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Original Articles
Socioeconomic inequalities in metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Iranian Kurdish adults
Pardis Mohammadzadeh, Farhad Moradpour, Bijan Nouri, Farideh Mostafavi, Farid Najafi, Ghobad Moradi
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023083.   Published online September 3, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023083
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased in recent decades. In this study, we investigated the socioeconomic inequalities associated with MetS and its components in a sample of the Iranian Kurdish population.
METHODS
We used data from 3,996 participants, aged 35 years to 70 years, from the baseline phase of the Dehgolan Prospective Cohort Study (February 2018 to March 2019). The concentration index and concentration curve were used to measure inequality and the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was used to examine the contribution of various determinants to the observed socioeconomic inequality in MetS and its components.
RESULTS
The prevalence of MetS was 34.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.97 to 35.93). The prevalence of MetS was 26.18% for those in the highest socioeconomic status (SES), compared with 40.51% for participants in the lowest SES. There was a significant negative concentration index for MetS (C=-0.13; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.09), indicating a concentration of MetS among participants with a lower SES. The most prevalent component was abdominal obesity (59.14%) with a significant negative concentration index (C=-0.21; 95% CI, -0.25 to -0.18). According to decomposition analysis, age, gender, and education were the highest contributing factors to inequality in MetS and its components.
CONCLUSIONS
This study showed socioeconomic inequality in MetS. People with a low SES were more likely to have MetS. Therefore, policymakers and health managers need to develop appropriate strategies to reduce these inequalities in MetS across age groups, genders, and education levels, especially among women and the elderly.
Summary
Key Message
This study sheds light on the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Iranian Kurds. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher prevalence of MetS and its components. Addressing these socioeconomic factors is crucial to reduce health inequalities. Recognizing this association helps us understand the social determinants of health and design targeted interventions. Policymakers and health managers should prioritize developing strategies to reduce these inequalities in MetS across different age groups, genders, and educational levels, with a particular focus on vulnerable populations like women and the elderly.
The probability of diagnostic delays for tuberculosis and its associated risk factors in northwest Iran from 2005 to 2016: a survival analysis using tuberculosis surveillance data
Reza Ebrahimoghli, Hassan Ghobadi, Davoud Adham, Parviz Jangi, Abbas Abbasi-Ghahramanloo, Eslam Moradi-Asl
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022060.   Published online July 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022060
  • 6,315 View
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Early diagnosis is essential for effective tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Therefore, this study examined the risk of delays in TB diagnosis and associated factors in Ardabil Province in northwest Iran from 2005 to 2016.
METHODS
This longitudinal retrospective cohort study was conducted using data obtained from the Iranian National Tuberculosis Control Program at the provincial level between 2005 and 2016. The total delay in diagnosis was defined as the time interval (days) between the onset of symptoms and TB diagnosis. Survival analysis was conducted to analyze the delay in diagnosis. Associated factors were identified using a Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS
A total of 1,367 new TB cases were identified. The 12-year median diagnostic delay was 45 days (interquartile range [IQR], 30-87). The annual median diagnostic delay decreased from 68 days (IQR, 33-131) in 2005 to 31 days (IQR, 30-62) in 2016. The probability of a delay in TB diagnosis decreased by 5.0% each year (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.07). Residence in a non-capital county (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.92) and referral from the private health system (HR, 0.74%; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.84) were significantly associated with an increased risk of delay in TB diagnosis over the 12-year study period.
CONCLUSIONS
The median delay decreased during the study period. We identified factors associated with a longer delay in TB diagnosis. These findings may be useful for further TB control plans and policies in Iran.
