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COVID-19: Cohort Profile
Cohort profile: investigating SARS-CoV-2 infection and the health and psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Canadian CHILD Cohort
Rilwan Azeez, Larisa Lotoski, Aimée Dubeau, Natalie Rodriguez, Myrtha E. Reyna, Tyler Freitas, Stephanie Goguen, Maria Medeleanu, Geoffrey L. Winsor, Fiona S. L. Brinkman, Emily E. Cameron, Leslie Roos, Elinor Simons, Theo J. Moraes, Piush J. Mandhane, Stuart E. Turvey, Shelly Bolotin, Kim Wright, Deborah McNeil, David M. Patrick, Jared Bullard, Marc-André Langlois, Corey R. Arnold, Yannick Galipeau, Martin Pelchat, Natasha Doucas, Padmaja Subbarao, Meghan B. Azad
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023091.   Published online October 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023091
  • 5,777 View
  • 112 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all Canadian families, with some impacted differently than others. Our study aims to: (1) determine the prevalence and transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among Canadian families, (2) identify predictors of infection susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2, and (3) identify health and psychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study builds upon the CHILD Cohort Study, an ongoing multi-ethnic general population prospective cohort consisting of 3,454 Canadian families with children born in Vancouver, Edmonton, Manitoba, and Toronto between 2009 and 2012. During the pandemic, CHILD households were invited to participate in the CHILD COVID-19 Add-On Study involving: (1) brief biweekly surveys about COVID-19 symptoms and testing; (2) quarterly questionnaires assessing COVID-19 exposure and testing, vaccination status, physical and mental health, and pandemic-driven life changes; and (3) in-home biological sampling kits to collect blood and stool. In total, 1,462 households (5,378 participants) consented to the CHILD COVID-19 Add-On Study: 2,803 children (mean±standard deviation [SD], 9.0±2.7 years; range, 0-17 years) and 2,576 adults (mean±SD, 43.0±6.5 years; range, 18-85 years). We will leverage the wealth of pre-pandemic CHILD data to identify risk and resilience factors for susceptibility and severity to the direct and indirect pandemic effects. Our short-term findings will inform key stakeholders and knowledge users to shape current and future pandemic responses. Additionally, this study provides a unique resource to study the long-term impacts of the pandemic as the CHILD Cohort Study continues.
Summary
Key Message
· This study of 1,462 Canadian families (5,378 individuals) leverages a decade of extensive pre-pandemic CHILD Cohort Study data to identify risk and resilience factors for susceptibility to the direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. · Our short-term findings will inform key stakeholders and knowledge users to shape current and future pandemic responses. · This study provides a unique resource to study the long-term impacts of the pandemic as the CHILD Cohort Study continues.
COVID-19: Original Article
Clinical symptom profile of hospitalized COVID-19 Brazilian patients according to SARS-CoV-2 variants
Natália Satchiko Hojo-Souza, Vander Luis de Souza Freitas, Daniel Ludovico Guidoni, Fernanda Sumika Hojo de Souza
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023079.   Published online August 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023079
  • 4,063 View
  • 124 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the main symptoms in Brazilian coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients hospitalized during 4 distinct waves, based on their infection with different severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants.
METHODS
This study included hospitalized patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during 15 weeks around the peak of each of 4 waves: W1, ancestral strain/B.1 lineage (May 31 to September 12, 2020); W2, Gamma/P.1 variant (January 31 to May 15, 2021); W3, Omicron variant (December 5, 2021 to March 19, 2022); and W4, BA.4/BA.5 subvariants (May 22 to September 3, 2022). Symptom data were extracted from the Brazilian Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Database. Relative risks were calculated, and an analysis of symptom networks was performed.
RESULTS
Patients who were hospitalized during the prevalence of the Gamma/P.1 variant demonstrated a higher risk, primarily for symptoms such as fatigue, abdominal pain, low oxygen saturation, and sore throat, than patients hospitalized during the first wave. Conversely, patients who were hospitalized during the predominance of the Omicron variant exhibited a lower relative risk, particularly for symptoms such as loss of smell, loss of taste, diarrhea, fever, respiratory distress, and dyspnea. Similar results were observed in COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized during the wave of the Omicron subvariants BA.4/BA.5. A symptom network analysis, conducted to explore co-occurrence patterns among different variants, revealed significant differential profiles across the 4 waves, with the most notable difference observed between the W2 and W4 networks.
CONCLUSIONS
Overall, the relative risks and patterns of symptom co-occurrence associated with different SARS-CoV-2 variants may reflect disease severity.
