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Epidemiol Health > Volume 41; 2019 > Article
Epidemiology and Health 2019;41: e2019011-0.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019011    Published online March 31, 2019.
Efficacy of miltefosine compared with glucantime for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Sohrab Iranpour1,2  , Ali Hosseinzadeh3  , Abbas Alipour4 
1Student Research Committee, Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran
3Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute for Future Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
4Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Iran
Correspondence  Abbas Alipour ,Email: alipour.abbas59@gmail.com
Received: March 1, 2019  Accepted after revision: March 31, 2019
Abstract
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is most common form of leishmaniasis and is characterized by ulcerative skin lesions. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials that compared the efficacy of miltefosine and glucantime for the treatment of CL. We searched the following databases: Cochrane, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform search portal of World Health Organization, Sid, Irandoc, Magiran, and clinicaltrials.gov. We used keywords including “miltefosine,” “glucantime,” and “Leishmania.” The quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A random-effects model was employed for the analysis. We assessed heterogeneity by the chi-square test and the I2 index statistic. When heterogeneity was present, meta-regression analyses were performed. The Egger method was used to assess publication bias; when it was significant, the trim-and-fill method was used to test and adjust for publication bias. A total of 1,570 reports were identified, of which 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis. In the meta-analysis, there was no significant difference between the efficacy of miltefosine and glucantime; however, subgroup analysis showed that, regarding parasite species other than Leishmania braziliensis, miltefosine was significantly superior to glucantime (intention to treat; relative risk, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.32). In the meta-regression, only the glucantime injection type was significant at the p=0.1 level. The Egger test found statistically significant publication bias; however, including the 3 missing studies in the trim-and-fill analysis did not change the results. This meta-analysis found that miltefosine seems to be more effective than glucantime, at least in species other than L. braziliensis, for treating CL.
Keywords: Efficacy, Miltefosine, Glucantime, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Systematic review, Meta-analyses


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