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Epidemiol Health > Accepted Articles
Epidemiology and Health 2021;e2021101.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021101    [Accepted] Published online Nov 24, 2021.
Late Eating and Blood Pressure Control and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among Hypertensive Adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2018
Jee-Seon Shim1  , Hyeon Chang Kim2 
1Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
2Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03722, Korea
Correspondence  Jee-Seon Shim ,Email: shimjs@yuhs.ac
Received: Sep 4, 2021  Accepted after revision: Nov 24, 2021
Abstract
Objectives:
Although there are growing concerns regarding the timing of eating, little is known about the association between late eating and health. This study aimed to investigate whether late eating is associated with blood pressure (BP) control and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean hypertensive adults.
Method:
Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2018 were used. Hypertensive adults aged 30–79 years (n=13,361) were included in this study. Dietary intake and information on meal timing were assessed using a one-day 24-hour recall. Late eating was defined as after the median midpoint between the times of the first and the last eating episode during the recall day. Logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the associations between late eating and BP control and cardiometabolic risk factors.
Results:
Among late eaters, there were more men. Late eaters were younger, had a higher body mass index (BMI) and unhealthier habits, and their overall dietary quality score was lower than early eaters. A negative association between late eating and BP control was found in a univariate model (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.94–1.12), but such an association disappeared after adjustment for confounders (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94–1.12). Late eating was independently associated with higher BMI (p-value =0.03) and blood triglycerides concentration (p-value <0.01).
Conclusions:
Our results do not support a link between late eating and BP control among hypertensive adults but suggest that late eating is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors.
Keywords: chrono-nutrition; late eating; meal timing; hypertension; blood pressure; cardiometabolic risk factors


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