Summary
Key Message
A longitudinal analysis of tuberculosis surveillance data from northwest Iran showed that during the 12-year period from 2005 to 2016, a total of 1,367 tuberculosis cases were registered, of whom 942 patients had a prolonged diagnostic delay (>30 days) and the probability of a delay in tuberculosis diagnosis decreased by 5.0% each year.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Assessing heterogeneity of patient and health system delay among TB in a population with internal migrants in China
    Ruoyao Sun, Zheyuan Wu, Hongyin Zhang, Jinrong Huang, Yueting Liu, Meiru Chen, Yixiao Lv, Fei Zhao, Yangyi Zhang, Minjuan Li, Jiaqi Yan, Hongbing Jiang, Yiqiang Zhan, Jimin Xu, Yanzi Xu, Jianhui Yuan, Yang Zhao, Xin Shen, Chongguang Yang
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality: a historical cohort study of 50,000 COVID-19 patients in Fars, Iran
Alireza Mirahmadizadeh, Mohammad Taghi Badeleh Shamooshaki, Amineh Dadvar, Mohammad Javad Moradian, Mohammad Aryaie
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022032.   Published online March 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022032
  • 7,756 View
  • 400 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Previous studies have estimated the risk of death associated with unemployment in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but no studies have examined unemployment before COVID-19 infection as a risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Thus, this study aimed to investigate COVID-19 mortality among this population.
METHODS
Data on 50,038 people aged 25-59 years were collected from 38 agencies in Fars Province, Iran, from February 2020 to July 2021. Follow-up lasted from participants’ diagnosis with COVID-19 based on the results of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test to participants’ death or the end of the study period. The association between unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality was estimated using the Poisson regression method, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to calculate the E-value.
RESULTS
Unemployment was associated with a 2.41-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01 to 2.90) higher age-adjusted and sex-adjusted risk of COVID-19-related mortality. The adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed 8.82 (95% CI, 6.42 to 12.11), 2.84 (95% CI, 1.90 to 4.24), and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.24 to 2.01) times higher risks of COVID-19-related mortality among unemployed people aged 25-39 years, 40-49 years, and 50-59 years, respectively, than among their employed counterparts. Unemployment increased the risk of COVID-19 mortality by 3.31 (95% CI, 2.31 to 4.74) and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.86 to 2.84) times in female and male, respectively. The E-value was 3.43, reflecting the minimum strength of confounding required to shift the association between unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality toward the null.
CONCLUSIONS
Unemployment prior to COVID-19 infection increased the risk of COVID-19-related mortality. COVID-19-related mortality disproportionately impacted unemployed women and younger unemployed people.
Summary
Key Message
This study adds new insights to the existing body of work on the topic of unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality. Unemployment prior to COVID-19 infection was found to increase the risk of COVID-19-related mortality, which disproportionately burdened unemployed female and younger unemployed people. It seems older unemployed people and unemployed males may tend to have more financial resources and savings when they lose a job, making younger unemployed people and unemployed female more vulnerable to financial stress, which can lead to deferred care and increase their risk of COVID-19-related mortality.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • How do socioeconomic determinants of health affect the likelihood of living with HTLV-1 globally? A systematic review with meta-analysis
    Nydile Ramesh, Beatrice Cockbain, Graham P. Taylor, Carolina Rosadas
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Is there a relationship between internet access and COVID-19 mortality? Evidence from Nigeria based on a spatial analysis
    Richard Adeleke
    Dialogues in Health.2023; 2: 100102.     CrossRef
  • Determinant Factors of Mortality in Pre-elderly and Elderly Patients With COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia
    Thresya Febrianti, Ngabila Salama, Inggariwati, Dwi Oktavia
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(3): 231.     CrossRef
  • The gamma-Maxwell regression for COVID-19 mortality rates of the 50 U.S. largest cities
    N.S.S. da Costa, G.M. Cordeiro
    Model Assisted Statistics and Applications.2023; 18(3): 193.     CrossRef
Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasites in patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs in northern Iran: a closer look at risk factors
Leila Mirzaei, Keyhan Ashrafi, Zahra Atrkar Roushan, Mohammad Reza Mahmoudi, Irandokht Shenavar Masooleh, Behnaz Rahmati, Farshid Saadat, Hamed Mirjalali, Meysam Sharifdini
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021009.   Published online January 20, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021009
  • 11,510 View
  • 427 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of <i>Strongyloides stercoralis</i> and other intestinal parasites in patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs in northern Iran and to investigate related risk factors.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study was conducted among 494 patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs, including cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (n=188) and those treated with prolonged corticosteroid administration (n=306). All fresh fecal samples were examined using the direct wet-mount, formalin ethyl acetate concentration, and agar plate culture techniques.