Summary
Key Message
The study highlights the varying prevalence and distinct symptom profiles among Brazilian COVID-19 patients hospitalized during different waves linked to specific SARS-CoV-2 variants. It suggests that the manifestation of symptoms differs significantly across variant-driven waves, signifying potential shifts in disease severity. Specifically, patients during the Gamma/P.1 variant wave showed higher risks for symptoms like fatigue, abdominal pain, and respiratory impairment, while those during the Omicron wave exhibited lower risks for certain symptoms like loss of smell and taste, indicating changing symptomatology and potentially evolving disease impact linked to different variants.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 and disease severity: a Japanese registry-based retrospective cohort study
    Yuta Matsubara, Hiroki Kiyohara, Yohei Mikami, Kosaku Nanki, Ho Namkoong, Shotaro Chubachi, Hiromu Tanaka, Shuhei Azekawa, Shinya Sugimoto, Yusuke Yoshimatsu, Tomohisa Sujino, Kaoru Takabayashi, Naoki Hosoe, Toshiro Sato, Makoto Ishii, Naoki Hasegawa, Yuk
    Journal of Gastroenterology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Factors Associated with Olfactory Dysfunction in Individuals with COVID-19 in Brazil: A Study of 20,669 Cases from 2020 to 2021
    Carlos Dornels Freire de Souza, Amanda Júlia de Arruda Magalhães, Yasmin Vitória Silva Nobre, Carlos Alberto Souza, André Luis Oliveira do Nascimento, Luísa Robalinho de Faria, Márcio Bezerra-Santos, Anderson da Costa Armstrong, Jandir Mendonça Nicácio, O
    Medical Principles and Practice.2024; 33(2): 164.     CrossRef
  • Risks of Adverse Outcomes for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients during the Four Waves in Brazil According to SARS-CoV-2 Variants, Age Group, and Vaccine Status
    Natália Satchiko Hojo-Souza, Waasila Jassat, Daniel Ludovico Guidoni, Fernanda Sumika Hojo de Souza
    Viruses.2023; 15(10): 1997.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Brief Communication
Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among urban cleaning and solid waste management workers during transmission of the Omicron variant in Brazil
Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Joyce Thayane da Conceição dos Santos, Márcia Santos Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira de Carvalho, Érica Santos dos Reis, Waneska de Souza Barboza, Taise Ferreira Cavalcante, Cliomar Alves dos Santos, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Renata Grespan, Cristiane Bani Corrêa, Tatiana Rodrigues de Moura, Dulce Marta Schimieguel, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023025.   Published online February 16, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023025
  • 4,780 View
  • 187 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
This study estimated the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in urban cleaning and solid waste management workers during the transmission of the Omicron variant in one of the poorest regions of Brazil (the state of Sergipe). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 494 workers, and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was tested by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidities, vaccination status, mask use, and use of public transport to commute to the workplace were collected. The prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated from the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 positive cases among the total number of individuals tested. The prevalence ratio (PR) with a 95% CI was the measure of association used to evaluate the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the exposure variables. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 22.5% (95% CI, 19.0 to 26.4). Individuals under the age of 40 had a higher prevalence of infection (PR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.30) as well as those who did not believe in the protective effect of vaccines (PR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.89). Our results indicate the need for better guidance on preventive measures against coronavirus disease 2019 among urban cleaning and solid waste management workers.
Summary
Key Message
Urban cleaning and waste management workers in Brazil faced a significant risk of SARSCoV-2 infection during the Omicron variant transmission, with higher rates observed among younger individuals and those skeptical about vaccine protection.
COVID-19: Original Article
Viral shedding patterns of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections by periods of variant predominance and vaccination status in Gyeonggi Province, Korea
Gawon Choi, Ah-Young Lim, Sojin Choi, Kunhee Park, Soon Young Lee, Jong-Hun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023008.   Published online December 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023008
  • 3,887 View
  • 134 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We compared the viral cycle threshold (Ct) values of infected patients to better understand viral kinetics by vaccination status during different periods of variant predominance in Gyeonggi Province, Korea.
METHODS
We obtained case-specific data from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surveillance system, Gyeonggi in-depth epidemiological report system, and Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service from January 2020 to January 2022. We defined periods of variant predominance and explored Ct values by analyzing viral sequencing test results. Using a generalized additive model, we performed a nonlinear regression analysis to determine viral kinetics over time.
RESULTS
Cases in the Delta variant’s period of predominance had higher viral shedding patterns than cases in other periods. The temporal change of viral shedding did not vary by vaccination status in the Omicron-predominant period, but viral shedding decreased in patients who had completed their third vaccination in the Delta-predominant period. During the Delta-predominant and Omicron-predominant periods, the time from symptom onset to peak viral shedding based on the E gene was approximately 2.4 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 2.5) and 2.1 days (95% CI, 2.0 to 2.1), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
In one-time tests conducted to diagnose COVID-19 in a large population, although no adjustment for individual characteristics was conducted, it was confirmed that viral shedding differed by the predominant strain and vaccination history. These results show the value of utilizing hundreds of thousands of test data produced at COVID-19 screening test centers.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 선별진료소에서는 확진 검사를 위해 수십만 건에서 수백만 건까지의 일회성 검사를 시행해왔다. 검사를 받은 개인의 특성과 관련된 데이터 제한으로 인해 분석 시 이를 보정할 수는 없지만, 대규모 인구집단에서 얻어진 검사 결과는 SARS-CoV-2 배출 특성을 평가하는 데 활용될 수 있다. 이번 연구에서는 바이러스 변이의 종류와 백신 접종 이력에 따라 증상 발생 후 시간 경과에 따라 바이러스 배출량이 달라지는 것을 확인하였다. 이러한 대규모 선별 검사자료는 향후에도 유용하게 활용 가능하다.
Key Message
The screening center for COVID-19 has conducted hundreds of thousands to millions of one-time confirmation tests for diagnosis. Although individual characteristics cannot be adjusted for due to data limitations, the test results from a large population can still be utilized to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 shedding. We confirmed that viral shedding varied over time after symptom onset, depending on the type of virus variant and vaccination history.
COVID-19: Original Article
Parental concerns about COVID-19 vaccine safety and hesitancy in Korea: implications for vaccine communication
Hye-Kyung Cho, Hyunju Lee, Young June Choe, Shinkyeong Kim, Sujin Seo, Jiwon Moon, Eun Hwa Choi, Geun-Yong Kwon, Jee Yeon Shin, Sang-Yoon Choi, Mi Jin Jeong, Myoungsoon You
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023004.   Published online December 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023004
  • 5,896 View
  • 144 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Vaccination is one of the most important strategies to contain the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccination in children is dependent on their parents, making it important to understand parents’ awareness and attitudes toward vaccines in order to devise strategies to raise vaccination rates in children.
METHODS
A web-based nationwide survey was conducted among Korean parents of 7-year-old to 18-year-old children in August 2021 to estimate parents’ intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 and identify key factors affecting parental acceptance and hesitancy through regression analysis.
