Warning: fopen(/home/virtual/epih/journal/upload/ip_log/ip_log_2024-06.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /home/virtual/lib/view_data.php on line 95 Warning: fwrite() expects parameter 1 to be resource, boolean given in /home/virtual/lib/view_data.php on line 96 An interim review of the epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus
Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health



Page Path
HOME > Epidemiol Health > Volume 42; 2020 > Article
Brief Communication
An interim review of the epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus
Sukhyun Ryu1orcid, Byung Chul Chun2orcid, Korean Society of Epidemiology 2019-nCoV Task Force Team
Epidemiol Health 2020;42:e2020006.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020006
Published online: February 6, 2020

1Department of Preventive Medicine, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea

2Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence: Byung Chul Chun  Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea  E-mail: chun@korea.ac.kr
*A full list of the members of the Korean Society of Epidemiology 2019-nCoV Task Force Team is provided in the acknowledgments.
• Received: February 3, 2020   • Revised: February 6, 2020   • Accepted: February 6, 2020

©2020, Korean Society of Epidemiology

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • 2,959 Download
  • 115 Web of Science
  • 117 Crossref
  • 134 Scopus
    The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) from Wuhan, China is currently recognized as a public health emergency of global concern.
    We reviewed the currently available literature to provide up-to-date guidance on control measures to be implemented by public health authorities.
    Some of the epidemiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV have been identified. However, there remain considerable uncertainties, which should be considered when providing guidance to public health authorities on control measures.
    Additional studies incorporating more detailed information from confirmed cases would be valuable.
Several clusters of patients with pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China were reported to the Chinese health authorities starting on December 8, 2019, and most of these cases were epidemiologically linked to a local fish and animal market [1,2]. The pathogenic agent responsible for these clusters of pneumonia was identified as a 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) [1]. At the very beginning of the 2019-nCoV outbreak in China, much remained unknown, except for the fact that it was transmitted by direct exposure at the market [3]. However, person-to-person transmission of 2019-nCoV has been confirmed [4], and asymptomatic individuals have been identified as potential sources of infection [5]. The number of identified cases has been steadily growing, and as of February 3, a total of 14,557 cases had been reported globally (14,411 in China and 146 in 22 other countries) [6]. Since the first laboratory-confirmed case was identified on January 20, 2020 in Korea, the number of reported cases grew to 15 as of February 3, 2020 (Figure 1 and Table 1) [7].
There remain considerable knowledge gaps on 2019-nCoV; therefore, the public health authorities in countries with any likelihood of experiencing imported cases of 2019-nCoV should update the case definition to reflect newly updated epidemiological data. Herein, we present a review of the literature on the epidemiological characteristics of human infections with 2019-nCoV to provide an interim summary to public health authorities.
We searched the literature for studies reporting epidemiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV, including the reproductive number, incubation period, serial interval, infectious period, generation time, latent period, and the fatality rate of hospitalized cases. The Korean Society of Epidemiology 2019-nCoV Task Force Team (KSE 2019-nCoV TFT) searched for peer-reviewed articles published from December 8, 2019 to February 1, 2020. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they reported any epidemiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV.
Ethics statement
The ethical approval or individual consent was not applicable.
Six articles were identified and included in this review (Table 2) [2,8-12] . Four relevant studies estimated the reproductive number [8,10-12]. A study of confirmed cases from Wuhan, China estimated the reproductive number to be 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 3.2) [10]. Three other studies estimated the mean reproductive number as 0.3, 2.2, and 2.68, respectively [8,11,12]. A study reported the mean incubation period to be 6.1 days (95% CI, 3.8 to 9.7), and the mean serial interval to be 7.7 days (95% CI, 4.9 to 13.0) [10]. Two studies predicted the mean doubling time to be between 6.4 days and 8.7 days [10,11]. Three studies estimated the fatality rate of hospitalized cases as 14-15% [2,8,9]. We could not identify any studies that reported the infectious and latent periods.
We reviewed the epidemiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV. The estimated reproductive number of 0.3 was obtained from a small number of infected persons with imperfect information in the very early stages of the outbreak [8]; therefore the reproductive number of 2019-nCoV is likely to be similar to that of the 2002/2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus during the pre-intervention period (range, 2 to 3) and that of the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza virus in the United States (range, 1.3 to 1.7) [13-15]. The incubation period is likely similar to that of the SARS coronavirus, but with a wider confidence interval (mean, 4.8 days; 95% CI, 4.2 to 5.5) [16]. Furthermore, it is longer than that of the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza virus (median incubation period, 1.4 days; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.8) [17]. Therefore, the evidence reviewed above shows that the current control measures for 2019-nCoV, including a quarantine and observation period of 14 days for suspected cases, can be considered appropriate [10]. The generation time and serial interval of 2019-nCoV are longer than those of the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza virus (median generation time, 2.7 days; 95% CI, 2.0 to 3.5; and mean serial interval: range, 2.6 to 3.2) [14,18]. However, the mean serial interval of 2019-nCoV is similar to that of the SARS coronavirus (mean, 8.4 days; standard deviation, 3.8) [19]. The overall case fatality rate of 2019-nCoV was estimated by international experts to range from 3% to 14% [15,20], and it is more likely to cause infection in older age groups with commodities [2].
Epidemiological parameters are usually obtained from a consecutive timeline of the number of reported cases and contact-tracing data. However, most of the studies included in our review made estimates using data obtained from the early stages of the outbreak in Wuhan, in which the reporting of confirmed cases may have been incomplete. Furthermore, differences in the simulation methodology used in various scenarios may result in a wide spectrum of estimated values [21]. Therefore, caution is needed when interpreting these reported results.
The number of confirmed cases is increasing in China and in other countries, including Korea. Furthermore, the likelihood of local transmission is increasing as a result of cases entering from China.
