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Cohort profile: Singapore’s nationally representative Retirement and Health Study with 5 waves over 10 years
Reuben Ng, Yi Wen Tan, Kelvin Bryan Tan
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022030.   Published online February 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022030
  • 6,269 View
  • 256 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The Retirement and Health Study (RHS) is Singapore’s largest nationally representative cohort with over 15,000 participants (aged 45-85 years) followed across five timepoints in 10 years (2014-2024). Accounting for sample weights, the sample represents 1.2 million Singaporeans and permanent residents of a total population of 5.5 million. The RHS sought consent to link survey responses to relevant administrative data, enabling the cross-validation of self-reports with national databases. There are 10 sections in the RHS with over 400 questions, 50% of which are on respondents’ physical and mental health, healthcare utilization and insurance; the remaining 50% are about employment history, retirement adequacy, wealth, and household expenditure. The RHS was set up to provide microdata to compliment administrative data for whole-of-government policy making given that Singapore will reach super-aged status by 2026. Sample findings include a need for older adults to balance between immediate financial needs and investments regarding their pension funds. Also, 86% of older adults preferred to transit into partial retirement by reducing workloads. On the health front, existing studies utilising the RHS have revealed latent classes of disabilities, and that intentions to seek employment can mitigate disability developments. Another study reported that physical disability and social isolation was projected to increase, with ethnic disparities in social functioning. Overall, the RHS will be used for evidenced-informed policy agenda setting and evaluation across domains of health, finance, retirement adequacy, social and family development.
Summary
Key Message
The Retirement and Health Study (RHS) is Singapore’s largest nationally representative cohort with over 15,000 participants (aged 45-85 years) followed across five timepoints in 10 years (2014-2024). Sample findings include a need for older adults to balance between immediate financial needs and investments regarding their pension funds. Overall, the RHS will be used for evidenced-informed policy agenda setting and evaluation across domains of health, finance, retirement adequacy, social and family development.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Not Too Old for TikTok: How Older Adults Are Reframing Aging
    Reuben Ng, Nicole Indran, Barbara J Bowers
    The Gerontologist.2022; 62(8): 1207.     CrossRef
  • A playbook for effective age advocacy on Twitter
    Reuben Ng, Nicole Indran, Luyao Liu
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.2022; 70(8): 2363.     CrossRef
  • Ageism on Twitter during the COVID‐19 pandemic
    Reuben Ng, Nicole Indran, Luyao Liu
    Journal of Social Issues.2022; 78(4): 842.     CrossRef
  • Media attention toward COVID-19 across 18 countries: The influence of cultural values and pandemic severity
    Reuben Ng, Yi Wen Tan, Miguel A. Andrade-Navarro
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(12): e0271961.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Gender role stereotypes, patriarchal attitudes, and cognitive function in the elderly rural Korean population: a cross-sectional study
Hye Rin Choi, Byeonggwan Ha, Ye Jin Jeon, Yoosik Youm, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sun Jae Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021023.   Published online April 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021023
  • 11,055 View
  • 355 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We analyzed whether gender role stereotypes (GRS) and patriarchal attitudes are associated with cognitive function in an elderly community.
METHODS
We analyzed data from 580 people enrolled in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The degrees to which respondents held stereotypical beliefs about gender roles and had patriarchal mindsets were measured using a questionnaire. Based on participants’ responses, we divided respondents into 2 groups—those with conservative mindsets and those with open mindsets—according to the median score for each of the 2 variables. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Korean version (MMSE-K). Cognitive impairment was defined as an MMSE-K score ≤21 points. Multivariable logistic regression was performed, adjusting for gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, and social network size. Age and lifestyle factors were stratified.
RESULTS
Compared to those with open mindsets, those with conservative mindsets regarding gender roles and patriarchal norms had adjusted odds ratios of 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 3.19) and 1.67 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.79) for cognitive impairment, respectively. In the stratified analysis, subgroups with younger age and a good lifestyle maintained a protective association with cognitive impairment.
CONCLUSIONS
GRS and a patriarchal mindset were marginally significantly associated with cognitive impairment among women later in life.
Summary
Korean summary
농촌지역에 거주하는 노년기 인구 580명 대상으로 성 역할 고정관념 또는 가부장적 사고가 인지기능과 연관성이 있는지 로지스틱 회귀분석을 통해 알아보았다. 분석결과, 보수적인 성 역할 고정관념과 가부장적 사고를 가진 여성에서 개방적인 사고를 가진 여성보다 인지기능이 통계적으로 유의하게 저하된 결과를 얻었다.
Key Message
We investigated whether gender role stereotypes and patriarchal attitudes are associated with cognitive function in the elderly rural Korean population. Compared to women with open attitudes, those with conservative attitudes regarding gender roles and patriarchal norms had marginally significant higher odds ratios for cognitive impairment. Thus, gender role stereotypes and a patriarchal mindset were marginally significantly associated with cognitive impairment among women later in life.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Examining the gender equity outlook and patriarchal beliefs of police constables in Allahabad, India: A machine learning approach
    Saumya Tripathi
    Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Outbreak of Scabies at Geriatric Long-Term Care Facilities in Korea.
Mo Ran Ki, Hyun Jin Moon, Hyoun Cho
Korean J Epidemiol. 2006;28(1):100-111.
  • 65,535 View
  • 41 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To investigate an outbreak of scabies that occurred in geriatricfacilities located in Kyounggi-province, Korea, between September 2004 and September 2005.
METHODS
We carried out an epidemiologic investigation on the scabies outbreak. All workers except two were interviewed and the charts of the patients were reviewed.
RESULTS
Among workers, the attack rate was 58.6% (17/29). The rate was 86.0%(37/43) in patients. Secondary cases also occurred among the family members of workers, with a secondary attack rate of 15.8%. The 95% confidence interval was 6%~31.3%. The transmission of scabies began from one index case who had scabies and moved from another facility. She was hospitalized on the 4th floor of this facilitywhere dependent patients resided. After the activities (picnic and yard sale) in May 2005, and the ward rotation of care givers between the 3rd and 4th floor in July 2005, the incidence of scabies increased. The last cases occurred in Sep. 2005.
CONCLUSIONS
This outbreak investigation has importance because it is the first report of ascabies outbreak in geriatric long-term care facilities in Korea. Recently, the reports on a scabies epidemic are increasing with the augmentation of geriatric long-term care facilities. It is important to educate and inform workers and staff in long-term care facilities about scabies and other contagious skin diseases. More facilities for senility and dementia will be opened and we need to lookinto contagious diseases in long-term care facilities.
Summary

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