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Epidemiology and Health 2021;e2021079.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021079    [Accepted] Published online Oct 6, 2021.
Conceptual frameworks regarding waterborne diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and the need of a new approach to urban exposomes
Alexandre Zerbo  , Rafael Castro Delagado  , Pedro Arcos González 
Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
Correspondence  Alexandre Zerbo ,Email: crateva@yahoo.fr
Received: Aug 16, 2021  Accepted after revision: Oct 6, 2021
Abstract
Sub-Saharan African countries, like many other low-income countries, experience urban socio-economic inequalities due to rapid and unplanned urbanization. As a result, there is the creation of poor urban areas lacking basic sanitation, water and hygiene facilities, and subjacent public health issues such as the spread of waterborne diseases. The demarcation of disease transmission areas already exists, but is less appropriate in sub-Saharan Africa, making the need to divide these urban areas more adequately. In addition, the construction of frameworks tools more specific to waterborne diseases issues is essential. We propose a restructuring of sub-Saharan urban areas into more specific areas of exposure to waterborne diseases and associated exposomes. Then we use this restructuring of urban areas of exposure to waterborne diseases in a conceptual framework taken account causes of exposure, impact and interventions. The division of the urban area into public, domestic and indivudual exposure areas eases the understanding of the dynamics of waterborne exposomes. Moreover, the inclusion of this division in the DPSEEA( Driver-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework allows a effective stratified implementation of urban public health policies.
Keywords: Exposomes; Urban areas; Waterborne diseases; Sub-Saharan Africa
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