RESULTS
In total, 16.8% of patients were positive for at least 1 intestinal parasite; the helminthic and protozoan infection rates were 5.1% and 12.3%, respectively. The infection rate was significantly higher in corticosteroid-treated individuals (19.6%) than cancer patients (12.2%) (p<0.05). The prevalence rate of <i>S. stercoralis</i> among patients receiving chemotherapy and those treated with corticosteroids were 4.3% and 5.2%, respectively. The prevalence rate of <i>S. stercoralis</i> infection was significantly higher in older patients (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Strongyloidiasis is one of the most common parasites among patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs in northern Iran. Early diagnosis and proper treatment of these patients are necessary to minimize the complications of severe strongyloidiasis.
Summary
Key Message
This study showed strongyloidiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases among patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs in northern Iran and early diagnosis before chemotherapy or steroid therapy is necessary.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Seropositivity Rates of Strongyloides stercoralis Antibody in the Southeastern Region of Republic of Korea: A Single-Center Retrospective Study
    Taehwa Kim, Seungjin Lim
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2022; 60(3): 181.     CrossRef
  • The Coexistence of Blastocystis spp. in Humans, Animals and Environmental Sources from 2010–2021 in Asia
    Adedolapo Aminat Rauff-Adedotun, Farah Haziqah Meor Termizi, Nurshafarina Shaari, Ii Li Lee
    Biology.2021; 10(10): 990.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Molecular and Parasitological Methods for Diagnosis of Human Trichostrongylosis
    Mehdi Pandi, Meysam Sharifdini, Keyhan Ashrafi, Zahra Atrkar Roushan, Behnaz Rahmati, Nayereh Hajipour
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Copro-molecular diagnosis of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily in dog and cat populations in northern Iran
Leila Izadi, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Afsaneh Amouei, Mehdi Sharif, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Tooran Nayeri, Ahmad Daryani
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020074.   Published online December 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020074
  • 10,246 View
  • 125 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The oocysts of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily (<i>Neospora caninum, Hammondia hammondi</i> and <i>H. heydorni</i>, and <i>Besnoitia besnoiti</i>) are morphologically similar to <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>, and indistinguishable from each other. This study investigated the prevalence of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily in dog and cat fecal samples using a nested polymerase chain reaction method.
METHODS
Overall, 200 fecal samples from domestic dogs (n=120) and cats (n=80) were collected from 15 farms in northern Iran. The samples were homogenized in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution and subsequently concentrated with sucrose solution. DNA was extracted from samples using a genomic DNA kit. Specific primers and the 18S rDNA gene were used to screen and detect all Toxoplasmatinae oocysts.
RESULTS
Overall, 2.5% (3 of 120) and 22.5% (18 of 80) of the fecal samples collected from dogs and cats were infected with Toxoplasmatinae. In dogs, 2 samples were positive for <i>N. caninum</i> and 1 sample was positive for <i>T. gondii</i>. In cats, all 18 positive samples belonged to <i>T. gondii</i>. No contamination with <i>H. heydorni</i> was observed in dog fecal samples or <i>H. hammondi</i> and <i>B. besnoiti</i> in cat fecal samples. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the <i>T. gondii</i> (cat) and <i>N. caninum</i> (dog) found had similarities with parasites reported from other regions of the world.
CONCLUSIONS
This is the first study to provide data on the epidemiology of Toxoplasmatinae oocysts in Iran. The findings suggest that public-health monitoring for the effective control of feces from cats and dogs and improved pet hygiene habits are needed.