In light of a report describing a case of human-to-human transmission in the asymptomatic period [5], it is necessary to consider updating the case definition for surveillance; however, more detailed studies presenting evidence on the epidemiological nature, clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of 2019-nCoV are necessary to provide information for public health decision-making.
Korean version is available at http://www.e-epih.org/.


The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare for this study.




Conceptualization: BCC, SR. Data curation: KSE 2019-nCoV TFT. Formal analysis: BCC, SR. Methodology: BCC, SR. Writing - original draft : BCC, SR. Writing - review & editing: BCC, KSE 2019-nCoV TFT, SR.

A full list of the members of KSE 2019-nCoV TFT (alphabetically ordered): Byung Chul Chun (Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul); Dong Hyun Kim (Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon); Hae-Kwan Cheong (Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon); Heeyoung Lee (Center for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Seoul National University Bundang Hosptial, Seongnam); Hyunjin Son (Busan Center for Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Busan National University Hospital); Ji-Hyuk Park (Department of Preventive Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju), Jong-Hun Kim (Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon); Kwan Lee (Department of Preventive Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju); Kwang-Pil Ko (Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University, College of Medicine, Incheon); Sukhyun Ryu (Department of Preventive Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon); Sung-il Cho (Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul); Young June Choe (Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon).
Figure 1.
Timeline of individuals with laboratory-confirmed 2019 novel coronavirus infections in Korea, as of February 3, 2020.
Table 1.
List of confirmed cases of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in Korea, as of February 3, 2020
Case No. Age (yr) Sex Nationality Date of entry to Korea Suspected infection of place or origin
#1 35 Female Chinese Jan 19, 2020 Wuhan, China
#2 55 Male Korean Jan 22, 2020 Wuhan, China
#3 54 Male Korean Jan 20, 2020 Wuhan, China
#4 55 Male Korean Jan 20, 2020 Wuhan, China
#5 33 Male Korean Jan 24. 2020 Wuhan, China
#6 55 Male Korean - Case #3
#7 28 Male Korean Jan 23, 2020 Wuhan, China
#8 62 Female Korean Jan 23, 2020 Wuhan, China
#9 28 Female Korean - Case #5
#10 54 Female Korean - Case #6
#11 25 Male Korean - Case #6
#12 48 Male Chinese Jan 19, 2020 Osaka, Japan
#13 28 Male Korean Jan 31, 2020 Wuhan, China
#14 40 Female Chinese - Case #12
#15 43 Male Korean Jan 20, 2020 Wuhan, China
Table 2.
Summary of reviews included in the study
Study Study setting Reproductive (n) Incubation period (d) Serial interval (d) Infectious period Doubling time (d) Latent period Fatality rate among hospitalized cases (%)
Wu et al. [8] Publicly-available data in China as at Jan 22, 2020 0.30 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.44) NA NA NA NA NA 14.0 (95% CI: 3.9, 32.0)
Huang et al. [9] 41 confirmed cases admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan by Jan 2, 2020 NA NA NA NA NA NA 15.0
Chen et al. [2] 99 confirmed cases admitted in Wuhan Jinyintan Hosptial between Jan 1 and Jan 20, 2020 NA NA NA NA NA NA 14.6
Li et al. [10] 425 confirmed cases in Wuhan as at Jan 22, 2020 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.2) 6.1 (95% CI: 3.8, 9.7) 7.7 (95% CI: 4.9, 13.0) NA 8.7 (95% CI: 4.8, 17.0) NA NA
Riou et al. [12] Modelling study 2.2 (90% CI: 1.4, 3.8) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Wu et al. [11] Modeling study 2.68 (95% CrI: 2.47, 2.86) NA NA NA 6.4 (95% CrI: 5.8, 7.1) NA NA

CI, confidence interval; Crl, credible interval; NA, not available.

  • 1. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 2020;doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017.Article
  • 2. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 2020;doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7.Article
  • 3. The Lancet. Emerging understandings of 2019-nCoV. Lancet 2020;395:311.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 4. Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020;doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9.Article
  • 5. Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med 2020;doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2001468.Article
  • 6. World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) situation reports. [cited 2020 Feb 3]. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports.
  • 7. Korean Ministry of Health Welfare. 2019-nCoV. [cited 2020 Feb 3]. Available from :http://ncov.mohw.go.kr/tcmBoardList.do?brdId=&brdGubun=&dataGubun=&ncvContSeq=&contSeq=&board_id=(Korean).
  • 8. Wu P, Hao X, Lau EH, Wong JY, Leung KS, Wu JT, et al. Real-time tentative assessment of the epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus infections in Wuhan, China, as at 22 January 2020. Euro Surveill 2020;25:2000044.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 9. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.Article
  • 10. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020;doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316.Article
  • 11. Wu JT, Leung K, Leung GM. Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study. Lancet 2020;doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30260-9.Article
  • 12. Riou J, Althaus CL. Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020. Euro Surveill 2020;25:2000058.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 13. Wallinga J, Teunis P. Different epidemic curves for severe acute respiratory syndrome reveal similar impacts of control measures. Am J Epidemiol 2004;160:509-516.ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 14. Yang Y, Sugimoto JD, Halloran ME, Basta NE, Chao DL, Matrajt L, et al. The transmissibility and control of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Science 2009;326:729-733.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 15. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Risk assessment: outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome associated with a novel coronavirus, China: first local transmission in the EU/EEA − third update; 2020 Jan 31 [cited 2020 Feb 3]. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/risk-assessment-outbreak-acute-respiratory-syndrome-associated-novel-1.
