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2 "Protective factors"
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Equivalence model: A new graphical model for causal inference
Jalal Poorolajal
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020024.   Published online April 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020024
  • 11,261 View
  • 197 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Although several causal models relevant to epidemiology have been proposed, a key question that has remained unanswered is why some people at high-risk for a particular disease do not develop the disease while some people at low-risk do develop it. The equivalence model, proposed herein, addresses this dilemma. The equivalence model provides a graphical description of the overall effect of risk and protective factors at the individual level. Risk factors facilitate the occurrence of the outcome (the development of disease), whereas protective factors inhibit that occurrence. The equivalence model explains how the overall effect relates to the occurrence of the outcome. When a balance exists between risk and protective factors, neither can overcome the other; therefore, the outcome will not occur. Similarly, the outcome will not occur when the units of the risk factor(s) are less than or equal to the units of the protective factor(s). In contrast, the outcome will occur when the units of the risk factor(s) are greater than the units of the protective factor(s). This model can be used to describe, in simple terms, causal inferences in complex situations with multiple known and unknown risk and protective factors. It can also justify how people with a low level of exposure to one or more risk factor(s) may be affected by a certain disease while others with a higher level of exposure to the same risk factor(s) may remain unaffected.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The role of problem-solving skills in the prevention of suicidal behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Nahid Darvishi, Mehran Farhadi, Bita Azmi-Naei, Jalal Poorolajal, Humayun Kabir
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(10): e0293620.     CrossRef
  • Risk of primary lung cancer after breast cancer radiotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Bushra Zareie, Mohammad Aziz Rasouli, Jalal Poorolajal
    Breast Cancer.2022; 29(2): 361.     CrossRef
  • The effect of silica exposure on the risk of lung cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis
    Fatemeh Shahbazi, Mina Morsali, Jalal Poorolajal
    Cancer Epidemiology.2021; 75: 102024.     CrossRef
  • Factors for the Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
    Jalal Poorolajal, Fatemeh Heidarimoghis, Manoochehr Karami, Zahra Cheraghi, Fatemeh Gohari-Ensaf, Fatemeh Shahbazi, Bushra Zareie, Pegah Ameri, Fatemeh Sahraei
    Journal of Research in Health Sciences.2021; 21(3): e00520.     CrossRef
  • The Epidemiology of Aggression and Associated Factors among Iranian Adult Population: A National Survey
    Jalal Poorolajal, Bahram Ebrahimi, Forouzan Rezapur-Shahkolai, Amin Doosti-Irani, Mahnaz Alizadeh, Jamal Ahmadpoor, Leila Moradi, Azam Biderafsh, Fateme Nikbakht, Zakie Golmohammadi, Ehsan Sarbazi, Samira Bahadivand, Marzieh Jahani Sayad Noveiri, Maryam R
    Journal of Research in Health Sciences.2020; 20(4): e00499.     CrossRef
Review
Protective factors of marital stability in long-term marriage globally: a systematic review
Reza Karimi, Maryam Bakhtiyari, Abbas Masjedi Arani
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019023.   Published online June 15, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019023
  • 38,668 View
  • 697 Download
  • 25 Web of Science
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
In recent decades, due to the high prevalence of divorce in numerous countries and the detrimental aftermath thereof, it has become increasingly important to study the components of marital stability. The current study explored fundamental protective factors in long-term marriage through a systematic review.
METHODS
Searches for relevant publications were conducted in Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database from their inception through January 30, 2019. Through the keyword search, 1,706 articles were found, of which 25 articles remained after screening based on the eligibility criteria.
RESULTS
The extracted protective factors associated with marital stability in long-term marriage were classified as interpersonal and intrapersonal. Notable extracted factors included spirituality and religion, commitment, sexual relationship, communication, children, love and attachment, intimacy, and conflict resolution approach. These findings show that some aspects of relationships, such as commitment, act to preserve the pillars of marriage in critical situations, while other aspects, such as intimacy, help to construct marital identity and satisfaction.
CONCLUSIONS
The identified components of marital stability are structures that enhance a couple’s identity and sense of togetherness. Identifying the specific aspects of marital relationships that contribute to marital stability may help specialists and researchers to target specific types of marital interaction that may enhance the happiness and longevity of relationships, thereby preventing avoidable divorces.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Likawunt S. Asfaw, Getu D. Alene
    Journal of Marital and Family Therapy.2023; 49(3): 541.     CrossRef
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    Ida Halimatus Sakdiyah
    Journal of Modern Islamic Studies and Civilization.2023; 1(01): 40.     CrossRef
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    Hanayo Matsukura, Yui Yamaoka, Yusuke Matsuyama, Katsunori Kondo, Takeo Fujiwara
    Child Abuse & Neglect.2023; 144: 106340.     CrossRef
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    Ian C. Fischer, Louanne W. Davis, Melissa A. Cyders, Michelle P. Salyers, Kevin L. Rand
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2023; 339: 781.     CrossRef
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    Korean Journal of Human Ecology.2023; 32(4): 375.     CrossRef
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    Beth E. Anderson, Paul D. S. Ross
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    World of Medicine and Biology.2022; 18(80): 78.     CrossRef
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    BMC Women's Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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