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The Asenze Cohort Study in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: protocol and cohort profile
Chris Desmond, Gabriella A. Norwitz, Jane D. Kvalsvig, Rachel S. Gruver, Shuaib Kauchali, Kathryn G. Watt, Nonhlanhla P. Myeza, Adele Munsami, Leslie L. Davidson
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022037.   Published online April 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022037
  • 6,504 View
  • 250 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The Asenze cohort is set in South Africa, a middle-income country impacted by one of the highest global rates of people living with HIV/AIDS and high levels of socioeconomic inequality. This longitudinal population-based cohort of children and their primary caregivers assesses household and caregiver functioning, child health, social well-being, and neuro-development from childhood through adolescence. Almost 1,600 children born at the peak of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic (2003-2005) were followed (with their primary caregivers) in 3 waves, between 2008 and 2021, at average ages of 5, 7, and 16. Wave 3 is currently underway, having assessed over 1,100 of the original wave 1 children. Wave 4 begins in 2022. The study, with a dyadic structure, uses a broad range of measures, validated in South Africa or recommended for global use, that address physical, social and neuro-development in childhood and adolescence, and the social, health, and psychological status of children’s primary caregivers. The Asenze study deepens our understanding of childhood physical, cognitive, and social abilities and/or disabilities, including risk-taking behaviors, and biological, environmental, and social determinants of health. We anticipate the findings will contribute to the development of community-informed interventions to promote well-being in this South African population and elsewhere.
Summary
Key Message
The Asenze Cohort Study, one of a limited number of population-based studies set in low- and middle-income countries, with a high level of retention, provides an understanding of neuro-developmental, psychosocial, home environmental and economic exposures and outcomes of over 1100 adolescents and their primary caregivers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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  • The impact of caregiver mental health on child prosocial behavior: A longitudinal analysis of children and caregivers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
    Gabriella A. Norwitz, Chris Desmond, Rachel S. Gruver, Jane D. Kvalsvig, Amaleah F. Mirti, Shuaib Kauchali, Leslie L. Davidson, Giulia Ballarotto
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(10): e0290788.     CrossRef
Brief Communication
Prospective cohort data quality assurance and quality control strategy and method: Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
Soo Min Kim, Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Minjeong Kim, Sang Il Kim, Jun Young Choi, Shin-Woo Kim, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee, Myeongsu Yoo, Jeong Gyu Lee, Bo Young Park
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020063.   Published online September 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020063
  • 10,446 View
  • 207 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of effective data quality control and management is to minimize the impact of errors on study results by identifying and correcting them. This study presents the results of a data quality control system for the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study that took into account the characteristics of the data.
METHODS
The HIV/AIDS Cohort Study in Korea conducts repeated measurements every 6 months using an electronic survey administered to voluntarily consenting participants and collects data from 21 hospitals. In total, 5,795 sets of data from 1,442 participants were collected from the first investigation in 2006 to 2016. The data refining results of 2015 and 2019 were converted into the data refining rate and compared.
RESULTS
The quality control system involved 3 steps at different points in the process, and each step contributed to data quality management and results. By improving data quality control in the pre-phase and the data collection phase, the estimated error value in 2019 was 1,803, reflecting a 53.9% reduction from 2015. Due to improvements in the stage after data collection, the data refining rate was 92.7% in 2019, a 24.21%p increase from 2015.
CONCLUSIONS
Despite this quality management strategy, errors may still exist at each stage. Logically possible errors for the post-review refining of downloaded data should be actively identified with appropriate consideration of the purpose and epidemiological characteristics of the study data. To improve data quality and reliability, data management strategies should be systematically implemented.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국 에이즈 코호트 자료의 연구 목적과 역학적 특성을 고려한 체계적인 질 관리 방법과 결과를 제시한다. 시간적 선후 관계를 고려한 로직을 활용한 자료정제 과정을 비롯한 3단계의 체계적인 질 관리 방법은 이제껏 없었던 국내 코호트 자료 질 관리에 도움이 될 것으로 사료된다.