  • 16. Wong TW, Tam W. Estimating SARS incubation period. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:1503-1504.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 17. Lessler J, Reich NG, Cummings DA; New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Swine Influenza Investigation Team, Nair HP, Jordan HT, et al. Outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) at a New York City school. N Engl J Med 2009;361:2628-2636.ArticlePubMed
  • 18. Balcan D, Hu H, Goncalves B, Bajardi P, Poletto C, Ramasco JJ, et al. Seasonal transmission potential and activity peaks of the new influenza A(H1N1): a Monte Carlo likelihood analysis based on human mobility. BMC Med 2009;7:45.ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 19. Lipsitch M, Cohen T, Cooper B, Robins JM, Ma S, James L, et al. Transmission dynamics and control of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science 2003;300:1966-1970.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 20. Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet 2020;doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9.Article
  • 21. De Angelis D, Presanis AM, Birrell PJ, Tomba GS, House T. Four key challenges in infectious disease modelling using data from multiple sources. Epidemics 2015;10:83-87.ArticlePubMedPMC

Figure & Data



    Citations to this article as recorded by  
    • Comparing online group therapy based on emotional schema therapy with transdiagnostic therapy in improving distress tolerance and cognitive emotion regulation among university students with adjustment disorders due to romantic break‐ups
      Elmira Ariana Kia, Changiz Rahimi, Nurallah Mohammadi
      Counselling and Psychotherapy Research.2024; 24(1): 372.     CrossRef
    • Knowledge, Perceptions and Practices of COVID19 Among the Cameroonian Population
      Sylvain Raoul SIMENI NJONNOU, Esther Astrid Mbono Samba Eloumba , Edwige Laure MENDO, Raissa Manuela EWALA MBOULE, Anne Juliette Flore SANGO, Fernando KEPTA LEKPA, Marie-Josiane NTSAMA ESSOMBA, Eric BALTI, Christian NGONGANG OUANKOU, Justin DJOTAH, Martin
      Journal of Public Health in Africa.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Coronavirus infection in chemosensory cells
      Martina Donadoni, Rafal Kaminski, Shuren Liao, Suhair Al Janabi, Robert F. Margolskee, Mehmet Hakan Ozdener, Ilker K. Sariyer
      Journal of NeuroVirology.2023; 29(1): 35.     CrossRef
    • Impact of COVID-19 Confinement on Mental Health in Youth and Vulnerable Populations: An Extensive Narrative Review
      Manuel Reiriz, Macarena Donoso-González, Benjamín Rodríguez-Expósito, Sara Uceda, Ana Isabel Beltrán-Velasco
      Sustainability.2023; 15(4): 3087.     CrossRef
    • Psychosocial Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on Yemeni healthcare workers: A Web-based, Cross-sectional Survey
      Gamil Ghaleb Alrubaiee, Mohammed Alsabri, Farouk Abdulrahman Al-Qadasi, Talal Ali Hussein Al-Qalah, Jennifer Cole, Yaser Abdullah Ghaleb Alburiahy
      Libyan Journal of Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Exploration of Sex and Age-Based Associations in Clinical Characteristics, Predictors of Severity, and Duration of Stay among COVID-19 Patients at the University Hospital of Saudi Arabia
      Rasha Assad Assiri, Asmatanzeem Bepari, Waseemoddin Patel, Syed Arif Hussain, Shaik Kalimulla Niazi, Asma Alshangiti, Safia Ali Alshangiti, Mary Anne Wong Cordero, Shazima Sheereen
      Healthcare.2023; 11(5): 751.     CrossRef
    • The dynamic changes of psychosomatic symptoms in three waves of COVID-19 outbreak and fatigue caused by enduring pandemic in China
      Yingying Yue, Lei Li, Rui Liu, Yuqun Zhang, Songyun Zhang, Hong Sang, Maoqin Tang, Tao Zou, S. Mudasser Shah, Xinhua Shen, Jue Chen, Aiqin Wu, Wenhao Jiang, Yonggui Yuan
      Journal of Affective Disorders.2023; 331: 17.     CrossRef
    • Melatonin effects on sleep quality of COVID-19 patients: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials with trial sequential analysis
      Juan Juan Zhang, Ran Sun, Sha Guo, Hong Zhang
      BMJ Open.2023; 13(6): e068345.     CrossRef
    • Epidemiology of the novel coronavirus infection in the Orenburg Region in the period from 2020 to 2022
      S. V. Vyaltsin, E. G. Plotnikovа, T. N. Kalinina, N. R. Mikhaylova, M. V. Mirzaeva, A. V. Vyaltsin
      Sanitarnyj vrač (Sanitary Doctor).2023; (6): 341.     CrossRef
    • Does City Size Affect COVID-19 Spread and Policy Measures?
