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2 "Therapeutics"
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Original Article
Changes in the treatment rate of patients newly diagnosed with stage IV cancer near the end of life from 2012 to 2017 in Korea
Kyuwoong Kim, Hyun Jung Jho, So Jung Park, Bohyun Park, Jin Young Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023021.   Published online February 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023021
  • 4,001 View
  • 147 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to evaluate changes in the cancer treatment rate among patients newly diagnosed with stage IV cancer using socio-demographic and clinical subgroups in a nationwide cohort of Korean patients.
METHODS
This retrospective, national-level study used the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR), which is linked to the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2017. The records of patients newly diagnosed with stage IV of the 5 cancers with the highest cancer-related mortality rate were identified to analyze changes in the treatment rate. The main outcome examined in this study was the change in the cancer treatment rate between 2012 and 2017, as measured using the annual percent change (APC).
RESULTS
A total of 106,082 patients with newly diagnosed gastric, colorectal, liver, pancreatic, and lung cancers at the end of life (EoL) were identified from the KCCR-NHIS database. Of these patients, 76,533 (72.1%) received cancer treatment. Over the study period (2012-2017), the proportion of patients who received cancer treatment at EoL decreased by 8.3%, with an APC of -2.1% (95% confidence interval, -2.6 to -1.6). This declining trend of cancer treatment among patients with advanced cancer stage at EoL was consistent among socio-demographic and clinical subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS
The proportion of untreated patients with stage IV cancer is increasing in the Korea. For patients who are not undergoing standard cancer treatment near EoL, an alternative care plan, such as early palliative care, should be considered.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강보험공단과 중앙암등록본부 자료를 활용하여 4기 암환자의 암 치료 비율 추이를 분석한 결과 2012년부터 2017년까지 위암, 대장암, 간암, 췌장암, 폐암으로 진단받은 4기 암환자들의 암 치료 비율의 연간비율변화는 8.3% 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 인구사회학적 및 임상적 특성에 관계없이 일관되었다. 본 연구결과는 말기에 가까운 4기 암 환자들이 표준 치료를 받지 못하는 경우, 조기 완화의료와 같은 대안적인 계획을 고려할 필요가 있음을 시사한다.
Key Message
● Between 2012 and 2017, there was a significant decrease in the treatment rate among these patients, though most still received cancer treatment. ● Alternative clinical choices, such as the early utilization of hospice and palliative care, may improve quality of life and reduce the need for aggressive care for such patients.
Review
Monkeypox: the resurgence of forgotten things
Sun Bean Kim, Jaehun Jung, Kyong Ran Peck
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022082.   Published online September 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022082
  • 3,889 View
  • 144 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Monkeypox, a rare zoonotic disease, is primarily prevalent in Central and Western Africa. However, monkeypox is emerging as a worldwide concern due to the 2022 monkeypox outbreak, which is the first instance of widespread community transmission outside Africa. Monkeypox is caused by the monkeypox virus, which belongs to the genus <i>Orthopoxvirus</i> and presents as a vesicular-pustular disease that may be preceded by fever, malaise, and other constitutional symptoms. If present, lymphadenopathy may distinguish it from chickenpox or smallpox. However, contrary to previous manifestations, most monkeypox patients presented with atypical features during the 2022 outbreak. Monkeypox is usually a self-limiting disease with symptoms lasting between 2 weeks and 4 weeks and is mainly transmitted when a person comes into contact with an infected animal, person, or fomites contaminated with the virus. Very few treatment options are available for this disease. Tecovirimat has been licensed in some countries for the treatment of smallpox and monkeypox infections. Two other medications, cidofovir and brincidofovir, have been found to be effective against poxviruses in in vitro and animal studies, but data on human cases of monkeypox are limited. Although Imvamune (JYNNEOS), a vaccine against monkeypox, is authorized in the United States, there are currently no established routine vaccination programs. Current preventive strategies focus on the detection of probable cases and containment of the outbreak through the implementation of selected ring vaccination programs. Fundamental principles to prevent the spread of monkeypox, including maintaining personal hygiene and avoiding close contact with symptomatic patients, are of paramount importance.
Summary
Korean summary
원숭이두창은 orthopoxvirus에 속하는 원숭이두창 바이러스에 의해 발생하며, 중앙아프리카와 서아프리카에서 주로 발견되는 희귀한 인수공통감염병이었으나 2022년에 집단 발병했던 원숭이두창 환자들은 이전부터 널리 알려진 증세와 달리 비전형적인 임상 특징을 보이고 있고, 전 세계적으로 아프리카와의 역학적 연관성없이 아프리카 이외의 여러 지역에서 원숭이두창이 집단 발병하면서 보건학적 화두로 대두되었다. 원숭이두창에 대한 치료는 증상 호전을 위한 대증 요법이 주가 되며, 매우 제한적인 항바이러스제가 치료 약제로 이용된다. 2019년 미국에서 Imvamune (Jynneos)가 성인을 대상으로 원숭이두창 백신으로 사용이 승인되었다. 하지만 예방 접종뿐만 아니라 손씻기 등의 개인위생 유지, 의심 혹은 확진 환자와의 긴밀한 접촉을 피하는 것 등이 원숭이두창 확산을 막기 위한 가장 중요한 기본 원칙이다.
Key Message
Monkeypox is caused by the monkeypox virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus and presents as a vesicular-pustular disease that may be preceded by fever, malaise, and other constitutional symptoms. Contrary to previous manifestations, most monkeypox patients presented with atypical features during the 2022 outbreak. Very few treatment options are available for this disease and current preventive strategies focus on the detection of probable cases and containment of the outbreak through the implementation of selected ring vaccination programs. Fundamental principles to prevent the spread of monkeypox, including maintaining personal hygiene and avoiding close contact with symptomatic patients, are of paramount importance.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Breaking Barriers: Current Advances and Future Directions in Mpox Therapy
    Bhumi M. Shah, Palmi Modi
    Current Drug Targets.2024; 25(1): 62.     CrossRef
  • How to cope with suspected mpox patients in the outpatient clinic
    Nam Joong Kim, Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2023; 66(5): 325.     CrossRef
  • An International Outburst of New Form of Monkeypox Virus
    Kiran Dobhal, Pallavi Ghildiyal, A.N.M. Ansori, Vikash Jakhmola
    Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology.2022; 16(suppl 1): 3013.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health