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Trends and disparities in avoidable, treatable, and preventable mortalities in South Korea, 2001-2020: comparison of capital and non-capital areas
Sang Jun Eun
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022067.   Published online August 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022067
  • 8,541 View
  • 286 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to describe the regional avoidable mortality trends in Korea and examine the trends in avoidable mortality disparities between the Seoul Capital Area and non-Seoul-Capital areas, thereby exploring the underlying reasons for the trend changes.
METHODS
Age-standardized mortality rates from avoidable causes between 2001-2020 were calculated by region. Regional disparities in avoidable mortality were quantified on both absolute and relative scales. Trends and disparities in avoidable mortality were analyzed using joinpoint regression models.
RESULTS
Avoidable, treatable, and preventable mortalities in Korea decreased at different rates over time by region. The largest decreases were in the non-Seoul-Capital non-metropolitan area for avoidable and preventable mortality rates and the non-Seoul- Capital metropolitan area for treatable mortality rates, despite the largest decline being in the Seoul Capital Area prior to around 2009. Absolute and relative regional disparities in avoidable and preventable mortalities generally decreased. Relative disparities in treatable mortality between areas widened. Regional disparities in all types of mortalities tended to improve after around 2009, especially among males. In females, disparities in avoidable, treatable, and preventable mortalities between areas improved less or even worsened.
CONCLUSIONS
Trends and disparities in avoidable mortality across areas in Korea seem to have varied under the influence of diverse social changes. Enhancing health services to underserved areas and strengthening gender-oriented policies are needed to reduce regional disparities in avoidable mortality.
Summary
Korean summary
2001년부터 2020년까지 회피가능, 예방가능 사망률의 수도권과 비수도권 대도시, 비수도권 비대도시 지역 간 절대적, 상대적 격차는 대체로 감소했지만, 치료가능 사망률의 상대적 격차는 커졌다. 회피가능, 치료가능, 예방가능 사망률의 지역 간 격차는 2009년경 이후에 특히 남성에서 개선됐지만, 여성의 경우 덜 개선되거나 오히려 악화되기도 했다.
Key Message
Regional disparities in avoidable, treatable, and preventable mortalities tended to improve after around 2009, especially among males, but, in females, disparities in all types of mortalities between areas improved less or even worsened.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Evaluating the effects of the 2017 National Health Insurance coverage expansion on amenable mortality and its disparities between areas in South Korea using Bayesian structural time-series models
    Sang Jun Eun
    Social Science & Medicine.2024; 344: 116574.     CrossRef
  • Regional Health Disparities in Hypertension-Related Hospitalization of Hypertensive Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study
    Woo-Ri Lee, Jun Hyuk Koo, Ji Yun Jeong, Min Su Kim, Ki-Bong Yoo
    International Journal of Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Regional Disparities in the Infant Mortality Rate in Korea Between 2001 and 2021
    Hyeongtaek Woo, Ji Sook Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Changes in Barriers That Cause Unmet Healthcare Needs in the Life Cycle of Adulthood and Their Policy Implications: A Need-Selection Model Analysis of the Korea Health Panel Survey Data
    Woojin Chung
    Healthcare.2022; 10(11): 2243.     CrossRef
Preventable causes of cancer in Texas by race/ethnicity: tobacco smoking
Franciska J. Gudenkauf, Aaron P. Thrift
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021046.   Published online July 13, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021046
  • 9,157 View
  • 257 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Tobacco smoking is classified as carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1). We aimed to estimate the percentage and number of incident cancer cases diagnosed in Texas in 2015 that were attributable to tobacco smoking, and we examined differences in the proportions of smoking-attributable cancers between the major racial/ethnic subgroups of the population.
METHODS
We calculated population-attributable fractions for cancers attributable to tobacco smoking using prevalence data from the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and relative risks associated with smoking status from pooled analyses of cohort studies or meta-analyses. Cancer incidence data were collected from the Texas Cancer Registry.
RESULTS
We estimated that 19,000 excess cancer cases or 18.4% of all cancers diagnosed in 2015 in Texans aged ≥ 25 years were caused by tobacco smoking. Males had a higher overall proportion of cancers attributable to tobacco smoking than females (male, 23.3%, 11,993 excess cases; female, 13.5%, 7,006 cases). Approximately 20% of cancer cases in non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks were attributable to tobacco smoking compared to 12.8% among Hispanics.
CONCLUSIONS
Despite ongoing public health campaigns combatting tobacco use, this preventable behavior still contributes significantly to cancer incidence in Texas. Racial/ethnic differences in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable cancer incidence should be considered when designing cancer prevention programs.
Summary
Key Message
Tobacco smoking remains a major contributor to cancer burden in the United States, particularly among men, non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic Blacks due to historically higher smoking rates.
Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I
Horim Yi, Hyemin Lee, Jooyoung Park, Bokyoung Choi, Seung-Sup Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017046.   Published online October 19, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017046
  • 52,003 View
  • 364 Download
  • 19 Web of Science
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities.
METHODS
The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women).
RESULTS
Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men.
CONCLUSIONS
The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 만 19세 이상의 한국 성인 동성애자와 양성애자를 대상으로 이들의 건강상태에 대한 설문조사를 시행하고, 수집한 자료를 분석하여 동성애자·양성애자의 건강불평등 실태를 파악하고자 하였다. 본 연구의 목적은 자가평가건강, 정신건강(우울, 자살생각 및 자살시도), 신체적 건강(근골격계 통증) 및 건강관련행동(흡연율, 위험음주율)을 포함하여 다양한 측면에서 한국 성인 동성애자·양성애자와 일반인구집단의 건강수준을 비교하는 것이다.