Summary

Citations

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  • Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Endangered Wild Felines (Felis silvestris and Lynx pardinus) in Spain
    Pablo Matas Méndez, Isabel Fuentes Corripio, Ana Montoya Matute, Begoña Bailo Barroso, Rebeca Grande Gómez, Ariadna Apruzzese Rubio, Francisco Ponce Gordo, Marta Mateo Barrientos
    Animals.2023; 13(15): 2488.     CrossRef
  • Endoparasites of European Wildcats (Felis silvestris) in Greece
    Anastasia Diakou, Despina Migli, Dimitris Dimzas, Simone Morelli, Angela Di Cesare, Dionisios Youlatos, Petros Lymberakis, Donato Traversa
    Pathogens.2021; 10(5): 594.     CrossRef
Epidemiologic Investigation
How to improve the human brucellosis surveillance system in Kurdistan Province, Iran: reduce the delay in the diagnosis time
Meysam Olfatifar, Seyed Mehdi Hosseini, Payam Shokri, Soheila Khodakarim, Naghmeh Khadembashi, Sajjad Rahimi Pordanjani
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020058.   Published online August 10, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020058
  • 9,940 View
  • 178 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Spatial information makes a crucial contribution to enhancing and monitoring the brucellosis surveillance system by facilitating the timely diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis.
METHODS
An exponential scan statistic model was used to formalize the spatial distribution of the adjusted delay in the diagnosis time of brucellosis (time between onset and diagnosis of the disease) in Kurdistan Province, Iran. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare variables of interest between the clustered and non-clustered areas.
RESULTS
The spatial distribution of clusters of human brucellosis cases with delayed diagnoses was not random in Kurdistan Province. The mean survival time (i.e., time between symptom onset and diagnosis) was 4.02 months for the short spatial cluster, which was centered around the city of Baneh, and was 4.21 months for spatiotemporal clusters centered around the cities of Baneh and Qorveh. Similarly, the mean survival time for the long spatial and spatiotemporal clusters was 6.56 months and 15.69 months, respectively. The spatial distribution of the cases inside and outside of clusters differed in terms of livestock vaccination, residence, sex, and occupational variables.
CONCLUSIONS
The cluster pattern of brucellosis cases with delayed diagnoses indicated poor performance of the surveillance system in Kurdistan Province. Accordingly, targeted and multi-faceted approaches should be implemented to improve the brucellosis surveillance system and to reduce the number of lost days caused by delays in the diagnosis of brucellosis, which can lead to long-term and serious complications in patients.
Summary

Citations

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  • Asymmetric Effects of Weather-Integrated Human Brucellosis Forecasting System Using a New Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model
    Yongbin Wang, Chenlu Xue, Bingjie Zhang, Yuchun Li, Chunjie Xu, Daniel Diaz
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.2024; 2024: 1.     CrossRef
  • Spatio-temporal Analysis of COVID-19: A Global Study
    Sajjad Rahimi Pordanjani, Maryam Mohammadian, Somayeh Derakhshan, Fatemeh Hadavandsiri, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Mohammad Hossein Panahi
    Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Studies.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated With Diagnostic Delays in Human Brucellosis in Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China
    Jingbo Zhai, Ruihao Peng, Ying Wang, Yuying Lu, Huaimin Yi, Jinling Liu, Jiahai Lu, Zeliang Chen
    Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical Effect of Doxycycline Combined with Compound Sulfamethoxazole and Rifampicin in the Treatment of Brucellosis Spondylitis
    Xin-Ming Yang, Yong-Li Jia, Ying Zhang, Pei-Nan Zhang, Yao Yao, Yan-Lin Yin, Ye Tian
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy.2021; Volume 15: 4733.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Temporal trend and spatial distribution of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Iranian children during 2006-2014: a mixed ecological study
Sajjad Rahimi Pordanjani, Amir Kavousi, Babak Mirbagheri, Abbas Shahsavani, Koorosh Etemad
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020057.   Published online July 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020057
  • 10,455 View
  • 189 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The present study investigated the spatiotemporal epidemiological status of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common childhood cancer, in Iran.
METHODS
Using an exploratory mixed design, this ecological study examined 3,769 under-15 children with ALL recorded in the National Cancer Registry of Iran during 2006-2014. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Getis-Ord general G (GOGG) index, optimized hot spot analysis, and Pearson correlation coefficients (PCC) at a significance level of 0.05.