RESULTS
Approximately 56.4% (575/1,019) were willing to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Contributing factors to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were being a mother (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.52), a lower education level (aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97), hesitancy to other childhood vaccines (aOR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.96), and refusal to vaccinate themselves (aOR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.20). Having older children (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.28), trusting the child’s doctor (aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.32), positive perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine’s effectiveness (aOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.90 to 3.57) and perceiving the COVID-19 vaccine as low-risk (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.24) were associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Concerns about adverse reactions were the most common cause of hesitancy.
CONCLUSIONS
Providing parents with accurate and reliable information on vaccine effectiveness and safety is important to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake in children. Differential or targeted approaches to parents according to gender, age, and their children’s age are necessary for effective communication about vaccination in children.
Summary
Korean summary
부모에게 백신 효과와 안전성에 대한 정확하고 믿을만한 정보를 제공하는 것이 소아 코로나19 백신 접종률을 높이는데 중요하다. 자녀의 백신 접종에 대한 의사소통을 효율적으로 하기 위해서는 부모의 성별과 연령, 자녀의 연령을 고려한 차별적인 접근 방법이 필요하다.
Key Message
To improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake in children, it's crucial to provide parents with reliable and precise information about vaccine safety and effectiveness. Targeted communication strategies that consider factors such as the age of the parents and their children, as well as gender, may be necessary to effectively convey this information.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Safety of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in children with chronic kidney disease: a national population study from South Korea
    Young June Choe, Yo-Han Ahn, Eunsun Gwak, Eunseo Jo, Jinseob Kim, Seung-Ah Choe
    Pediatric Nephrology.2024; 39(2): 625.     CrossRef
  • Assessing the determinants of influenza and COVID-19 vaccine co-administration decisions in the elderly
    Seunghyun Lewis Kwon, So-Yeon Kim, Minju Song, Hyung-Min Lee, Seon-Hwa Ban, Mi-Soon Lee, Hyesun Jeong
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Descriptive cross-sectional study to evaluate perception, attitude, and practice of parents regarding COVID-19 vaccination in children 10–12 years of age—A step toward prevention of future COVID-19 outbreaks in India
    Vivek Mehta, Deep Inder, Pawan Kumar, Anupma Raheja
    Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care.2024; 13(5): 2104.     CrossRef
  • Willingness and hesitancy of parents to vaccinate against COVID-19 their children ages 6 months to 4 years with frail conditions in Italy
    Grazia Miraglia del Giudice, Giorgia Della Polla, Mario Postiglione, Italo Francesco Angelillo
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Changes in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults after the COVID-19 outbreak
Ji-Young Kwon, Sang-Wook Song
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022101.   Published online November 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022101
  • 4,144 View
  • 99 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study sought to reveal changes in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) after the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to identify the groups showing the greatest changes.
METHODS
We compared the prevalence of MetS between 2017–2019 (i.e., the 3-year period before the COVID-19 pandemic) and soon after the initial outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 among 24,564 adults ≥ 19 years of age using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
RESULTS
The prevalence of MetS increased steadily between 2017 and 2020 (29.4 to 35.3%, p for trend < 0.001), with annual percent changes of 2.0%p, 2.2%p, and 1.7%p, respectively. Compared to 3 years before the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of MetS significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic in males (6.2%p; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5 to 8.9) compared to females (1.5%p; 95% CI, -1.2 to 4.1). The age groups with the greatest increases in MetS prevalence after the COVID-19 pandemic were those in their 40s (4.6%p; 95% CI, 0.9 to 8.4) and 50s (5.8%p; 95% CI, 2.2 to 9.4). By educational background, the increase in MetS prevalence was greatest among those with a college degree or higher (5.1%p). The prevalence of MetS in high-income (5.3%p) and low-income (4.6%p) groups significantly increased.
CONCLUSIONS
The increasing trend in the overall prevalence of MetS continued during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, the prevalence of MetS among adult males in their 40s and 50s increased significantly after the COVID-19 outbreak in Korea.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Deep autoencoders and multivariate analysis for enhanced hypertension detection during the COVID-19 era
    Khongorzul Dashdondov, Mi-Hye Kim, Mi-Hwa Song
    Electronic Research Archive.2024; 32(5): 3202.     CrossRef
  • Increasing incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in people living with HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Rebecka Papaioannu Borjesson, Laura Galli, Camilla Muccini, Andrea Poli, Tommaso Clemente, Martina Bottanelli, Nicola Gianotti, Silvia Nozza, Antonella Castagna, Vincenzo Spagnuolo
    Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Body mass index and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults before and after the COVID-19 outbreak: a retrospective longitudinal study
    Joo-Eun Jeong, Hoon-Ki Park, Hwan-Sik Hwang, Kye-Yeung Park, Myoung-Hye Lee, Seon-Hi Shin, Nayeon Choi
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023081.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Brief Communication
Dynamics of hospitalizations and in-hospital deaths from COVID-19 in northeast Brazil: a retrospective analysis based on the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccination coverage
Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Bárbara dos Santos Soares, Waneska de Souza Barboza, Taise Ferreira Cavalcante, Victor Santana Santos
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022036.   Published online April 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022036
  • 9,198 View
  • 344 Download
  • 12 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
This study investigated the dynamics of hospitalizations and in-hospital deaths from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) throughout the pandemic in northeast Brazil, the Brazilian region with the worst socioeconomic indicators. In total, 141,445 cases, 8,213 hospital admissions, and 1,644 in-hospital deaths from COVID-19 were registered from March 14, 2020 to February 5, 2022. The overall rates of hospitalization and in-hospital deaths were 5.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The hospitalization and death rates significantly decreased over time, which may have been related to progress in vaccination. During the spread of the Gamma variant (January to June 2021), most hospitalized individuals were young adults, and approximately 40% of deaths occurred in this age group. During the predominance of Delta (July to December 2021), over 75% of deaths occurred among the elderly and unvaccinated or partially vaccinated individuals. This rate decreased to 42.3% during the transmission of the Omicron variant (January to February 2022), during which 34.6% of deaths were recorded among fully vaccinated individuals (2 doses) and 23.1% among those who received full vaccination and a booster. The Omicron-driven third wave was associated with a rise in the proportion of deaths among vaccinated individuals, especially among those who had not received a booster dose.