      Tahar Ledraa, Abdulaziz Aldegheishem
      International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development.2023; 11(3): 228.     CrossRef
    • The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on erectile function in Chinese CP/CPPS patients
      Wei-Jie Song, Ji-Wei Huang, Yuan Liu, Wei Ding, Zhi Long, Le-Ye He
      Asian Journal of Andrology.2023; 25(6): 680.     CrossRef
    • Coagulation factors as potential predictors of COVID-19 patient outcomes
      Dwi Anggita, Irawaty Djaharuddin, Harun Iskandar, Nur Ahmad Tabri, Jamaluddin Madolangan, Harry Akza Putrawan, Edward Pandu Wiriansya
      Medical Journal of Indonesia.2023; 32(2): 105.     CrossRef
    • The effects of body dissatisfaction, sleep duration, and exercise habits on the mental health of university students in southern China during COVID-19
      Bang Liu, Xuesheng Liu, Lin Zou, Jun Hu, Yueming Wang, Ming Hao, Guglielmo Campus
      PLOS ONE.2023; 18(10): e0292896.     CrossRef
    • Women’s self-care for Coronavirus prevention and the related factors in Iran: A cross-sectional study
      Soheila Nazarpour, Masoumeh Simbar, Farzaneh Rashidi Fakari, Mobina Khorrami, Khadijeh Dodel Andarvar, Zahra Jafari Torkamani, Sepideh Keyvanfar, Hamid Alavi Majd, Othman A. Alfuqaha
      PLOS ONE.2023; 18(11): e0294983.     CrossRef
    • Clinical symptoms and signs in hamsters during experimental infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus (Coronaviridae: Betacoronavirus)
      Moldir S. Tuyskanova, Kuandyk D. Zhugunissov, Mehmet Ozaslan, Balzhan S. Myrzakhmetova, Lespek B. Kutumbetov
      Problems of Virology.2023; 68(6): 513.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence and determinants of depression among a community people during the COVID-19 pandemic
      Josephine Ekong, Felix Olaniyi Sanni, Abiodun Olaiya Paul, Michael Olugbamila Dada, Ajani Olumide Faith, Olaide Lateef Afelumo, Abimbola Oluseyi Ariyo, Salami Aisha Oluwakemi, Yila Eric, Ajani Love Adeiye
      MGM Journal of Medical Sciences.2023; 10(4): 742.     CrossRef
    • Trend of COVID-19 spreads and status of household handwashing practice and its determinants in Bangladesh – situation analysis using national representative data
      Md. Sabbir Ahmed, Fakir Md Yunus
      International Journal of Environmental Health Research.2022; 32(5): 1002.     CrossRef
    • Self-Quarantine Noncompliance During the COVID-19 Pandemic in South Korea
      Sukhyun Ryu, Youngsik Hwang, Hongbi Yoon, Byung Chul Chun
      Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness.2022; 16(2): 464.     CrossRef
    • The Global Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Insomnia Among General Population During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
      Sultan Mahmud, Md Mohsin, Md. Nayem Dewan, Abdul Muyeed
      Trends in Psychology.2022; 31(1): 143.     CrossRef
    • Decreased patient visits for ankle sprain during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea: A nationwide retrospective study
      Youngsik Hwang, Dasom Kim, Sukhyun Ryu
      Preventive Medicine Reports.2022; 26: 101728.     CrossRef
    • The effectiveness of virtual cognitive-behavioral group therapy on anxiety, stress, and fatigue in Coronavirus Intensive Care Unit nurses
      Minerva Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Lived Experiences of COVID-19 Patients With Pulmonary Involvement: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology
      Mohammadreza Firouzkouhi, Mayumi Kako, Nasrollah Alimohammadi, Aziz Arbabi-Sarjou, Taha Nouraei, Abdolghani Abdollahimohammad
      Clinical Nursing Research.2022; 31(4): 747.     CrossRef
    • Association between perceived decline in family income due to COVID-19 and alcohol consumption among Korean adolescents
      Yu Shin Park, Yun Hwa Jung, Eun-Cheol Park, Jaeyong Shin
      Journal of Affective Disorders.2022; 305: 144.     CrossRef
    • College students’ compliance with government measures for social isolation and quarantine during the COVID-19 outbreak: A focus on psychological predictors
      Yura Loscalzo, Marco Giannini
      Work.2022; 71(3): 481.     CrossRef
    • A review on COVID-19 transmission, epidemiological features, prevention and vaccination
      Yuqin Zhang, Gonghua Wu, Shirui Chen, Xu Ju, Wumitijiang Yimaer, Wangjian Zhang, Shao Lin, Yuantao Hao, Jing Gu, Jinghua Li
      Medical Review.2022; 2(1): 23.     CrossRef
    • Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19): A past and Present Prospective
      Swati G. Talele, Eknath D. Ahire, Khemchand R. Surana, Vijayraj N. Sonawane, Gokul S. Talele
      Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research.2022; : 45.     CrossRef
    • The Pandemic COVID-19 and Its Impact on Indian Agricultural Sectors
      Debesh Mishra, Suchismita Satapathy
      Journal of Global Information Management.2022; 30(4): 1.     CrossRef
    • Agricultural biomass supply chain resilience: COVID-19 outbreak vs. sustainability compliance, technological change, uncertainties, and policies
      Seyed Mojib Zahraee, Nirajan Shiwakoti, Peter Stasinopoulos
      Cleaner Logistics and Supply Chain.2022; 4: 100049.     CrossRef
    • The Relationship Between Quality of Life and Coping Strategies in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19
      Navid Mirzakhani Araghi, Shafagh Saei, Mehdi Alizadeh Zarei, Parvin Dibajnia, Leila Angooti Oshnari
      Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Studies.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Responses of Radiology Professionals to the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Journal of Basic and Clinical Health Sciences.2022; 6(3): 712.     CrossRef
    • Screening for Diabetes Complications during the COVID-19 Outbreak in South Korea
      Yu shin Park, Soo Young Kim, Eun-Cheol Park, Sung-In Jang
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(9): 5436.     CrossRef
    • The information‐seeking behavior of medical sciences students toward COVID‐19 in mass and social media: A cross‐sectional study