RESULTS
The average annual incidence of the disease was 2.25 per 100,000 under-15 children, and the cumulative incidence rate (CIR) was 21.31 per 100,000 under-15 children. Patients’ mean age was 5.90 years (standard deviation, 3.68), and the peak incidence was observed among 2-year to 5-year-olds. No significant difference was found in mean age between boys and girls (p=0.261). The incidence of ALL was more common during spring and summer than in other seasons. The GOGG index was 0.039 and significant (p<0.001). Hot spots were identified in south, central, and eastern Iran and cold spots in the north and west of Iran. The PCC between the CIR and latitude was negative (r=-0.507; p=0.003) but that between the CIR and longitude was positive (r=0.347; p=0.055).
CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of ALL in Iranian children was lower than that observed in developed countries, but showed an increasing trend. It can be argued that the incidence of ALL is due to synergistic interactions between environmental, infectious, geographical, and genetic risk factors.
Summary

Citations

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  • Epidemiology of childhood acute leukemias in marginalized populations of the central-south region of Mexico: results from a population-based registry
    Janet Flores-Lujano, Aldo Allende-López, David Aldebarán Duarte-Rodríguez, Erika Alarcón-Ruiz, Lizbeth López-Carrillo, Teresa Shamah-Levy, Mariano E. Cebrián, Ma. del Rocío Baños-Lara, Diana Casique-Aguirre, Jesús Elizarrarás-Rivas, Javier Antonio López-A
    Frontiers in Oncology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Spatio-temporal Analysis of COVID-19: A Global Study
    Sajjad Rahimi Pordanjani, Maryam Mohammadian, Somayeh Derakhshan, Fatemeh Hadavandsiri, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Mohammad Hossein Panahi
    Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Studies.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Persistently high incidence rates of childhood acute leukemias from 2010 to 2017 in Mexico City: A population study from the MIGICCL
    Janet Flores-Lujano, David Aldebarán Duarte-Rodríguez, Elva Jiménez-Hernández, Jorge Alfonso Martín-Trejo, Aldo Allende-López, José Gabriel Peñaloza-González, María Luisa Pérez-Saldivar, Aurora Medina-Sanson, José Refugio Torres-Nava, Karina Anastacia Sol
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological characteristics and temporal-spatial analysis of overseas imported dengue fever cases in outbreak provinces of China, 2005–2019
    Xinchang Lun, Yiguan Wang, Chunchun Zhao, Haixia Wu, Caiying Zhu, Delong Ma, Mingfang Xu, Jun Wang, Qiyong Liu, Lei Xu, Fengxia Meng
    Infectious Diseases of Poverty.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Temporal Trend and Spatial Distribution of Drug Poisoning in Semnan Province: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study
    Masoudeh Babakhanian, Khadijeh Mamashli, Faezeh Ansariniya, Somayeh Rezaie, Hamed Azadi, Masumeh Ghazanfarpour, Sajjad Rahimi Pordanjani
    Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Studies.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Crude incidence, age-specific incidence, and standardized incidence rates of leukemia in children under 14 years of age in Iran: an updated meta-analysis
    Ayda Hasanpour Dehkordi, Hasan Askarpour, Farshid Karami Pordanjani, Mohammad Rafiee, Sajjad Rahimi Pordanjani
    Przeglad Epidemiologiczny.2022; 75(4): 546.     CrossRef
Impact of simulated cigarette excise tax increase on its consumption in Iran
Behzad Raei, Sara Emamgholipour, Amirhossein Takian, Mehdi Yaseri, Ghahreman Abdoli
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020054.   Published online July 23, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020054
  • 9,755 View
  • 160 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To assess the impact of a simulated tax-induced cigarette price increase on its consumption by different expenditure clusters in Iran.
METHODS
Employing consecutive cross sections for cigarette consumption, a two-part model was applied for different expenditure groups.
RESULTS
A 75% price increase in cigarettes noticeably— as is common in some countries with strong tobacco control policies—reduces current consumption in all five social classes, causing nearly 8% of current male smokers to quit or not to start.