Summary
Key Message
The Omicron-driven third wave in Brazil was associated with a rise in the proportion of deaths among vaccinated individuals, especially among those who had not received a booster dose

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Understanding SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein clusters and their impact on immunity of the population from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
    Diego Gomes Teixeira, João Firmino Rodrigues-Neto, Dayse Caroline Severiano da Cunha, Selma Maria Bezerra Jeronimo
    Infection, Genetics and Evolution.2024; 118: 105556.     CrossRef
  • The effectiveness of vaccination on the COVID-19 epidemic in California
    Elijah Huang, Siddharth Kurkure, Yui Seo, Kristie Lau, Jose Puglisi
    American Journal of Infection Control.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Case-fatality rates and risk of death from COVID-19 and influenza A/H3N2 in Brazil: A nationwide ecological study
    Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Jerocílio Maciel de Oliveira Júnior, Cliomar Alves dos Santos
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica.2023; 41(3): 199.     CrossRef
  • SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors
    João Eduardo Andrade Tavares de Aguiar, Marcos Antônio Lima Carvalho, Simone Santana Viana, Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Rosana Cipolotti
    Pediatric Hematology and Oncology.2023; 40(4): 429.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Epidemiologic and Clinical COVID-19 Profiles in Children in Argentina, During Circulation of Original and Variant (Alpha, Gamma and Lambda) Strains
    Angela Gentile, María Del Valle Juárez, Lucia Romero Bollon, Valeria Aprea, Erika Matteucci, Andrea Falaschi, Martin Brizuela, Cristina Euliarte, Gabriela Gregorio, Maria Paula Della Latta, Carlota Russ, Gabriela Nidia Ensinck, Liliana Saraceni, Miriam Br
    Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.2023; 42(2): 136.     CrossRef
  • Case-fatality rates and risk of death from COVID-19 and influenza A/H3N2 in Brazil: A nationwide ecological study
    Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Jerocílio Maciel de Oliveira Júnior, Cliomar Alves dos Santos
    Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica (English ed.).2023; 41(3): 199.     CrossRef
  • Impact of inactivated vaccines on decrease of viral RNA levels in individuals with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (BA.2) variant: A retrospective cohort study in Shanghai, China
    Peng Yang, Bianli Dang, Wen Kang, Xiaofeng Li, Tianping Wang, Ruijuan Li, Meijuan Peng, Yushen Liu, Linxu Wang, Yan Cheng, Suhuai Yu, Min Wei, Han Gao, Wenzhen Kang, Lei Shang
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the disease severity with infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) Delta and Omicron variants: A meta‐analysis
    Ying Qiu, Zhenghao Li, Fan Lin, Yilin Yang, Lanxuan Yang, Ting Li
    MedComm – Future Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for Mortality in Critical COVID-19 Patients Aged 50 Years or Younger During Omicron Wave in Korea: Comparison With Patients Older Than 50 Years of Age
    Hye Jin Shi, Jinyoung Yang, Joong Sik Eom, Jae-Hoon Ko, Kyong Ran Peck, Uh Jin Kim, Sook In Jung, Seulki Kim, Hyeri Seok, Miri Hyun, Hyun Ah Kim, Bomi Kim, Eun-Jeong Joo, Hae Suk Cheong, Cheon Hoo Jun, Yu Mi Wi, Jungok Kim, Sungmin Kym, Seungjin Lim, Yoon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among urban cleaning and solid waste management workers during transmission of the Omicron variant in Brazil
    Paulo Ricardo Martins-Filho, Joyce Thayane da Conceição dos Santos, Márcia Santos Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira de Carvalho, Érica Santos dos Reis, Waneska de Souza Barboza, Taise Ferreira Cavalcante, Cliomar Alves dos Santos, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior,
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023025.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 in Pakistan: A national analysis of five pandemic waves
    Taimoor Ahmad, Mujahid Abdullah, Abdul Mueed, Faisal Sultan, Ayesha Khan, Adnan Ahmad Khan, Huzaifa Ahmad Cheema
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(12): e0281326.     CrossRef
  • The increase in SARS-CoV-2 lineages during 2020–2022 in a state in the Brazilian Northeast is associated with a number of cases
    Moises Thiago de Souza Freitas, Ludmila Oliveira Carvalho Sena, Kiyoshi Ferreira Fukutani, Cliomar Alves dos Santos, Francisco das Chagas Barros Neto, Julienne Sousa Ribeiro, Erica Santos dos Reis, Valdir de Queiroz Balbino, Sérgio de Sá Paiva Leitão, Mar
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical symptom profile of hospitalized COVID-19 Brazilian patients according to SARS-CoV-2 variants
    Natália Satchiko Hojo-Souza, Vander Luis de Souza Freitas, Daniel Ludovico Guidoni, Fernanda Sumika Hojo de Souza
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023079.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Original Article
Model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of oral antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 in Korea
Youngji Jo, Sun Bean Kim, Munkhzul Radnaabaatar, Kyungmin Huh, Jin-Hong Yoo, Kyong Ran Peck, Hojun Park, Jaehun Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022034.   Published online March 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022034
  • 14,787 View
  • 659 Download
  • 14 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Many countries have authorized the emergency use of oral antiviral agents for patients with mild-to-moderate cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assessed the cost-effectiveness of these agents for reducing the number of severe COVID-19 cases and the burden on Korea’s medical system.
