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1 "Monkeypox virus"
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Monkeypox: the resurgence of forgotten things
Sun Bean Kim, Jaehun Jung, Kyong Ran Peck
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022082.   Published online September 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022082
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  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Monkeypox, a rare zoonotic disease, is primarily prevalent in Central and Western Africa. However, monkeypox is emerging as a worldwide concern due to the 2022 monkeypox outbreak, which is the first instance of widespread community transmission outside Africa. Monkeypox is caused by the monkeypox virus, which belongs to the genus <i>Orthopoxvirus</i> and presents as a vesicular-pustular disease that may be preceded by fever, malaise, and other constitutional symptoms. If present, lymphadenopathy may distinguish it from chickenpox or smallpox. However, contrary to previous manifestations, most monkeypox patients presented with atypical features during the 2022 outbreak. Monkeypox is usually a self-limiting disease with symptoms lasting between 2 weeks and 4 weeks and is mainly transmitted when a person comes into contact with an infected animal, person, or fomites contaminated with the virus. Very few treatment options are available for this disease. Tecovirimat has been licensed in some countries for the treatment of smallpox and monkeypox infections. Two other medications, cidofovir and brincidofovir, have been found to be effective against poxviruses in in vitro and animal studies, but data on human cases of monkeypox are limited. Although Imvamune (JYNNEOS), a vaccine against monkeypox, is authorized in the United States, there are currently no established routine vaccination programs. Current preventive strategies focus on the detection of probable cases and containment of the outbreak through the implementation of selected ring vaccination programs. Fundamental principles to prevent the spread of monkeypox, including maintaining personal hygiene and avoiding close contact with symptomatic patients, are of paramount importance.
Summary
Korean summary
원숭이두창은 orthopoxvirus에 속하는 원숭이두창 바이러스에 의해 발생하며, 중앙아프리카와 서아프리카에서 주로 발견되는 희귀한 인수공통감염병이었으나 2022년에 집단 발병했던 원숭이두창 환자들은 이전부터 널리 알려진 증세와 달리 비전형적인 임상 특징을 보이고 있고, 전 세계적으로 아프리카와의 역학적 연관성없이 아프리카 이외의 여러 지역에서 원숭이두창이 집단 발병하면서 보건학적 화두로 대두되었다. 원숭이두창에 대한 치료는 증상 호전을 위한 대증 요법이 주가 되며, 매우 제한적인 항바이러스제가 치료 약제로 이용된다. 2019년 미국에서 Imvamune (Jynneos)가 성인을 대상으로 원숭이두창 백신으로 사용이 승인되었다. 하지만 예방 접종뿐만 아니라 손씻기 등의 개인위생 유지, 의심 혹은 확진 환자와의 긴밀한 접촉을 피하는 것 등이 원숭이두창 확산을 막기 위한 가장 중요한 기본 원칙이다.
Key Message
Monkeypox is caused by the monkeypox virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus and presents as a vesicular-pustular disease that may be preceded by fever, malaise, and other constitutional symptoms. Contrary to previous manifestations, most monkeypox patients presented with atypical features during the 2022 outbreak. Very few treatment options are available for this disease and current preventive strategies focus on the detection of probable cases and containment of the outbreak through the implementation of selected ring vaccination programs. Fundamental principles to prevent the spread of monkeypox, including maintaining personal hygiene and avoiding close contact with symptomatic patients, are of paramount importance.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • How to cope with suspected mpox patients in the outpatient clinic
    Nam Joong Kim, Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2023; 66(5): 325.     CrossRef
  • An International Outburst of New Form of Monkeypox Virus
    Kiran Dobhal, Pallavi Ghildiyal, A.N.M. Ansori, Vikash Jakhmola
    Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology.2022; 16(suppl 1): 3013.     CrossRef

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