CONCLUSIONS
Findings of the current study suggest that Iranian policy makers go through to implement tobacco taxation policies to control smoking prevalence, which in turn might lead to a reduction in national healthcare expenditures as well as enhance the global community’s capacity to meet Sustainable Development Goals.
Summary

Citations

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  • The effect of price on cigarette consumption, distribution, and sale in Tehran: a qualitative study
    Younes Panahi Golestan, Mohammad Ebrahimi Kalan, Ziyad Ben Taleb, Kenneth D. Ward, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Raed Bahelah, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Abdurrahman Charkazi, Nasir Dehghan, Shirin Shahbazi Sighaldeh
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Changes in spirometric parameters after protective interventions among workers at a chlorine production plant in Iran
Daryoush Pahlevan, Amir Shomali, Sara Pooryahya, Kamyar Mansori, Majid Mirmohammadkhani, Farhad Malek
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020041.   Published online June 6, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020041
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to assess changes in spirometric parameters after protective interventions among workers at a chlorine production plant in Semnan, Iran during 2012-2016.
METHODS
This quasi-experimental study included 100 workers at a chlorine production plant in Semnan during 2012-2016. Spirometric parameters (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow [PEF], and PEF occurring in the middle 50% of the patient’s exhaled volume [PEF 25-75%]) were measured in all workers before the initial intervention in 2012. Protective interventions were then implemented for 4 consecutive years and the parameters were measured annually. A multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the factors affecting spirometric parameters before and after the protective interventions in SPSS version 24.
RESULTS
The mean values of all spirometric parameters significantly increased after the protective interventions (p<0.05). Multivariable linear regression showed that age (β=-0.40), body mass index (BMI) (β=0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11 to 1.31), and type of mask (β=-7.88; 95% CI, -15.96 to -0.46) had significant effects on the mean difference in FVC. Similarly, age (β=-0.35; 95% CI, -0.70 to -0.01), BMI (β=0.80; 95% CI, 0.20 to 1.41) and type of mask (β=-8.88; 95% CI, -16.98 to -0.79) had significant associations with the mean difference in FEV1. The type of mask (β=-12.81; 95% CI, -25.01 to -0.60) had a significant effect on the mean difference in PEF.
CONCLUSIONS
All spirometric parameters significantly increased in workers after protective interventions were implemented. Therefore, protective interventions to prevent respiratory disorders in workers exposed to chlorine gas are suggested.
Summary
Factors associated with in-hospital death in patients with nosocomial infections: a registry-based study using community data in western Iran
Salman Khazaei, Erfan Ayubi, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Masud Shojaeian, Leili Tapak
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020037.   Published online June 1, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020037
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  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Objectives
Determining the predictors of in-hospital death related to nosocomial infections is an essential part of efforts made in the overall health system to improve the delivery of health care to patients. Therefore, this study investigated the predictors of in-hospital death related to nosocomial infections.
Methods
This registry-based, longitudinal study analyzed data on 8,895 hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in Hamadan Province, Iran from March 2017 to December 2019. The medical records of all patients who had been admitted to the hospitals were extracted from the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Software. The effects of the type and site of infection, as well as age group, on in-hospital death were estimated using univariate and multivariable Cox regression models.
Results
In total, 4,232 (47.8%) patients with HAIs were males, and their mean age was 48.25±26.22 years. In both sexes, most nosocomial infections involved Gram-negative bacteria and the most common site of infection was the urinary tract. Older patients had a higher risk of in-hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 3.69 for males; aHR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.62 for females). In both sexes, compared with urinary tract infections, an increased risk of in-hospital death was found for ventilator-associated events (VAEs) (by 95% for males and 93% for females) and bloodstream infections (BSIs) (by 67% for males and 82% for females).
Conclusion
We found that VAEs, BSIs, and fungal infections were independently and strongly associated with increased mortality.
