^{ 1}Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongju, Korea
^{ 2}Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
^{ 3}Asian Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability, Seoul, Korea
©2017, Korean Society of Epidemiology
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Y (rate of experiencing depressive symptoms)
=B0+B1 (rate of diagnosis of myocardial infarction)
+B2 (rate of lifetime allergic rhinitis)
+B3 (weekly breakfast intake frequency of 1-2 times)
+B4 (perceived stress level)
+B5 (environment of trust in community)+ε
Model | GWR (n=251) | OLS (n=251) | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Mean | Min | Max | SD | B | p-value | ||||
Constant | -1.88 | -3.31 | -0.42 | 1.04 | -1.98 | 0.001 | |||
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of myocardial infarction | 1.21 | 0.48 | 1.59 | 0.34 | 1.12 | 0.002 | |||
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of allergic rhinitis | 0.17 | 0.13 | 0.23 | 0.03 | 0.18 | <0.001 | |||
Weekly breakfast intake frequency of 1-2 times | 0.26 | 0.17 | 0.35 | 0.05 | 0.24 | <0.001 | |||
Perceived stress level | 0.1 | 0.07 | 0.13 | 0.02 | 0.10 | <0.001 | |||
Public transit environment | -0.01 | -0.02 | 0.00 | 0.01 | -0.01 | 0.006 | |||
R-squared | 0.58 | 0.54 | |||||||
Adjusted R-squared | 0.55 | 0.53 | |||||||
AIC | 808.71 | 815.42 | |||||||
Normality (Jarque-Bera) | 7.06^{*} | ||||||||
Homoscedasticity (Koenker-Bassett) | 9.25 |
Model | Comparative analysis | Model 1^{1} | Model 2^{2} | Model 3^{3} | Model 4^{4} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
GWR | R-squared | 0.53 | 0.52 | 0.35 | 0.58 |
Adjusted R-squared | 0.5 | 0.5 | 0.33 | 0.55 | |
AIC | 839.36 | 833.14 | 905.07 | 808.71 | |
OLS | R-squared | 0.48 | 0.5 | 0.31 | 0.54 |
Adjusted R-squared | 0.47 | 0.49 | 0.35 | 0.53 | |
AIC | 847.83 | 836.32 | 913.91 | 815.42 | |
Koenker statistics | 19.08^{*} | 5.74 | 5.58 | 7.06^{*} | |
Jarqure-Bera statistics | 4.39 | 5.23 | 6.54 | 9.25 |
^{} GWR, geographically weighted regression; OLS, ordinary least square; AIC, Akaike’s information criterion.
^{1} A model consisting of health behavior indicators.
^{2} A model consisting of disease indicators.
^{3} A model consisting of social-physical environment indicators.
^{4} Final model.
^{*} GWR, geographically weighted regression; OLS, ordinary least square; AIC, Akaike’s information criterion.
Indicators | Mean | Min | Max | SD | Extremal quotient |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Rate of experiencing depressive symptoms | 5.07 | 1.05 | 10.8 | 2.13 | 10.29 |
Rate of exposure to secondhand smoke at home | 11.21 | 4.30 | 22.00 | 2.99 | 5.12 |
Annual rate of drinking | 73.53 | 53.25 | 82.75 | 5.93 | 1.55 |
Monthly rate of drinking | 58.18 | 41.45 | 65.75 | 4.4 | 1.59 |
Age at drinking onset (yr) | 21.23 | 20.05 | 22.65 | 0.49 | 1.13 |
Rate of walking | 40.55 | 15.25 | 69.30 | 10.44 | 4.54 |
Rate of performing vigorous exercise | 14.46 | 7.35 | 31.80 | 3.92 | 4.33 |
Rate of performing muscle strengthening exercise | 18.28 | 6.15 | 33.15 | 3.96 | 5.39 |
Rate of performing moderate to high intensity physical activities | 13.49 | 3.60 | 54.45 | 7.80 | 15.13 |
Level of fruit consumption | 42.43 | 20.95 | 69.00 | 7.68 | 3.29 |
Weekly breakfast intake frequency of 1-2 times | 5.94 | 1.85 | 9.50 | 1.57 | 5.14 |
Rate of consulting a psychologist due to stress | 5.48 | 0.80 | 12.65 | 2.00 | 15.81 |