Citations

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  • Internalized homophobia and HIV testing among Korean gay and bisexual men: a study in a high-income country with pervasive HIV/AIDS stigma
    Hyemin Lee, Don Operario, Madina Agénor, Horim Yi, Sungsub Choo, Seung-Sup Kim
    AIDS Care.2023; 35(5): 672.     CrossRef
  • Experiences of conflict, non-acceptance and discrimination are associated with poor mental well-being amongst LGBTQ-identified individuals in Singapore
    Gerard W. Toh, Wee Ling Koh, Jack Ho, Jackson Chia, Ad Maulod, Irene Tirtajana, Peter Yang, Mathia Lee
    Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal.2023; 42(5): 625.     CrossRef
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    Dong-Jin Kim, Na-Hyun Hwang, Ji Yoon Lee, Seung Ha Park, Byung-Il Lee, Eul-Sik Yoon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Does discrimination prevent transgender and gender diverse people from seeking healthcare?: A nationwide cohort study in South Korea
    Ranyeong Kim, Sungsub Choo, Hyemin Lee, Yun-Jung Eom, Horim Yi, Rockli Kim, Seung-Sup Kim
    International Journal of Transgender Health.2023; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Adverse childhood experiences and depressive symptoms among lesbian and bisexual women in China
    Biao Zhu, Chenchang Xiao, Changmian Ding, Hong Yan, Liyin Wang, Qingqing Jiang, Jiawei Tian, Liqing Wei
    BMC Women's Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Eunha Kim, Haebeen Kim, Kahee Lee
    Psychology & Sexuality.2022; 13(5): 1214.     CrossRef
  • Association between Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among 2,162 Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in South Korea: Does Community Connectedness Modify the Association?
    Hyemin Lee, Jooyoung Park, Bokyoung Choi, Horim Yi, Seung-Sup Kim
    Journal of Homosexuality.2021; 68(1): 70.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of 12-month mental and substance use disorders in sexual minority college students in Mexico
    Roberto Rentería, Corina Benjet, Raúl A. Gutiérrez-García, Adrián Abrego-Ramírez, Yesica Albor, Guilherme Borges, María Anabell Covarrubias Díaz-Couder, María del Socorro Durán, Rogaciano González-González, Rebeca Guzmán Saldaña, Alicia E. Hermosillo De l
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    Ssirai Kim, Smi Choi-Kwon
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(4): 2115.     CrossRef
  • Sexual Orientation Change Efforts, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidality Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in South Korea
    Hyemin Lee, Carl G. Streed, Horim Yi, Sungsub Choo, Seung-Sup Kim
    LGBT Health.2021; 8(6): 427.     CrossRef
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    David Adzrago, Ikponmwosa Osaghae, Nnenna Ananaba, Sylvia Ayieko, Pierre Fwelo, Nnabuchi Anikpezie, Donna Cherry
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    Tonda L. Hughes, Cindy B. Veldhuis, Laurie A. Drabble, Sharon C. Wilsnack, Russell Kabir
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    Hyemin Lee, Don Operario, Jacob J. van den Berg, Horim Yi, Sungsub Choo, Seung-Sup Kim
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2020; 32(2-3): 103.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(23): 8924.     CrossRef
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    Hyemin Lee, Don Operario, Horim Yi, Sungsub Choo, Seung-Sup Kim
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Exploring neighborhood inequality in female breast cancer incidence in Tehran using Bayesian spatial models and a spatial scan statistic
Erfan Ayubi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Ali Ghanbari Motlagh, Alireza Mosavi-Jarrahi, Ali Hosseini, Kamran Yazdani
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017021.   Published online May 17, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017021
  • 14,918 View
  • 225 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to explore the spatial pattern of female breast cancer (BC) incidence at the neighborhood level in Tehran, Iran.
METHODS
The present study included all registered incident cases of female BC from March 2008 to March 2011. The raw standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of BC for each neighborhood was estimated by comparing observed cases relative to expected cases. The estimated raw SIRs were smoothed by a Besag, York, and Mollie spatial model and the spatial empirical Bayesian method. The purely spatial scan statistic was used to identify spatial clusters.
RESULTS
There were 4,175 incident BC cases in the study area from 2008 to 2011, of which 3,080 were successfully geocoded to the neighborhood level. Higher than expected rates of BC were found in neighborhoods located in northern and central Tehran, whereas lower rates appeared in southern areas. The most likely cluster of higher than expected BC incidence involved neighborhoods in districts 3 and 6, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 3.92 (p<0.001), whereas the most likely cluster of lower than expected rates involved neighborhoods in districts 17, 18, and 19, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 0.05 (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Neighborhood-level inequality in the incidence of BC exists in Tehran. These findings can serve as a basis for resource allocation and preventive strategies in at-risk areas.
Summary

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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health