METHODS
Using an existing model, we estimated the number of people who would require hospital/intensive care unit (ICU) admission in Korea in 2022. The treatment scenarios included (1) all adult patients, (2) elderly patients only, and (3) adult patients with underlying diseases only, compared to standard care. Based on the current health system capacity, we calculated the incremental costs per severe case averted and hospital admission for each scenario.
RESULTS
We estimated that 236,510 COVID-19 patients would require hospital/ICU admission in 2022 with standard care only. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (87% efficacy) was predicted to reduce this number by 80%, 24%, and 17% when targeting all adults, adults with underlying diseases, and elderly patients (25, 8, and 4%, respectively, for molnupiravir, with 30% efficacy). Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir use is likely to be cost-effective, with predicted costs of US$8,878, US$8,964, and US$1,454, per severe patient averted for the target groups listed above, respectively, while molnupiravir is likely to be less cost-effective, with costs of US$28,492, US$29,575, and US$7,915, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
In Korea, oral treatment using nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for symptomatic COVID-19 patients targeting elderly patients would be highly cost-effective and would substantially reduce the demand for hospital admission to below the capacity of the health system if targeted to all adult patients instead of standard care.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 감염병 수리모형을 바탕으로 두가지 항바이러스제의 (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir와 molnupiravir) 비용 효익을 평가하였다. 본 모델에 따르면, 2022년 한국에서, 현재 의료시스템의 수용한계를 넘는 코로나 19 대유행이 발생할 때, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir 를 코로나 감염 및 증상 있는 고령층 환자들을 대상으로 투여할 경우 높은 비용 효익이 기대되고 (중증환자 1명 감소효과에$1,454 비용소요), 성인 환자 대상으로 투여할 경우, (molnupiravir이나 nirmatrelvir/ritonavir를 투여하지 않는) 일반 치료에 비해서 전체 입원 수요를 80% 줄일 것으로 기대된다.
Key Message
Given an expected high epidemic resurgence in 2022 that could exceed South Korea’s current health system capacity, oral treatment using nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for symptomatic COVID-19 patients may be a highly cost-effective solution if targeted to elderly patients ($1,454 per severe case averted) and substantially reduce the demand for hospital admission (80%, 188,478 patients) below the capacity of the health system if targeted to all adult patients compared to standard care.

Citations

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    Ricardo R.A. Fernandes, Bruno M. Barros, Milene R. da Costa, Carlos A.S. Magliano, Bernardo R. Tura, Quenia Cristina D. Morais, Marisa Santos
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    Ee Vien Low, Hoon Shien Teh, Nicholas Yee Liang Hing, Suresh Kumar Chidambaram, Mohan Dass Pathmanathan, Wee Ric Kim, Wei Jia Lee, Zhi Wei Teh, Maheshwara Rao Appannan, Shahanizan Mohd Zin, Faizah Muhamad Zin, Samha Bashirah Mohamed Amin, Mastura Ismail,
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COVID-19: Original Article
Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the community based on participants in the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Ah-Ra Kim, Dohsik Minn, Su Hwan Kim, Hyeon Nam Do, Byoungguk Kim, Young Sill Choi, Dong-Hyun Kim, Eun-Jee Oh, Kyungwon Oh, Donghyok Kwon, Jun-Wook Kwon, Sung Soon Kim, June-Woo Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022028.   Published online February 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022028
  • 10,025 View
  • 378 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a nationwide cross-sectional surveillance system that assesses the health and nutritional status of the Korean population. To evaluate the occurrence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the community, we investigated the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the sera of KNHANES participants.
METHODS
Subjects were recruited between April 24 and December 12, 2020. In total, 5,284 subjects aged 10-90 years from 17 regions participated. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were screened using the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay. Positive samples were verified using 4 different SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays and the plaque reduction neutralizing test. The final seropositivity criteria were a positive screening test and at least 1 positive result from the 5 additional tests.
RESULTS
Almost half (49.2%; 2,600/5,284) of participants were from metropolitan areas, 48.9% were middle-aged (40-69 years), and 20.5% were in their 20s or younger. The seropositivity rate was 0.09% (5/5,284). Three of the 5 antibody-positive subjects had a history of infection, of whom 2 were infected abroad and 1 was infected in a local cluster outbreak.
CONCLUSIONS
The low SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in Korea indicates that there have been few coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases due to successful COVID-19 management measures (e.g., diagnostic tests for overseas arrivals, national social distancing, and strict quarantine measures). Moreover, asymptomatic infections were uncommon due to active polymerase chain reaction testing. However, hidden infections may exist in the community, requiring the continuation of quarantine and vaccination measures.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19에 대한 방역대책 및 예방접종 정책 수립을 위한 과학적 근거를 확보하기 위하여 2020년도 국민건강영양조사(이하 국건영) 참여자 5,284명에 대해 코로나19 항체보유율을 조사함. 그 결과 2020년도 국건영 참여자의 항체양성률은 0.09%(5/5,284)였으며, 이중 확진 이력이 있는 사람은 3명이었음. 따라서 지역사회 미진단 감염자는 2명으로 확인됨. 국내 항체보유율은 해외 사례에 비해 낮으며, 이는 적극적인 방역관리에 따른 것으로 사료되며, 지역사회에 미진단 감염자가 존재함이 확인되어 이들에 대한 철저한 관리가 요구됨.
Key Message
The low SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in Korea indicates that there have been few COVID-19 cases due to successful management measures, however, hidden infections may exist in the community, requiring the continuation of quarantine and vaccination measures.

