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Korean Journal of Epidemiology 1994;16(2): 145-154.
A Case-control Study of Risk Factors in Stomach Cancer.
Sang In Lee, Hee Choul Ohrr, Sun Ha Jee, Jung Sook Joo
Abstract
Stomach cancer is the most common cancer in Korea with highest mortality. Therefore, finding risk factors involved in its prevention is vitally important. Case-control study was done to demonstrate the relationship between smoking, drinking, food, nutrition, 5% salt solution and the incidence of stomach cancer. The study group consisted of 82 patients with stomach cancers confirmed by pathology as case group and 113 patients with chronic superficial gastritis as control. General characteristics, smoking and drinking habits, dietary habit according to food groups, individual preference to salty and spicy foods were analyzed. Subjects had undergone taste test with 10cc of 0.5% salt solution. Age adjusted odds ratios by Mantel-Haenszel test were performed for each variable. 1. Smoking in males had no direct relationship with incidence of stomach cancer, but in females there is a higher odds ratio in smoking group (OR=2.63). Drin-king had no effect on the odds ratio in males, whereas in females, the odds ratio was significantly decreased in drinking group (OR=0.25). 2. Consumption of fruits in females showed a protec-tive effect on developing stomach cancer (OR=0.41). Males who had more protein and iron intake were found to have significantly higher odds ratio for stomach cancer risk (protein OR=2.86, iron OR=5.18). 3. Salty diet habit in females showed a higher odds ratio for stomach cancer risk (OR=2.49). No correlation was found between spicy diet habit with stomach cancer. 4. Male subjects who did not feel salty with 0.5% salt solution showed significantly increased odds ratio (OR=4.59) for stomach cancer. This study is limited due to fact that the number of subjects was not large enough for indepth evaluation and that other confounding factors other than age was not sufficiently controlled. Further investigation that concerns ingestion of fruit group, the level of subjects' taste to 0.5% salt solution, and protein and iron intake on a larger scale is recommended.


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