      Parasto Amiri, Khadijeh Moulaei, Kambiz Bahaadinbeigy, Mohammad Mehdi Ghaemi, Abbas Sheikhtaheri
      Health Science Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Lessons from SARS-CoV-2 in India: A data-driven framework for pandemic resilience
      Maxwell Salvatore, Soumik Purkayastha, Lakshmi Ganapathi, Rupam Bhattacharyya, Ritoban Kundu, Lauren Zimmermann, Debashree Ray, Aditi Hazra, Michael Kleinsasser, Sunil Solomon, Ramnath Subbaraman, Bhramar Mukherjee
      Science Advances.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Psychological Counseling during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Clinical Thoughts and Implications Arisen from an Experience in Italian Schools
      Yura Loscalzo
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(12): 7255.     CrossRef
    • Incubation period of wild type of SARS-CoV-2 infections by age, gender, and epidemic periods
      Chiara Achangwa, Huikyung Park, Sukhyun Ryu
      Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The impact of the province of Lodi containment measures and hospital network reconfiguration on the reduction of mortality in 2020 COVID-19 pandemic outbreak
      Italian Journal of Emergency Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Evaluation of the Public Health Emergency Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Daegu, Korea During the First Half of 2020
      Hwajin Lee, Keon-Yeop Kim, Jong-Yeon Kim, Sin Kam, Kyeong Soo Lee, Jung Jeung Lee, Nam Soo Hong, Tae-Yoon Hwang
      Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(4): 360.     CrossRef
    • Trends in suicide deaths before and after the COVID-19 outbreak in Korea
      Seunghyong Ryu, Hee Jung Nam, Min Jhon, Ju-Yeon Lee, Jae-Min Kim, Sung-Wan Kim, Marco Innamorati
      PLOS ONE.2022; 17(9): e0273637.     CrossRef
    • Polymorphisms of leukocyte genes human and congenital antigen immunity associated with different the severity of the course of the new coronavirus infections
      Alexander M. Butusov, Olga V. Krusko, Petr K. Potapov, Dmitriy S. Derevyankin, Valentin D. Zagranichnov, Svyatoslav S. Malyshkin, Evgeniy A. Zhurbin
      Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy.2022; 24(3): 547.     CrossRef
    • Comparative Analysis of In-House RT-qPCR Detection of SARS-CoV-2 for Resource-Constrained Settings
      Yesit Bello-Lemus, Marco Anaya-Romero, Janni Gómez-Montoya, Moisés Árquez, Henry J. González-Torres, Elkin Navarro-Quiroz, Leonardo Pacheco-Londoño, Lisandro Pacheco-Lugo, Antonio J. Acosta-Hoyos
      Diagnostics.2022; 12(11): 2883.     CrossRef
    • Effect of Home-based Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program on Anxiety and Depression in COVID-19 Patients
      Fahime Hashemi, Mehdi Sadeghi, Shayan Vafaei, Hossein Mirzaei, Atena Samarehfekri, Niloofar Rashidipour, Mozhgan Taeby
      Medical-Surgical Nursing Journal.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Chest CT imaging features and clinical outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A single-center case study in Ningbo, China
      Maoqing Jiang, Ping Chen, Tianfu Li, Yifan Tang, Xueqin Chen, Xiaomin Chen, Xinzhong Ruan
      Clinical Imaging.2021; 69: 27.     CrossRef
    • Peritraumatic reactions during the COVID-19 pandemic – The contribution of posttraumatic growth attributed to prior trauma
      Asmaa Abu Hamam, Shai Milo, Inbar Mor, Elit Shaked, Ayala Sultana Eliav, Yael Lahav
      Journal of Psychiatric Research.2021; 132: 23.     CrossRef
    • Real-time measurement of the uncertain epidemiological appearances of COVID-19 infections
      Meenu Gupta, Rachna Jain, Soham Taneja, Gopal Chaudhary, Manju Khari, Elena Verdú
      Applied Soft Computing.2021; 101: 107039.     CrossRef
    • Computational Approach For Real-Time Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Kalman Filtering and Forecasting via Unobservable Spectral Components of Experimental Data
      Daiana Caroline dos Santos Gomes, Ginalber Luiz de Oliveira Serra
      Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems.2021; 32(2): 326.     CrossRef
    • A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review of the Impacts of Coronavirus on Society and Culture
      Yeon Jung Yu, Young Su Park, Alison Keller, Jin-Won Noh, Jiho Cha
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(2): 491.     CrossRef
    • Controlling COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mass Screening Experience in Saudi Arabia
      Anas A. Khan, Hadil M. Alahdal, Reem M. Alotaibi, Hana S. Sonbol, Rana H. Almaghrabi, Yousef M. Alsofayan, Saqer M. Althunayyan, Faisal A. Alsaif, Sami S. Almudarra, Khaled I. Alabdulkareem, Abdullah M. Assiri, Hani A. Jokhdar
      Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The prevalence of anxiety and depression among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: An umbrella review of meta-analyses
      Ali Sahebi, Bayram Nejati-Zarnaqi, Siamak Moayedi, Kosar Yousefi, Mercedes Torres, Mohamad Golitaleb
      Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry.2021; 107: 110247.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 in Iran: Forecasting Pandemic Using Deep Learning
      Rahele Kafieh, Roya Arian, Narges Saeedizadeh, Zahra Amini, Nasim Dadashi Serej, Shervin Minaee, Sunil Kumar Yadav, Atefeh Vaezi, Nima Rezaei, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard, Konstantin Blyuss
      Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
    • Psychological and occupational impact on healthcare workers and its associated factors during the COVID-19 outbreak in China
      Xiaodan Zhang, Ye Jiang, Hu Yu, Yafen Jiang, Qiongfeng Guan, Weihe Zhao, Yingying Mao, Danfeng Huang, Wenke Hong, Da Li
      International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health.2021; 94(6): 1441.     CrossRef
    • The prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbance in higher education students during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis
      Jiawen Deng, Fangwen Zhou, Wenteng Hou, Zachary Silver, Chi Yi Wong, Oswin Chang, Anastasia Drakos, Qi Kang Zuo, Emma Huang