Perceived stress level | 27.11 | 15.05 | 35.55 | 3.89 | 2.36 |
Rate of sleeping less than 6 hours per day | 42.89 | 25.3 | 54.05 | 6.17 | 2.14 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of hypertension | 14.89 | 10.95 | 19.50 | 1.66 | 1.78 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of diabetes | 5.69 | 4.00 | 8.20 | 0.75 | 2.05 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of cerebral infarction (stroke) | 1.08 | 0.50 | 2.20 | 0.29 | 4.40 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of myocardial infarction | 0.79 | 0.25 | 1.40 | 0.23 | 5.60 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of atopic dermatitis | 2.88 | 0.30 | 6.15 | 1.02 | 20.5 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of allergic rhinitis | 12.88 | 1.85 | 21.25 | 3.7 | 11.49 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of asthma | 2.10 | 0.80 | 3.80 | 0.59 | 4.75 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of angina | 1.06 | 0.4 | 1.95 | 0.28 | 4.88 |
Rate of not receiving necessary medkal servkes | 13.61 | 2.7 | 25.3 | 3.41 | 9.37 |
Contact with social networks (neighbors) less than once per month | 33.31 | 0 | 68.7 | 17.61 | 0.00 |
Leisure environment | 29.3 | 14.3 | 61.35 | 7.47 | 4.29 |
Religious environment | 26.13 | 11.15 | 44.1 | 6.41 | 3.96 |
Social environment | 56.77 | 40 | 77.85 | 7.44 | 1.95 |
Public transit environment | 65.05 | 29 | 93.1 | 14.45 | 3.21 |
Supportive environment | 51.87 | 15.4 | 95.65 | 22.9 | 6.21 |
Trust environment | 66.41 | 39.65 | 97.9 | 11.49 | 2.47 |
Safety environment | 75.35 | 48.5 | 95.05 | 9.56 | 1.96 |
Healthcare environment | 62.82 | 23.35 | 90.4 | 13.33 | 3.87 |
Natural environment | 80.3 | 36.6 | 97.8 | 11.51 | 2.67 |
Indicators | Correlation |
Spatial autocorrelation |
|||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Coefficient | p-value | Moran's I | Z-score | p-value | |
Rate of experiencing depressive symptoms | - | - | 0.34 | 27.85 | <0.001 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of depression | - | - | 0.06 | 5.47 | <0.001 |
Rate of exposure to secondhand smoke at home | 0.24 | 0.0001 | 0.03 | 3.18 | 0.002 |
Rate of exposure to secondhand smoke in public | 0.41 | <0.001 | 0.20 | 16.74 | <0.001 |
Annual level of drinking | 0.51 | <0.001 | 0.33 | 26.96 | <0.001 |
Monthly level of drinking | 0.46 | <0.001 | 0.32 | 26.09 | <0.001 |
Age at drinking onset (years) | -0.49 | <0.001 | 0.36 | 29.46 | <0.001 |
Rate of walking | 0.20 | 0.001 | 0.37 | 30.25 | <0.001 |
Rate of performing rigorous physical activities | -0.29 | <0.001 | 0.06 | 5.39 | <0.001 |
Rate of performing muscle strengthening exercise | 0.55 | <0.001 | 0.43 | 34.63 | <0.001 |
Rate of performing moderate to high intensity physical activities | -0.35 | <0.001 | 0.28 | 22.63 | <0.001 |
Level of fruit consumption | 0.33 | <0.001 | 0.28 | 23.05 | <0.001 |
Weekly breakfast intake frequency of 1-2 times | 0.59 | <0.001 | 0.37 | 30.09 | <0.001 |
Rate of consulting a psychologist due to stress | 0.45 | <0.001 | 0.10 | 8.32 | <0.001 |
Perceived stress level | 0.57 | <0.001 | 0.32 | 25.96 | <0.001 |