Summary

Citations

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  • Predictors of In-ICU Mortality Among Older Patients with Healthcare-Associated Infection: A Cohort Study
    Fereshteh Rezaie, Farahnaz Mohammadi-Shahboulaghi, Reza Fadayevatan, Mohsen Shati, Gholamreza Ghaedamini Harouni
    Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Gurjeet Singh, Raksha Singh, Ranga Reddy Burri
    MGM Journal of Medical Sciences.2023; 10(4): 667.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Nosocomial Infections During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Sima Rafiei, Zahra Nejatifar, Rana Soheylirad, Samira Raoofi, Fatemeh Pashazadeh Kan, Ahmad Ghashghaee
    Journal of Health Reports and Technology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Nosocomial Infections During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Sima Rafiei, Zahra Nejatifar, Rana Soheylirad, Samira Raoofi, Fatemeh Pashazadeh Kan, Ahmad Ghashghaee
    Journal of Health Reports and Technology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on Nosocomial Infection Rate: A Case of Iran
    Maryam Jabarpour, Mahlagha Dehghan, Giti Afsharipour, Elham Hajipour Abaee, Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki, Mehdi Ahmadinejad, Mahboobeh Maazallahi, Aseer Manilal
    Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
  • Survival rate in patients with ICU-acquired infections and its related factors in Iran’s hospitals
    MEDSKorosh Etemad, Yousef Khani, Seyed-Saeed Hashemi-Nazari, Neda Izadi, Babak Eshrati, Yadollah Mehrabi
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Oral colonization by Candida species and associated factors in HIV-infected patients in Ahvaz, southwest Iran
Elham Aboualigalehdari, Maryam Tahmasebi Birgani, Mahnaz Fatahinia, Mehran Hosseinzadeh
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020033.   Published online May 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020033
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Objectives
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The most common cause is <i>Candida albicans</i>, followed by non-<i>albicans Candida</i>. This study aimed to identify colonized <i>Candida</i> species in HIV-infected patients from Ahvaz, Iran. Additionally, the relationships between immunity-related factors, lifestyle, and colonization of <i>Candida</i> spp. were studied.
Methods
Oral swabs were taken from 201 HIV-positive patients referred for consultations at the Behavioral Modification Center. Oral <i>Candida</i> colonization was detected using culture-based and molecular assays. Data were assessed by descriptive statistics and analyzed to investigate the correlation between <i>Candida</i> colonization and various factors, including the CD4<sup>+</sup> cell count and viral load.
Results
It was found that 43.8% of patients were positive for <i>Candida</i>. The most common species was C. <i>albicans</i> (48.0%), followed by non-<i>albicans Candida</i> isolates, including <i>C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr</i>, and <i>C. krusei.</i> Colonization of <i>Candida</i> spp. in patients was associated with a CD4 count ≤200 cells/mm<sup>3</sup> (odds ratio [OR], 4.62; p<0.05), history of shared injections (OR, 6.96; p<0.001), and sex (OR, 3.59; p<0.05).
Conclusions
The results of this study showed that C. <i>albicans</i> was the dominant pathogen. The risk factors for colonization of <i>Candida</i> spp. were a CD4 count ≤ 200/mm<sup>3</sup> , a history of shared injections, and sex. Other factors with potential relationships include viral load, age, and opportunistic infections, but further investigations are needed.