Citations

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  • Realistic Estimation of COVID-19 Infection by Seroprevalence Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies: An Experience From Korea Metropolitan Area From January to May 2022
    In Hwa Jeong, Jong-Hun Kim, Min-Jung Kwon, Jayoung Kim, Hee Jin Huh, Byoungguk Kim, Junewoo Lee, Jeong-hyun Nam, Eun-Suk Kang
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COVID-19: Systematic Review
Quality of biosafety guidelines for dental clinical practice throughout the world in the early COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review
Renata Cristina Soares, Juliana Schaia Rocha, Saulo Vinicius da Rosa, Jéssica Rodrigues da Silva Noll Gonçalves, Priscilla Lesly Perlas Condori, Ana Elisa Ribeiro, Samuel Jorge Moysés, Márcia Helena Baldani
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021089.   Published online October 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021089
  • 10,826 View
  • 204 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To conduct a systematic review of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related biosafety guidelines for dental clinical practice in the early stage of the pandemic, focusing on quality assessment.
METHODS
Electronic (via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database, Brazilian Library in Dentistry, and Cochrane Library) and gray literature searches were performed for documents published up to May 12, 2020. Guidelines updated until April 17, 2021 were identified. Documents were included as guidelines if they (1) consisted of a set of statements, directions, or principles presenting current or future rules or policy; (2) were developed by government agencies, institutions, organizations, or expert panels; and (3) were related to the general conduct of healthcare activities rather a particular condition. Two researchers, using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II, independently extracted the recommendations and evaluated the quality of the guidelines.
RESULTS
Twenty-seven documents from 19 countries were included in the review. These documents presented 122 recommendations related to (1) professional biosafety; (2) patients’/companions’ safety; (3) the organization and biosafety of the physical dental facility environment; and (4) the work process in dental care. Overall, the scientific quality of the guidelines was considered low. Some recommendations presented in these guidelines would require further research to establish their effectiveness.
CONCLUSIONS
We found a wide variety of biosafety guidelines for dental practice regarding COVID-19 in the early months of the pandemic, but their quality was low. Biosafety recommendations should be frequently updated.
Summary
Key Message
Despite the wide variety of biosafety guidelines for dental practice regarding COVID-19 in the early months of the pandemic, their quality was low. These findings demonstrate the need for more guidelines for dental practice with more high-quality evidence, focusing on clarification of the strictness of development, financing, conflicts of interest, and applicability. Guidelines with high scientific quality are essential for the formation of a robust scientific consensus facilitating the ability to offer safer and more reliable procedures in the pandemic context.

Citations

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  • Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for Infants in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review
    Isabelle Cristina Daniel, Mariana Sofia Moro Siqueira, Gabriela Ulbricht Romaneli, Juliana Schaia Rocha Orsi, Renata Iani Werneck
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COVID-19: Original Article
The role of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Mehmet Onur Kaya, Esra Pamukçu, Burkay Yakar
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021074.   Published online September 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021074
  • 19,228 View
  • 643 Download
  • 39 Web of Science
  • 45 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Although vaccination has started, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a continuing threat to public health. Therefore, in addition to vaccination, the use of supplements to support the immune system may be important. The purpose of this study was to synthesize evidence on the possible effect of low serum vitamin D levels (25[OH]D<20 ng/mL or 50 nmol/L) on COVID-19 infection and outcomes.
METHODS
We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect without any language restrictions for articles published between January 1 and December 15, 2020. We performed 3 meta-analyses (called vitamin D and COVID-19 infection meta-analysis [D-CIMA], vitamin D and COVID-19 severity meta-analysis [D-CSMA], and vitamin D and COV ID-19 mortality meta-analysis [D-CMMA] for COVID-19 infection, severity, and mortality, respectively) to combine odds ratio values according to laboratory measurement units for vitamin D and the measured serum 25(OH)D level.
RESULTS
Twenty-one eligible studies were found to be relevant to the relationship between vitamin D and COVID-19 infection/outcomes (n=205,869). The D-CIMA meta-analysis showed that individuals with low serum vitamin D levels were 1.64 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 2.04; p<0.001) more likely to contract COVID-19. The D-CSMA meta-analysis showed that people with serum 25(OH)D levels below 20 ng/mL or 50 nmol/L were 2.42 times (95% CI, 1.13 to 5.18; p=0.022) more likely to have severe COVID-19. The D-CMMA meta-analysis showed that low vitamin D levels had no effect on COVID-19 mortality (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.53 to 5.06, p=0.390).
CONCLUSIONS
According to our results, vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of COVID-19 infection and the likelihood of severe disease. Therefore, we recommend vitamin D supplementation to prevent COVID-19 and its negative outcomes.
Summary
Key Message
Although vaccination has started, it seems that Covid-19 will continue to threaten public health for a long time. In addition to the vaccine, the use of supplements to support the immune system may also be important. The purpose of this study is to indicate the possible effect of low serum vitamin D (25(OH)D<20 ng/mL or 50nmol/L) on the Covid-19 infection and outcomes. According to our remarkable results, vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of Covid-19 infection and the potential for the severity of the disease. Therefore, vitamin D supplements should be added to prevention and treatment protocols for Covid-19 disease.

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    Jose Manuel Quesada-Gomez, José Lopez-Miranda, Marta Entrenas-Castillo, Antonio Casado-Díaz, Xavier Nogues y Solans, José Luis Mansur, Roger Bouillon
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    Rachel Nicoll, Michael Y. Henein
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    Fanqiang Zeng, Yongli Xu, Chaoling Tang, Zhigang Yan, Chaohe Wei
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Can vitamin D status influence seroconversion to SARS-COV2 vaccines?