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  • Effect of characteristics on the clinical course at the initiation of treatment for human immunodeficiency virus infection using dimensionality reduction
    Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Sang Il Kim, Jungsoon Choi, Jieun Kim, Bo Young Park, Soo Min Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Jun Yong Choi, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Hyo Youl Kim, Jin-Soo Lee, Jung Ho Kim, Yoon Hee Jun, Myungsun Lee, Jaehyun Seong
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Nationwide Evaluation of the Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Brazil (POP-Brazil Study): Protocol for Data Quality Assurance and Control
    Jaqueline Driemeyer Correia Horvath, Marina Bessel, Natália Luiza Kops, Flávia Moreno Alves Souza, Gerson Mendes Pereira, Eliana Marcia Wendland
    JMIR Research Protocols.2022; 11(1): e31365.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Spatial inequalities and predictors of HIV/AIDS mortality risk in Hamadan, Iran: a retrospective cohort study
Somayeh Momenyan, Amir Kavousi, Jalal Poorolajal, Narges Momenyan
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018038.   Published online August 5, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018038
  • 10,612 View
  • 212 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Understanding the geographic variation of HIV/AIDS mortality risk and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection could help identify high-burden areas. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of predictors of the time interval between HIV diagnosis to death, while accounting for spatial correlations across counties, and to assess patterns of spatial inequalities in the risk of HIV/AIDS mortality in Hamadan Province, Iran.
METHODS
This retrospective study was conducted on 585 patients. The outcome in this study was the time period between the date of HIV/AIDS diagnosis and the date of death. A Weibull regression model with spatial random effects was used.
RESULTS
According to multivariate analysis, there were significant associations between age, tuberculosis co-infection, and marital status and the risk of death. In terms of spatial inequalities, a cluster of counties was identified with a somewhat higher death hazard in the north, northwest, northeast, and central regions. Additionally, a cluster with a somewhat lower hazard was identified in the south, southwest, southeast, and west regions.
CONCLUSIONS
The spatial pattern of HIV/AIDS death risk could reflect inequalities in access to antiretroviral therapy and public health services. Our results underscore the importance of attention to vulnerable groups in urban areas.
Summary

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  • Prevalence, Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern, and Associated Factors of Enteric Bacterial Pathogens Among HIV Infected Patients with Diarrhea Attending the ART Clinic of Dilla University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia
    Asaye Mitiku, Zerihin Solomon, Berhanu Gidisa, Kasie Gebeyhu, Haymanot Tewabe, Demissew Shenkute, Melkayehu Kassa, Addisu Gize
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2023; Volume 16: 4227.     CrossRef
  • Análise da tendência da mortalidade por doenças definidoras e não definidoras de HIV/aids segundo características sociodemográficas, por Unidade da Federação e Brasil, 2000-2018
    Ana Paula da Cunha, Marly Marques da Cruz
    Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Spatial variability of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission in a province in the Brazilian Rainforest: An ecological study
    Marcus Matheus Quadros Santos, Bianca Alessandra Gomes do Carmo, Taymara Barbosa Rodrigues, Bruna Rafaela Leite Dias, Cleyton Abreu Martins, Glenda Roberta Oliveira Naiff Ferreira, Andressa Tavares Parente, Cíntia Yollete Urbano Pauxis Aben-Atha, Sand
    Geospatial Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical, health systems and neighbourhood determinants of tuberculosis case fatality in urban Blantyre, Malawi: a multilevel epidemiological analysis of enhanced surveillance data
    McEwen Khundi, Peter MacPherson, Helena R. A. Feasey, Rebeca Nzawa Soko, Marriott Nliwasa, Elizabeth L. Corbett, James R. Carpenter
    Epidemiology and Infection.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Spatial and temporal analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus in an area of social vulnerability in Northeast Brazil
    Géssyca Cavalcante de Melo, Emilia Carolle Azevedo de Oliveira, Iane Brito Leal, Carolina Piedade Morais de Freitas Soares Silva, Roberta Andrade Beltrão, Allan Dantas dos Santos, Renata Karina Reis, Marco Antônio Prado Nunes, Karina Conceição Gomes Macha
    Geospatial Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS among Iranian women
Ehsan Zarei, Roghayeh Khabiri, Maryam Tajvar, Shirin Nosratnejad
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018037.   Published online August 3, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018037
  • 12,524 View
  • 323 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the knowledge of Iranian women about HIV/AIDS and whether they had accepting attitudes towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sought to identify factors correlated with their knowledge and attitudes.
