional hazard modeling, only cancer stage remained significantly associated with time of death in the final model.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSIONS</title><p>Colorectal cancer occurs at a younger age among people living in Golestan province. A very young age at presentation and what appears to be a high proportion of patients presenting with late stage in this area suggest this population might benefit substantially from early diagnoses by introducing age adapted screening programs.</p></sec>
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Brief Communication
Introduction of Relative Survival Analysis Program: Using Sample of Cancer Registry Data with Stata Software.
Kyu Won Jung, Hyun Joo Kong, Seon Hee Yim, Young Joo Won, Joohon Sung, Hai Rim Shin
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(2):222-229.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Patient survival is one of the most important measures for the evaluation of progress in cancer patient care across the wide spectrum from diagnosis to treatment. The optimal monitoring method for cancer patient survival is to estimate survival based on representative data from cancer patients in the population, which is only achievable through using population-based cancer registration data. Relative survival is used to compare the survival experience in a study cohort that expected to result from background population mortality rates. This technique is useful when the cause of death is not accurate or not available, since it provides a measure of excess mortality in a group of patients with a certain disease. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the procedures for estimating relative survival using the statistical software Stata. For this survival analysis to show the procedure, the example data set was randomly selected from the National Cancer Incidence Database, which was used in a recent article reporting the overall relative survival of cancer patients diagnosed during 1993-2002 in Korea.
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Original Article
Survival Rate and Factors Affecting Survival among Patients of Lung Cancer Lived in Daejeon City.
Kil Hoi Lee, Yunhyung Kwon, Tae Yong Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 2003;25(2):62-75.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
This study was carried out to investigate survival rate and the factors affecting survival among lung cancer patients who have been registered in Daejeon Cancer Registry from 1998 to 2000.
METHODS
Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model were used to evaluate the factors affecting survival of lung cancer patients.
RESULTS
Lung cancer was more common in men than women, with an overall sex ratio in Daejeon, Korea of roughly 3:1. The incidence of lung cancer was 17.1 per 100,000 population in 1998, 21.4 in 1999, and 22.4 in 2000. Average age of incidence was 64.8 years old and 11.7% of study subjects having family history of lung cancer. Forty eight % of lung cancer was diagnosed as Stage III and 40.6% as Stage IV. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was 39.7% of all and most frequent, and then adenocarcinoma 25.5%, and small cell carcinoma 19.3%. 3-year survival rate of female was higher than that of males, and that of smoker was the lowest among groups according to the smoking level. Survival rate by age fell dramatically in group over 70 years. Lung cancer patients diagnosed as Stage III and Stage IV had a much lower survival rate than those diagnosed as Stage I or II. Stage, LDH and age were proved to be important variables that affect the mortality of lung cancer patients.
CONCLUSION
We found that the stage at diagnosis was a critical factor that affected the survival of lung cancer patients from this study. So It is essential to develop early diagnosis of lung cancer and then it needs to evaluate the effectiveness of that.
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health