    Endrit Shahini, Francesco Pesce, Antonella Argentiero, Antonio Giovanni Solimando
    Frontiers in Immunology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cholecalciferol as part of complex therapy for acute COVID-19
    K.A. Golovatyuk, T.L. Karonova, A.A. Mikhailova, D.I. Lagutina, A.T. Chernikova, E.Yu. Vasilieva, E.V. Shlyakhto
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  • Vitamin D Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms and Their Associated Disorders: A Literature Review
    Mohamed Abouzid, Franciszek Główka, Leonid Kagan, Marta Karaźniewicz-Łada
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  • Nutraceuticals in prevention and management of COVID-19
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COVID-19: Epidemiologic Investigation
COVID-19 outbreak in a military unit in Korea
Chanhee Kim, Young-Man Kim, Namwoo Heo, Eunjung Park, Sojin Choi, Sehyuk Jang, Nayoung Kim, Donghyok Kwon, Young-Joon Park, Byeongseop Choi, Beomman Ha, Kyounghwa Jung, Changbo Park, Sejin Park, Heeyoung Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021065.   Published online September 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021065
  • 10,753 View
  • 207 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study presents the response of a military unit to an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Gyeonggi Province. As soon as 2 soldiers were identified as index cases, the infectious disease investigators of the Gyeonggi Provincial Government, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, and the Armed Forces Epidemiologic Investigation Center discussed the investigation and response plan for an imminent massive outbreak.
METHODS
The joint immediate response team (IRT) conducted interviews with confirmed COVID-19 patients, reviewed their medical records, performed contact tracing using global positioning system data, and undertook a field investigation. For risk assessment, the joint IRT visited all 8 sites of the military units and the army chaplain’s church to evaluate the transmission risk at each site. The evaluation items included the size of the site, the use of air conditioning, whether windows were opened, and whether masks were worn. Pooled testing was used for the low-risk population to quickly detect the spread of COVID-19 in the military base.
RESULTS
One day before the symptom onset of the index case, the lecturer and >50% of the attendees were infected with COVID-19 while attending a lecture that lasted 2 hours and 30 minutes. Attendees were not wearing masks and were in a poorly ventilated room.
CONCLUSIONS
Since COVID-19 can be spread before symptom onset, contact tracing must be performed to investigate potential exposures prior to symptom onset and to manage any exposed persons.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 경기도 군부대에서 발생한 코로나19 대응 경험을 공유하는 국내 최초의 연구 결과이다. 본 연구를 통해 정리된 역학조사 과정은 군부대, 기숙사, 교정시설 등 집단 시설의 방역 대책 수립에 도움이 될 것으로 기대한다. 또한, 이번 사례는 집단 감염 발생 시 여러 유관 기관의 협조 체계가 신속한 대응과 추가 전파 예방에 중요하다는 점을 시사한다.
Key Message
This study is the first research in South Korea to share the experience of responding to COVID-19 at the military unit in Gyeonggi-do. The epidemiological investigation process organized through this study is expected to help establish response measures for group facilities such as military units, dormitories, and correctional facilities. In addition, this case suggests that the cooperative system of various related organizations in the event of a mass infection is important for rapid response and prevention of further transmission.

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  • Evaluation of diagnostic performance of SARS-CoV-2 infection using digital droplet polymerase chain reaction in individuals with or without COVID-19 symptoms
    Yoonjung Kim, Eunyoung Lee, Boyeon Kim, Jinhee Cho, Sook-Won Ryu, Kyung-A Lee
    Clinica Chimica Acta.2024; 554: 117759.     CrossRef
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    Serigne Modou Ndiaye, Diambéré Séga Dembélé, Moustapha Lo, Adama Fané, Florentine Mbengue Diagne, Khadidiatou Konaré Dembélé, Khadim Fall, Mbayang Ndiaye Djiba, Sokhna Ndiaye, Tabara Sylla Diallo
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COVID-19: Perspective
Herd immunity: challenges and the way forward in Korea
Jiyoung Oh, Sohyun Kim, Boyeong Ryu, Minjoung Shin, Bryan Inho Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021054.   Published online August 18, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021054
  • 9,925 View
  • 248 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Vaccination is considered to be the most effective measure for preventing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Many countries, including of Korea, are focusing on achieving herd immunity with the goal of reaching a vaccination rate of 70-80%. However, achieving herd immunity does not mean eradicating COVID-19, and the following challenges can occur in the process of achieving herd immunity. First, as the vaccination rate is likely to slow down over time, it is necessary to promote the benefits of vaccination through risk communication strategies and provide incentives for those who have been vaccinated. Second, a booster dose may be required depending on future studies on vaccine-induced immunity. Third, since variants capable of evading immunity and with higher transmissibility can emerge, rapid contract tracing and regular community genomic surveillance could help mitigate the impact of new variants. When the impact of COVID-19 is controlled to the level of seasonal influenza, the current public health measures that have been strictly imposed on society since the beginning of the pandemic will no longer be needed. The overall response strategy to COVID-19 will need to change accordingly, based on evaluations of the level of population immunity. These changes will include more efficient and targeted contact tracing and eased quarantine measures for vaccinated close contacts and travelers. Mask wearing and a minimum of social distancing will still be required in the journey towards the end of the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic will end, but the virus will not disappear.
Summary
Korean summary
한국을 포함한 많은 국가에서 예방접종률 70~80% 달성을 목표로 집단면역을 달성하는데 집중하고 있으나, 집단면역 달성은 코로나19 퇴치를 의미하지 않으며, 집단면역을 달성해 나가는 과정에서 여러 어려움이 발생할 수 있다. 코로나19의 전반적인 영향력이 계절성 인플루엔자와 같은 관리가능한 수준으로 낮아진다면 현재의 코로나19 대응조치들은 인구집단의 면역 수준을 고려하여 점차 완화될 것이지만 마스크 착용과 최소한의 사회적 거리두기는 당분간 지속될 것이며, 코로나19 대유행이 끝나더라도 바이러스는 사라지지 않을 것이다.