METHODS
The data analyzed in the present study were taken from Iran’s Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, a national survey conducted in 2015. In total, 42,630 women aged 15-49 years were identified through multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling and interviewed. Associations of the socio-demographic characteristics of participants with their knowledge and attitudes were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS
The majority (79.0%) of Iranian women had heard about HIV/AIDS, but only 19.1% had a comprehensive knowledge. In addition, only 15.4% of women had accepting attitudes toward people with HIV. Being older, married, more highly educated, and wealthier were factors associated with having more comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and living in urban areas was associated with having more positive attitudes toward people with HIV.
CONCLUSIONS
The relatively poor knowledge of Iranian women and the low prevalence of accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV highlight the need to develop policies and interventions to overcome this issue, which would be a basis for further prevention of HIV/AIDS in Iran.
Summary

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  • Study on Awareness of AIDS Knowledge and Its Influencing Factors among Older People Aged 60 and above in Yongchuan District of Chongqing
    山 李
    Aging Research.2024; 11(01): 34.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge and practice of high school students regarding HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission: Results from a cross-sectional study in an Iranian less-developed, high-risk region
    Alireza Mohamadian, Hamid Sharifi, Jafar Hassanzadeh, Mohsen Mohebbi-Nodezh, Mohammad Mohebbi-Nodezh, HosseinM Vardanjani
    Journal of Education and Health Promotion.2023; 12(1): 117.     CrossRef
  • Public Awareness and Stigmatizing Attitudes toward People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Saudi Arabia
    Marwan J. Alwazzeh, Abdullah H. Kabbani, Muhannad A. Alghamdi, Khalid I. Alharbi, Abdullah A. Qoqandi, Abdulrazaq I. Alsomali, Jose Ramon Fiore
    The Open AIDS Journal.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Determination of Women’s Level of Knowledge and Attitudes towards AIDS
    Gülpınar ASLAN, Ayşe Berivan BAKAN
    Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi.2023; 7(3): 522.     CrossRef
  • Understanding Women’s Knowledge, Awareness, and Perceptions of STIs/STDs in Asia: A Scoping Review
    Wandeep Kaur, Vimala Balakrishnan, Ian Ng Zhi Wei, Annabel Yeo Yung Chen, Zhao Ni
    Healthcare.2023; 11(19): 2643.     CrossRef
  • Correlates of prevalent HIV infection among adolescents, young adults, and older adult female sex workers in Ghana: Analysis of data from the Ghana biobehavioral survey
    Chris Guure, Samuel Dery, Seth Afagbedzi, Ernest Maya, Frances Baaba da-Costa Vroom, Kwasi Torpey, Daniel Yaw Fiaveh
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(11): e0292686.     CrossRef
  • The health inequity and socioeconomic inequality faced by adolescent girls and women on the move living with or at high risk of HIV infection, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria
    Erik Lamontagne, Hasiya Yunusa Nyako, Amaka Enemo, Aaron Sunday, Amira Muhammad, Rilwan Mohammed Abdullah, Henry Okiwu, Veronica Undelikwo, Pamela Ogbozor, Oluwaranmilowo Amusan, Oluwatoyin Alaba, Gabriel Undelikwo, Koubagnine Takpa, Greg Ashefor, Matthew
    BMJ Global Health.2023; 8(12): e012116.     CrossRef
  • Self-health care behaviors and knowledge of youth living with HIV
    Kanjana Treejan, Peerawat Jinatongthai, Summana Moolasarn, Bee Yean Low, Claire Anderson, Teeraporn Supapaan
