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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health



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Original Article A study on the theoretical property and applied range of odds ratio
Kyung Hee Park, Seung Wook Lee
Epidemiol Health 1985;7(2):202-227
DOI: https://doi.org/
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The odds ratio, termed the cross-product ratio and the relative odds, has been used as the measure of degree of association in 2X2 contingency table. The literature on odds ratio is vast, but it is poorly integrated. This paper presents to try to get sharp understanding through the study for whole integration on the basic cencept and theoretical properties and applied range of odds ratio by means of literature consideration. The content of study is summarized as follows: In 1887, the odds ratio originally was proposed by Korosy as a natural measure of association on the efficacy of small pox vaccination, but, in his paper, was not given operational interpretation and it was difficult to compare meaningfully its values for 2X2 contingency tables. It was not used for a long time from then on. Afterwards, many statisticians have studied on the statistical property of odds ratio. For rare diseases, the odds ratio is a close approximation to the relative risk. Further, the odds ratio is directly estimable from case-control study data, even though the relative risk is not. Odds ratio has its proper invariance and nice mathematical property of log-odds transformation, called the logit. Because of these property, much attention has given to its use by epidemiologists, statisticians and a number of study has been presented. The methods of estimation of odds ratio has been studied according to statistical technique for controlling bias due to potential confounding factors, and the scope of its practical use has been very wide. In this paper, their methods are introduced, and illustrated.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health