Key Message
Achieving herd immunity does not mean eradicating COVID-19, and some challenges can occur in the process of achieving herd immunity. When the impact of COVID-19 is controlled to the level of seasonal influenza, the current public health measures that have been strictly imposed on society since the beginning of the pandemic will no longer be needed. The overall response strategy to COVID-19 will need to change accordingly, based on evaluations of the level of population immunity. However, mask wearing and a minimum of social distancing will still be required in the journey towards the end of the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic will end, but the virus will not disappear.

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  • Towards a sustainable integrated management approach to uncertainty surrounding COVID‐19
    Tiep Nguyen, Leonie Hallo, Nicholas Chileshe, Nghia Hoai Nguyen
    Systems Research and Behavioral Science.2023; 40(6): 819.     CrossRef
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    Weina Liu, Chaonan Xu, Yajie Peng, Xinlong Xu
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    Bruna T. Tiyo, Gabriela J. H. Schmitz, Marina M. Ortega, Laís T. da Silva, Alexandre de Almeida, Telma M. Oshiro, Alberto J. da S. Duarte
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COVID-19: Brief Communication
Hydrogen peroxide as an auxiliary treatment for COVID-19 in Brazil: a randomized double-blind clinical trial
Marielle Bazzo Di Domênico, Kauê Collares, Renan Brandenburg dos Santos, Ulysses Lenz, Vinícius Picoli Antunes, Vinicius Webber Godinho, Henrique Cesca, Thales Henrique Jincziwski Ponciano, Pedro Henrique Corazza
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021051.   Published online August 3, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021051
  • 14,280 View
  • 276 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study evaluated the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) as mouthwash and nasal spray on symptom relief in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.
METHODS
Patients positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), who were treated in a hospital or at home, and patients’ family members (not positive for SARS-CoV-2), were randomized into 2 groups: experimental (1% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> for gargling, 0.5% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> for nasal wash), and control. Patients gargled the solution 3 times a day, and applied the nasal spray twice a day, for a 7-day period. Family members received the same treatment as the treated COVID-19 patient. The researchers contacted patients every 2 days over an 8-day period. An average post-treatment interval of 8 days passed before testing family members.
RESULTS
The most frequent symptoms on day 0 were cough, loss of taste, and hyposmia; there were no significant differences between groups, independent of the period. The symptom of dyspnea presented a significant difference between days 2 and 4 (p<0.05). Among family members, 86.0% had no antibodies, 2.3% had antibodies, and 11.6% had active infections (4 in the experimental group and 6 in the control group). The most frequent adverse effects in the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> group were a burning throat and nose.
CONCLUSIONS
H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> was not effective for the relief of COVID-19 symptoms and was associated with reports of transient adverse effects.
Summary
Key Message
The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at low concentrations disrupts the lipid membranes of some viruses through the action of oxygen free radicals. Nevertheless, the data obtained in the present study demonstrated that the use of the H2O2 as mouthwash and nasal spray was not effective on symptom relief in patients with COVID-19. Moreover, it was associated with transient adverse effects such as burning sensations in the nose and throat. Thus, the authors of this study advise against the use of H2O2 as a mouthwash and nasal spray to relieve COVID-19 symptoms and transmission.

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  • Seawater nasal wash to reduce symptom duration and viral load in COVID-19 and upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled multicenter trial
    Ludovic de Gabory, Sophie Vallet, Gaëlle Naelten, Chantal Raherison-Semjen
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COVID-19: Systematic Review
Clinical outcomes of COVID-19 amongst HIV patients: a systematic literature review
Thomas Massarvva
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021036.   Published online May 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021036
  • 12,555 View
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  • 3 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in the city of Wuhan, China around December 2019. Since then, the virus has caused severe morbidity and mortality worldwide and has put pressure on the global medical system. Still, there are limited data regarding the clinical impact of COVID-19 on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The primary aim of this study was, therefore, to systematically review up-to-date studies reporting the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 amongst HIV patients.
METHODS
A thorough literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library Databases in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines.
RESULTS
A total of 22 studies were identified. Amongst 730 HIV/COVID-19-coinfected patients, 79.4% were males, the median age was 51.5 years, and the number of reported patients receiving antiretroviral drugs was 708 (97.2%). Most coinfected patients had mild to moderate symptoms, including cough (37.7%), fever (37.5%), and dyspnoea (24.7%). Among pre-existing comorbidities, hypertension (26.3%) was the most prevalent in HIV/COVID-19 coinfected patients, and 87% of coinfected patients recovered.
CONCLUSIONS
Based on the existing data in this systematic literature review, HIV patients with pre-existing comorbidities, obesity, and older age should be considered as a high-risk group for COVID-19. Furthermore, coinfected patients appear to have marginally comparable clinical outcomes with the general population. The study’s findings highlight the need for further investigation to elucidate the impact of COVID-19 infection on HIV patients.
Summary
Key Message
In this systematic literature review, various aspects of COVID-19 outcomes amongst HIV patients are identified and quantified, including the proportion of different symptoms, severity, pre-existing comorbidities, recovery, death, and the most commonly prescribed antiretroviral drugs in HIV patients with COVID-19 coinfection.

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  • Double Trouble Co-Infections: Understanding the Correlation Between COVID-19 and HIV Viruses
    Sassi Ashraf Ali Abbasi, Tarika Noor, Maneeth Mylavarapu, Monika Sahotra, Hunmble A Bashir, Rakshita Ramesh Bhat, Urmi Jindal, Uzma Amin, Anushree V, Humza F Siddiqui
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health