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.2022; 62(4): 1249.     CrossRef
  • Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors Associated with Knowledge and Attitude of HIV/AIDS among Women Aged 15–49 Years Old in Indonesia
    Feny Deya Virdausi, Ferry Efendi, Tiyas Kusumaningrum, Qorinah Estiningtyas Sakilah Adnani, Lisa McKenna, Kadar Ramadhan, Ika Adelia Susanti
    Healthcare.2022; 10(8): 1545.     CrossRef
  • The Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV/AIDS Transmission at Public Health Centers: A Phenomenology Study
    Dhesi Ari Astuti, Mohammad Hakimi, Yayi Suryo Prabandari, Ida Safitri Laksanawati, Atik Triratnawati
    The Open Nursing Journal.2021; 15(1): 195.     CrossRef
  • Association of comprehensive correct HIV/AIDS knowledge among caregivers of children living with HIV and disclosure of HIV status
    NishanthKrishna Kodyalamoole, SanjeevB Badiger
    Muller Journal of Medical Sciences and Research.2021; 12(2): 70.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge gaps of STIs in Africa; Systematic review
    Marwan M. Badawi, Maryam A. SalahEldin, Alaa B. Idris, Elfatih A. Hasabo, Zeinab H. Osman, Widad M. Osman, Jayanta Bhattacharya
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(9): e0213224.     CrossRef
Cohort Profile
Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study: study design and baseline characteristics
Bo Youl Choi, Jun Yong Choi, Sang Hoon Han, Sang Il Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee, Min Ja Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Sung Soon Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, Nam Su Ku, Jin-Soo Lee, Joo-Shil Lee, Yunsu Choi, Kyong Sil Park, Joon Young Song, Jun Hee Woo, Moon Won Kang, June Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018023.   Published online June 6, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018023
  • 15,490 View
  • 366 Download
  • 14 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The number of persons infected by HIV/AIDS has consistently increased in Korea since the first case of HIV/AIDS infection in 1985 and reached 15,208 by 2016. About 1,100 new patients with HIV/ AIDS infections have emerged every year since 2013. In Korea, the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study was established for the evidenced-based prevention, treatment, and effective management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in December 2006. This study monitored 1,438 patients, who accounted for about 10% of all patients with HIV/AIDS in Korea, for 10 years with the following aims: (1) to develop an administrative system for the establishment of a HIV/AIDS cohort-based study; (2) to standardize methodologies and the case report forms; and (3) to standardize multi-cohort data and develop a data cleaning method. This study aims to monitor at least 1,000 patients (excluding those for whom investigation had been completed) per year (estimated number of patients who can be monitored by January 2018: 939). By December 2016, the sex distribution was 93.3% for men, and 6.7% for women (gender ratio, 13.9:1.0), and 98.9% of all participants were Korean. More than 50.0% of the participants were confirmed as HIV positive after 2006. This study reports competitive, long-term research that aimed to develop policies for the prevention of chronic infectious diseases for patients with HIV. The data collected over the last decade will be used to develop indices for HIV treatment and health promotion.
Summary
Korean summary
세계적으로 HIV 감염인은 감소하고 있으나, 한국의 HIV 감염은 증가하여 2013년 이후 매년 1,000명이 넘는 신규 감염인이 보고되고 있다. HIV/AIDS 코호트 연구진은 2006년부터 HIV 감염인과 AIDS 환자를 대상으로 6개월 간격의 반복 조사를 시행하여 역학과 임상 자료를 수집하여 데이터베이스를 구축하고, 생물검체를 채취하여 인체자원은행에 보관하여, HIV/AIDS의 발생 기전을 구명하고, 자연사를 파악하며, 예방과 진단, 치료, 관리 방법을 개발하기 위한 기초와 임상, 역학 연구에 활용하고 있다.