Rate of sleeping less than 6 hours per day | 0.58 | <0.001 | 0.59 | 47.3 | <0.001 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of hypertension | -0.35 | <0.001 | 0.59 | 47.30 | <0.001 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of diabetes | 0.21 | 0.002 | 0.06 | 4.98 | <0.001 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of cerebral infarction (stroke) | 0.20 | 0.001 | 0.03 | 3.04 | 0.002 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of myocardial infarction | 0.37 | <0.001 | 0.04 | 3.83 | <0.001 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of atopic dermatitis | 0.59 | <0.001 | 0.54 | 43.12 | <0.001 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of allergic rhinitis | 0.65 | <0.001 | 0.42 | 34.14 | <0.001 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of asthma | 0.41 | <0.001 | 0.12 | 10.26 | <0.001 |
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of angina | 0.23 | <0.001 | 0.07 | 5.81 | <0.001 |
Rate of not receiving necessary medical services | 0.40 | <0.001 | 0.00 | 0.38 | 0.70 |
Contacting social networks (neighbors) less than once per month | -0.47 | <0.001 | 0.51 | 40.66 | <0.001 |
Leisure environment | 0.41 | <0.001 | 0.34 | 27.47 | <0.001 |
Religious environment | 0.24 | <0.001 | 0.44 | 27.47 | <0.001 |
Social environment | -0.47 | <0.001 | 0.39 | 31.12 | <0.001 |
Public transit environment | 0.28 | <0.001 | 0.41 | 33.38 | <0.001 |
Supportive environment | -0.47 | <0.001 | 0.49 | 39.61 | <0.001 |
Trust environment | -0.55 | <0.001 | 0.5 | 40.42 | <0.001 |
Safety environment | -0.47 | <0.001 | 0.31 | 25.42 | <0.001 |
Healthcare environment | 0.14 | 0.002 | 0.22 | 18.16 | <0.001 |
Natural environment | -0.40 | <0.001 | 0.33 | 26.4 | <0.001 |
Model | GWR (n=251) | OLS (n=251) | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Mean | Min | Max | SD | B | p-value | ||||
Constant | -1.88 | -3.31 | -0.42 | 1.04 | -1.98 | 0.001 | |||
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of myocardial infarction | 1.21 | 0.48 | 1.59 | 0.34 | 1.12 | 0.002 | |||
Rate of lifetime diagnosis of allergic rhinitis | 0.17 | 0.13 | 0.23 | 0.03 | 0.18 | <0.001 | |||
Weekly breakfast intake frequency of 1-2 times | 0.26 | 0.17 | 0.35 | 0.05 | 0.24 | <0.001 | |||
Perceived stress level | 0.1 | 0.07 | 0.13 | 0.02 | 0.10 | <0.001 | |||
Public transit environment | -0.01 | -0.02 | 0.00 | 0.01 | -0.01 | 0.006 | |||
R-squared | 0.58 | 0.54 | |||||||
Adjusted R-squared | 0.55 | 0.53 | |||||||
AIC | 808.71 | 815.42 | |||||||
Normality (Jarque-Bera) | 7.06 |
||||||||
Homoscedasticity (Koenker-Bassett) | 9.25 |
Model | Comparative analysis | Model 1 |
Model 2 |
Model 3 |
Model 4 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
GWR | R-squared | 0.53 | 0.52 | 0.35 | 0.58 |
Adjusted R-squared | 0.5 | 0.5 | 0.33 | 0.55 | |
AIC | 839.36 | 833.14 | 905.07 | 808.71 | |
OLS | R-squared | 0.48 | 0.5 | 0.31 | 0.54 |
Adjusted R-squared | 0.47 | 0.49 | 0.35 | 0.53 | |
AIC | 847.83 | 836.32 | 913.91 | 815.42 | |
Koenker statistics | 19.08 |
5.74 | 5.58 | 7.06^{*} | |
Jarqure-Bera statistics | 4.39 | 5.23 | 6.54 | 9.25 |
Min, minimum; Max, maximum; SD, standard deviation.
GWR, geographically weighted regression; OLS, ordinary least square; Min. minimum; Max, maximum; SD, standard deviation; AIC, Akaike’s information criterion.
p<0.05
GWR, geographically weighted regression; OLS, ordinary least square; AIC, Akaike’s information criterion.
A model consisting of health behavior indicators.
A model consisting of disease indicators.
A model consisting of social-physical environment indicators.
Final model.
GWR, geographically weighted regression; OLS, ordinary least square; AIC, Akaike’s information criterion.