      Psychiatry Research.2021; 301: 113863.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 Life Events-Anxiety Inventory (C-19LAI): development, reliability, and validity study on Egyptian population
      Omaima Refat Elsayed Madkor, Khalid E. Elsorady, Dina H. Abdelhady, Passant AbdulJawad, Dina Aly El Gabry
      Middle East Current Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The role of chest CT quantitative pulmonary inflammatory index in the evaluation of the course and treatment outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia
      Song Peng, Jinqing Chen, Wendy Zhang, Bangjun Zhang, Zhifeng Liu, Lang Liu, Zhaofeng Wu, Rui Fu, Xiuhua Li, Fajin Lv
      Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Human and animal coronaviruses (review)
      P.Ju. Kryvoshyia, I.Ju. Mushtuk, O.H. Rud
      Bulletin "Veterinary biotechnology".2021; 38: 111.     CrossRef
    • Trends in Viral Respiratory Infections During COVID-19 Pandemic, South Korea
      Sujin Yum, Kwan Hong, Sangho Sohn, Jeehyun Kim, Byung Chul Chun
      Emerging Infectious Diseases.2021; 27(6): 1685.     CrossRef
    • Transmission dynamics and control of two epidemic waves of SARS-CoV-2 in South Korea
      Sukhyun Ryu, Sheikh Taslim Ali, Eunbi Noh, Dasom Kim, Eric H. Y. Lau, Benjamin J. Cowling
      BMC Infectious Diseases.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Polyphenols Sourced from Terrestrial and Marine Plants as Coronavirus Reproduction Inhibitors
      N. N. Besednova, B. G. Andryukov, T. S. Zaporozhets, T. A. Kuznetsova, S. P. Kryzhanovskiy, L. N. Fedyanina, I. D. Makarenkova, I. V. Galkina, M. Yu. Shchelkanov
      Antibiotics and Chemotherapy.2021; 66(3-4): 62.     CrossRef
    • Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) regarding the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Post-lockdown in Trinidad and Tobago
      Lori Selby, Vrijesh Tripathi, Seetharaman Hariharan
      Social Work in Public Health.2021; 36(5): 558.     CrossRef
    • Evaluation of Knowledge about COVID-19 and Its Effect on Psychological States of University Students
      Cihan Unal, Ramazan Aslan, Haci Omer Yilmaz
      European Journal of Environment and Public Health.2021; 5(2): em0084.     CrossRef
    • SARS-CoV-2 N Protein Targets TRIM25-Mediated RIG-I Activation to Suppress Innate Immunity
      Gianni Gori Savellini, Gabriele Anichini, Claudia Gandolfo, Maria Grazia Cusi
      Viruses.2021; 13(8): 1439.     CrossRef
    • Psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the adult population in Poland - a cross-sectional study
      Bernard Sozański, Agnieszka Ćwirlej-Sozańska, Agnieszka Wiśniowska-Szurlej, Krystian Jurek, Patryk Górniak, Karol Górski, Anna Englert-Bator, Lidia Perenc
      BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Aftermath: Post-pandemic Psychiatric Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic, a South Korean Perspective
      Sooyeon Min, Yun Ha Jeong, Jeongyeon Kim, Ja Wook Koo, Yong Min Ahn
      Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Psychological well-being of foreign university students during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in South Korea using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10)
      Achangwa Chiara, Tae-Jun Lee, Moo-Sik Lee
      Journal of Global Health Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • One Health, “Disease X” & the challenge of “Unknown” Unknowns
      Pranab Chatterjee, Parvati Nair, Matthew Chersich, Yitagele Terefe, AbhimanyuSingh Chauhan, Fabiola Quesada, Greg Simpson
      Indian Journal of Medical Research.2021; 153(3): 264.     CrossRef
    • Anti-malarial Drugs are Not Created Equal for SARS-CoV-2 Treatment: A Computational Analysis Evidence
      Simone Ronsisvalle, Federica Panarello, Rosaria Di Mauro, Renato Bernardini, Giovanni Li Volti, Giuseppina Cantarella
      Current Pharmaceutical Design.2021; 27(10): 1323.     CrossRef
    • Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Patients on COVID-19 Epidemic Attending a Primary Health Care Setting Durban, South Africa
      A. M. Hoque, S. Buckus, M. Hoque, A. B. M. Mahbub Alam, M. E. Hoque, N. Singh
      European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences.2021; 3(2): 68.     CrossRef
    • Investigating the Level of Job Stress in Nurses Exposed to COVID-19 in Educational Hospitals in Ahvaz
      Arman Amiri, Payam rashnuodi, seyedmorteza mousavi, Liyla shadian Khankedni
      Journal of Occupational Hygiene Engineering.2021; 8(2): 58.     CrossRef
    • Determining the Contribution of Social Intelligence and Resilience Components in the Predicton of Covid-19-related Anxiety in Students
      Ebrahim Solimany, Abdolreza Afzood, Meysam Sadeghi, Mojtaba Salmabadi
      Pajouhan Scientific Journal.2021; 19(4): 16.     CrossRef
    • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges
      Chih-Cheng Lai, Tzu-Ping Shih, Wen-Chien Ko, Hung-Jen Tang, Po-Ren Hsueh
      International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents.2020; 55(3): 105924.     CrossRef
    • Infodemic and risk communication in the era of CoV-19
      Atefeh Vaezi, ShaghayeghHaghjooy Javanmard
      Advanced Biomedical Research.2020; 9(1): 10.     CrossRef
    • Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China
      Cuiyan Wang, Riyu Pan, Xiaoyang Wan, Yilin Tan, Linkang Xu, Cyrus S. Ho, Roger C. Ho
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(5): 1729.     CrossRef
    • Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Facts and myths
      Chih-Cheng Lai, Yen Hung Liu, Cheng-Yi Wang, Ya-Hui Wang, Shun-Chung Hsueh, Muh-Yen Yen, Wen-Chien Ko, Po-Ren Hsueh
      Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection.2020; 53(3): 404.     CrossRef
    • The 2019 coronavirus: Learning curves, lessons, and the weakest link
      Richard Albert Stein
      International Journal of Clinical Practice.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Mental Health and Psychological Intervention Amid COVID-19 Outbreak: Perspectives from South Korea
      Sun Jae Jung, Jin Yong Jun
      Yonsei Medical Journal.2020; 61(4): 271.     CrossRef