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  • Rate of and Risk Factors for Loss to Follow Up in HIV-Infected Patients in Korea: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
    Hye Seong, Yunsu Choi, Minjeong Kim, Jung Ho Kim, Joon Young Song, Shin-Woo Kim, Sang Il Kim, Youn Jeong Kim, Dae Won Park, Boyoung Park, Bo Youl Choi, Jun-Yong Choi
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2023; 55(1): 69.     CrossRef
  • Effect of characteristics on the clinical course at the initiation of treatment for human immunodeficiency virus infection using dimensionality reduction
    Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Sang Il Kim, Jungsoon Choi, Jieun Kim, Bo Young Park, Soo Min Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Jun Yong Choi, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Hyo Youl Kim, Jin-Soo Lee, Jung Ho Kim, Yoon Hee Jun, Myungsun Lee, Jaehyun Seong
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Attachment Insecurity and Stigma as Predictors of Depression and Anxiety in People Living With HIV
    Kyungmin Kim, Seoyoung Jang, Hyo-Deog Rim, Shin-Woo Kim, Hyun-ha Chang, Jungmin Woo
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(5): 418.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of Disease Burden and Immunization Rates for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in People Living with HIV: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
    Hye Seong, Yunsu Choi, Kyoung Hwan Ahn, Jun Yong Choi, Shin-Woo Kim, Sang Il Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee, Bo Youl Choi, Boyoung Park, Hak Jun Hyun, Jin Gu Yoon, Ji Yun Noh, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim, Joon Young Song
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2023; 55(4): 441.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors Associated with Medication Adherence in HIV/AIDS Patients
    Kyung Sun Oh, Jin-soo Lee, Euna Han
    Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy.2023; 33(4): 254.     CrossRef
  • Effect of single tablet regimen on prescription trends for treatment-naïve patients with HIV/AIDS in Korea
    Kyung Sun Oh, Gi Hyeon Seo, Hee Kyoung Choi, Euna Han
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Predictors Associated With HIV Status Non-Disclosure in Korea
    Kyungmin Kim, Jungmin Woo
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Three Cardiovascular Risk Scores among HIV-Infected Patients in Korea: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
    Ji Yun Bae, Soo Min Kim, Yunsu Choi, Jun Yong Choi, Sang Il Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Bo Young Park, Bo Youl Choi, Hee Jung Choi
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2022; 54(3): 409.     CrossRef
  • The Incidence and Risk Factors of Renal Insufficiency among Korean HIV infected Patients: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
    Jun Hyoung Kim, Heeseon Jang, Jung Ho Kim, Joon Young Song, Shin-Woo Kim, Sang Il Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Jun Yong Choi
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2022; 54(3): 534.     CrossRef
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    Eunyoung Lee, Jungmee Kim, Jin Yong Lee, Ji Hwan Bang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Gastrointestinal Kaposi's Sarcoma: A Case Report
    Hee Joong Lim, So Hyun Park, Seung Joon Choi, Suyoung Park, Hee Young Lee, Jun Won Chung, Dong Hae Chung
    Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology.2020; 81(5): 1260.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological characteristics of HIV infected Korean: Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
    Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Soo Min Kim, Sang Il Kim, June Kim, Jun Young Choi, Shin-Woo Kim, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Dae Won Park, Hyo Youl Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Mee-Kyung Kee, Young Hyun Shin, Myeongsu Yoo
    Epidemiology and Health.2019; 41: e2019037.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Characteristics and Survival between Prospective and Retrospective Korea Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Cohort Studies
    Jun Hyoung Kim, Yunsu Choi, Joon Young Song, Shin-Woo Kim, Sang Il Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee, Bo Youl Choi, Jun Yong Choi
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Original Article
Perspectives of Policies on HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis Control in Korea.
Bo Youl Choi
Korean J Epidemiol. 2006;28(1):75-84.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Since the early 1990s, Korea has made efforts to strengthen its National Communicable Disease Control System. In 2005, the Korea government developed various goals for communicable diseases control as a part of Health Plan 2010. The goals include 40 objectives, for the achievement of which a variety of programs and research subjects have been developed. These efforts will contribute to raising the preparedness for and response to the global threat of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The author reviewed the status, management goals and future tasks of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis in Korea. HIV/AIDS is an emerging infectious disease, and tuberculosis is an endemic disease in Korea. These two diseases are included in the UN Millennium Development Goal 6. The number of HIV/AIDS cases reported in Korea at the end of December 2005 was 3,829, of which 721 have died. The reported HIV prevalence rate among adults aged in 15-49 years is below 0.1%, and the infection level is categorized as "very low". However, the number of newly infected cases has been rising rapidly. The goal of HIV/AIDS control in Health Plan 2010 is to reduce the increasing rate of HIV/AIDS to 35% in 2010. Compared with the global Millennium Development Goal, which is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015, we should set up long-term, high level goals, in addition to a comprehensive national plan for the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. Korea first implemented a Nationwide Tuberculosis Control Program in the 1960s. By 2005, the prevalence of radiologically active tuberculosis had fallen to 0.35% which is one-fifteenth of the level of 1965. Nevertheless, the current prevalence of and death rate from tuberculosis continue to be much higher than those of advanced nations. Given this such a level of infection, the goals of tuberculosis control need to be specified, and an enhanced tuberculosis control program needs to be implemented to reduce the incidence of tuberculosis and associated death rates.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health