    • Self-Care Instructions for People Not Requiring Hospitalization for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
      Esmaeil Mehraeen, Bagher Hayati, Solmaz Saeidi, Mohammad Heydari, Seyedahmad Seyedalinaghi
      Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • COVID-19: a novel zoonotic disease caused by a coronavirus from China: what we know and what we don't
      John S Mackenzie, David W Smith
      Microbiology Australia.2020; 41(1): 45.     CrossRef
    • History of investigation and current classification of coronaviruses (Nidovirales: Coronaviridae)
      M. Yu. Shchelkanov, A. Yu. Popova, V. G. Dedkov, V. G. Akimkin, V. V. Maleyev
      Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity.2020; 10(2): 221.     CrossRef
    • Coronavirus Disease 2019, School Closures, and Children’s Mental Health
      Geon Ho Bahn
      Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.2020; 31(2): 74.     CrossRef
    • The Media and their Informative Role in the Face of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Validation of Fear Perception and Magnitude of the Issue (MED-COVID-19)
      Christian R. Mejia, Dayana Ticona, J. Franco Rodriguez-Alarcon, Alejandra M. Campos-Urbina, Jhordan B. Catay-Medina, Thalia Porta-Quinto, Humberto Garayar-Peceros, Christian Ignacio-Quinte, Renzo Felipe Carranza Esteban, Percy G. Ruiz Mamani, Marcos Rober
      Electronic Journal of General Medicine.2020; 17(6): em239.     CrossRef
    • Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a scoping review
      Meng Lv, Xufei Luo, Janne Estill, Yunlan Liu, Mengjuan Ren, Jianjian Wang, Qi Wang, Siya Zhao, Xiaohui Wang, Shu Yang, Xixi Feng, Weiguo Li, Enmei Liu, Xianzhuo Zhang, Ling Wang, Qi Zhou, Wenbo Meng, Xiaolong Qi, Yangqin Xun, Xuan Yu, Yaolong Chen
      Eurosurveillance.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Estimation of the Excess COVID-19 Cases in Seoul, South Korea by the Students Arriving from China
      Sukhyun Ryu, Sheikh Taslim Ali, Jun-Sik Lim, Byung Chul Chun
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(9): 3113.     CrossRef
    • The COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control
      Yosra A. Helmy, Mohamed Fawzy, Ahmed Elaswad, Ahmed Sobieh, Scott P. Kenney, Awad A. Shehata
      Journal of Clinical Medicine.2020; 9(4): 1225.     CrossRef
    • Knowledge, perceptions and preventive practices towards COVID-19 early in the outbreak among Jimma university medical center visitors, Southwest Ethiopia
      Yohannes Kebede, Yimenu Yitayih, Zewdie Birhanu, Seblework Mekonen, Argaw Ambelu, Wen-Jun Tu
      PLOS ONE.2020; 15(5): e0233744.     CrossRef
    • An Open Question: Is It Rational to Inhibit the mTor-Dependent Pathway as COVID-19 Therapy?
      Giuseppe Terrazzano, Valentina Rubino, Anna Teresa Palatucci, Angela Giovazzino, Flavia Carriero, Giuseppina Ruggiero
      Frontiers in Pharmacology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Molecular insight into the therapeutic promise of xuebijing injection against coronavirus disease 2019
      Dan Zhang, Jin-Tao Lv, Bing Zhang, Ri-Na Sa, Bing-Bing Ma, Xiao-Meng Zhang, Zhi-Jian Lin
      World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.2020; 6(2): 203.     CrossRef
    • Effect of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions on Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, South Korea, 2020
      Sukhyun Ryu, Seikh Taslim Ali, Cheolsun Jang, Baekjin Kim, Benjamin J. Cowling
      Emerging Infectious Diseases.2020; 26(10): 2406.     CrossRef
    • The Delay in Confirming COVID-19 Cases Linked to a Religious Group in Korea
      Hyung-Ju Kim, Hyun-Seong Hwang, Yong-Hyuk Choi, Hye-Yeon Song, Ji-Seong Park, Chae-Young Yun, Sukhyun Ryu
      Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2020; 53(3): 164.     CrossRef
    • Building a statistical surveillance dashboard for COVID-19 infection worldwide
      Stefano Barone, Alexander Chakhunashvili, Albert Comelli
      Quality Engineering.2020; 32(4): 754.     CrossRef
    • Human Sialome and Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: An Understated Correlation?
      Daniela Morniroli, Maria Lorella Giannì, Alessandra Consales, Carlo Pietrasanta, Fabio Mosca
      Frontiers in Immunology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Psychological Impact and Associated Factors During the Initial Stage of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Among the General Population in Spain
      Rocío Rodríguez-Rey, Helena Garrido-Hernansaiz, Silvia Collado
      Frontiers in Psychology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19): A Narrative Review
      Baratali Rezapour, Sayed Jalil Musavi, Faezeh Shirzadeh Maleki, Raul Isea
      International Journal of Coronaviruses.2020; 1(2): 15.     CrossRef
    • Incubation period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Busan, South Korea
      Hansol Lee, Kyungtae Kim, Kwonkyu Choi, Sangbum Hong, Hyunjin Son, Sukhyun Ryu
      Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy.2020; 26(9): 1011.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis
      Nader Salari, Amin Hosseinian-Far, Rostam Jalali, Aliakbar Vaisi-Raygani, Shna Rasoulpoor, Masoud Mohammadi, Shabnam Rasoulpoor, Behnam Khaledi-Paveh
      Globalization and Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Maternal and infant outcomes of full-term pregnancy combined with COVID-2019 in Wuhan, China: retrospective case series
      Yanfen Chen, Jun Bai
      Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics.2020; 302(3): 545.     CrossRef
    • Covid-19 : virologie, épidémiologie et diagnostic biologique
      Imane Jamai Amir, Zina Lebar, Ghita yahyaoui, Mustapha Mahmoud
      Option/Bio.2020; 31(619-620): 15.     CrossRef
    • Epidemiology of COVID-19 and Predictors of Recovery in the Republic of Korea
      Ashis Kumar Das, Saji Saraswathy Gopalan
      Pulmonary Medicine.2020; 2020: 1.     CrossRef
    • CoronaVR: A Computational Resource and Analysis of Epitopes and Therapeutics for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2
      Amit Kumar Gupta, Md. Shoaib Khan, Shubham Choudhury, Adhip Mukhopadhyay, Sakshi, Amber Rastogi, Anamika Thakur, Pallawi Kumari, Manmeet Kaur, Shalu, Chanchal Saini, Vandna Sapehia, Barkha, Pradeep Kumar Patel, Kailash T. Bhamare, Manoj Kumar
      Frontiers in Microbiology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • COVID-19: etiology, clinical picture, treatment
      M. Yu. Shchelkanov, L. V. Kolobukhina, O. A. Burgasova, I. S. Kruzhkova, V. V. Maleev
      Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity.2020; 10(3): 421.     CrossRef
    • Review of Burden, Clinical Definitions, and Management of COVID-19 Cases
      Laura McArthur, Dhanasekaran Sakthivel, Ricardo Ataide, Felicia Chan, Jack S. Richards, Charles A. Narh
      The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.2020; 103(2): 625.     CrossRef
    • Effects of Different Temperature and Time Durations of Virus Inactivation on Results of Real-time Fluorescence PCR Testing of COVID-19 Viruses
      Ze-gang Wu, Hong-yun Zheng, Jian Gu, Feng Li, Rui-long Lv, Ya-yun Deng, Wan-zhou Xu, Yong-qmg Tong
      Current Medical Science.2020; 40(4): 614.     CrossRef
    • Psychological distress related to COVID-19 – The contribution of continuous traumatic stress
      Yael Lahav
      Journal of Affective Disorders.2020; 277: 129.     CrossRef
    • Innate Immune Responses to Highly Pathogenic Coronaviruses and Other Significant Respiratory Viral Infections
      Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Brianna Sisson, Rajni Kant Shukla, Yasasvi Wijewantha, Nicholas T. Funderburg, Zihai Li, Don Hayes, Thorsten Demberg, Namal P. M. Liyanage
      Frontiers in Immunology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Periodenprävalenz von SARS-CoV-2 in einer unselektierten Stichprobe schwangerer Frauen in Jena, Thüringen
      Janine Zöllkau, Michael Baier, André Scherag, Ekkehard Schleußner, Tanja Groten
      Zeitschrift für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie.2020; 224(04): 194.     CrossRef
    • Effect of COVID-19 virus on reducing GHG emission and increasing energy generated by renewable energy sources: A brief study in Malaysian context
      Amirreza Naderipour, Zulkurnain Abdul-Malek, Noor Azlinda Ahmad, Hesam Kamyab, Veeramuthu Ashokkumar, Chawalit Ngamcharussrivichai, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan
      Environmental Technology & Innovation.2020; 20: 101151.     CrossRef
    • Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Confinement and Its Relationship with Meditation
      Óliver Jiménez, Laura C. Sánchez-Sánchez, José M. García-Montes
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(18): 6642.     CrossRef
    • Characteristics, laboratories, and prognosis of severe COVID-19 in the Tokyo metropolitan area: A retrospective case series
      Shusuke Mori, Tomohiko Ai, Yasuhiro Otomo, Yoshiaki Taniyama
      PLOS ONE.2020; 15(9): e0239644.     CrossRef
    • Imaging Diagnostics and Pathology in SARS-CoV-2-Related Diseases
      Manuel Scimeca, Nicoletta Urbano, Rita Bonfiglio, Manuela Montanaro, Elena Bonanno, Orazio Schillaci, Alessandro Mauriello
      International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2020; 21(18): 6960.     CrossRef
    • Coronavirus in human diseases: Mechanisms and advances in clinical treatment
      Panpan Lin, Manni Wang, Yuquan Wei, Taewan Kim, Xiawei Wei
      MedComm.2020; 1(3): 270.     CrossRef
    • Implementación del ultrasonido pulmonar en la UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19
      Francisco Godínez García, Edgar Bravo Santibáñez, Diana Vega Martínez,  Pedro Luis González Carrillo, Omar Israel Hernández Mejía, Salvador Domínguez Estrada
      Medicina Crítica.2020; 34(4): 238.     CrossRef
    • Self-perceived general and ear-nose-throat symptoms related to the COVID-19 outbreak: a survey study during quarantine in Italy
      Alessandro Micarelli, Ivan Granito, Pasquale Carlino, Beatrice Micarelli, Marco Alessandrini
      Journal of International Medical Research.2020; 48(10): 030006052096127.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 Epidemic in the Middle Province of Northern Italy: Impact, Logistics, and Strategy in the First Line Hospital
      Annalisa Gagliano, Pier Giorgio Villani, Francesca M Co’, Anna Manelli, Stefano Paglia, Pietro A. G. Bisagni, Gabriele M Perotti, Enrico Storti, Massimo Lombardo
      Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness.2020; 14(3): 372.     CrossRef
    • The protective role of life satisfaction, coping strategies and defense mechanisms on perceived stress due to COVID-19 emergency: A chained mediation model
      Alessio Gori, Eleonora Topino, Annamaria Di Fabio, Amelia Manuti
      PLOS ONE.2020; 15(11): e0242402.     CrossRef
    • Epidemiological and clinical based study on four passages of COVID-19 patients: intervention at asymptomatic period contributes to early recovery
      Xiaohong Zhang, Hailian Wang, Youwei Wang, Yu Lei, Kaiju Xu, Jie Zhang, Ying Han, Jun Zeng, Shaoping Deng, Yi Wang
      BMC Infectious Diseases.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Myths, beliefs, and perceptions about COVID-19 in Ethiopia:  A need to address information gaps and enable combating efforts
      Yohannes Kebede, Zewdie Birhanu, Diriba Fufa, Yimenu Yitayih, Jemal Abafita, Ashenafi Belay, Abera Jote, Argaw Ambelu, Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi
      PLOS ONE.2020; 15(11): e0243024.     CrossRef
    • Interpretation of the Basic and Effective Reproduction Number
      Jun-Sik Lim, Sung-Il Cho, Sukhyun Ryu, Son-Il Pak
      Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2020; 53(6): 405.     CrossRef
    • COVID-19 y prevención de brotes
      Gilberto Bastidas Pacheco, Geraldine Bastidas Delgado
      Atención Familiar.2020; 27: 29.     CrossRef
    • Plastic Surgery in the Age of Coronavirus
      Fabio Massimo Abenavoli
      Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open.2020; 8(6): e2957.     CrossRef


    Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health