Summary

Citations

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  • Antifungal Susceptibility and Candida sp. Biofilm Production in Clinical Isolates of HIV-Positive Brazilian Patients under HAART Therapy
    Anelise Maria Costa Vasconcelos Alves, Érika Helena Salles de Brito, Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo, Juliana Jales de Hollanda Celestino, Ana Caroline Rocha de Melo Leite, Gabriela Silva Cruz, Nuno Filipe Azevedo, Célia Fortuna Rodrigues
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    Aynaz Ghojoghi, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Eisa Nazar, Mahnaz Fatahinia
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Recuento de linfocitos CD4, carga viral y colonización oral por Candida en personas viviendo con VIH/SIDA
    Esperanza Gissela Vargas-Díaz, Graciela Albino Cornejo, Hans Ramón Quiroz-Ruiz
    Gaceta Médica Boliviana.2023; 46(1): 18.     CrossRef
  • Low level of antifungal resistance inCandidaspecies recovered from Iranian HIV-associated oral infection
    Maryam Erfaninejad, Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Elham Maraghi, Mohammad Hashemzadeh, Mahnaz Fatahinia
    Letters in Applied Microbiology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology, prevalence, and associated factors of oral candidiasis in HIV patients from southwest Iran in post-highly active antiretroviral therapy era
    Maryam Erfaninejad, Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Elham Maraghi, Mohammad Hashemzadeh, Mahnaz Fatahinia
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Reza Ghasemi, Ensieh Lotfali, Kamran Rezaei, Seyed Ataollah Madinehzad, Mahdi Falah Tafti, Nikta Aliabadi, Ebrahim Kouhsari, Mahsa Fattahi
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    Frontiers in Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Shuang Li, Xiaodong Yang, Christiane Moog, Hao Wu, Bin Su, Tong Zhang
    Frontiers in Immunology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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  • Transcription Factors of CAT1, EFG1, and BCR1 Are Effective in Persister Cells of Candida albicans-Associated HIV-Positive and Chemotherapy Patients
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    Frontiers in Microbiology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Systematic Reviews
Medication errors among Iranian emergency nurses: A systematic review
Zohreh Hosseini Marznaki, Somaye Pouy, Waliu Jawula Salisu, Amir Emami Zeydi
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020030.   Published online May 13, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020030
  • 13,955 View
  • 337 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Medication errors (MEs) made by nurses are the most common errors in emergency departments (EDs). Identifying the factors responsible for MEs is crucial in designing optimal strategies for reducing such occurrences. The present study aimed to review the literature describing the prevalence and factors affecting MEs among emergency ward nurses in Iran.
METHODS
We searched electronic databases, including the Scientific Information Database, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar, for scientific studies conducted among emergency ward nurses in Iran. The studies were restricted to full-text, peer-reviewed studies published from inception to December 2019, in the Persian and English languages, that evaluated MEs among emergency ward nurses in Iran.
RESULTS
Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Most of the nurses (58.9%) had committed MEs only once. The overall mean rate of MEs was 46.2%, and errors made during drug administration accounted for 41.7% of MEs. The most common type of administration error was drug omission (17.8%), followed by administering drugs at the wrong time (17.5%) and at an incorrect dosage (10.6%). The lack of an adequate nursing workforce during shifts and improper nurse-patient ratios were the most critical factors affecting the occurrence of MEs by nurses.
CONCLUSIONS
Despite the increased attention on patient safety in Iran, MEs by nurses remain a significant concern in EDs. Therefore, nurse managers and policy-makers must take adequate measures to reduce the incidence of MEs and their potential negative consequences.
Summary

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    Fateme Mohammadi, Sanaz Rustaee, Mostafa Bijani
    Nursing Open.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Aidin Aryankhesal, Negar Aghighi, Pouran Raeissi, Zhila Najafpour
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    Negar Aghighi, Aidin Aryankhesal, Pouran Raeissi, Zhila Najafpour
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  • Predictors of patient safety competency among emergency nurses in Iran: a cross-sectional correlational study
    Aghil Habibi Soola, Mehdi Ajri-Khameslou, Alireza Mirzaei, Zahra Bahari
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    Hayato Kizaki, Daisuke Yamamoto, Hiroki Satoh, Kotaro Masuko, Hideyuki Maki, Yukari Konishi, Satoko Hori, Yasufumi Sawada
    BMC Geriatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Sümeyye Arslan, Özlem Fidan, Arife Şanlialp Zeyrek, Durdu Ok
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    Lina Naseralallah, Derek Stewart, Ruba Azfar Ali, Vibhu Paudyal
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  • Applicability of Clinical Decision Support in Management among Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery in Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review
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Food frequency questionnaires developed and validated in Iran: a systematic review
Arezoo Rezazadeh, Nasrrin Omidvar, Katherine L. Tucker
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020015.   Published online March 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020015
  • 12,841 View
  • 287 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To systematically review and identify food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) developed for the Iranian population and their validation and reproducibility in order to determine possible research gaps and needs.
METHODS
Studies were selected by searching for relevant keywords in the PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, SID, and Iranmedex databases, unpublished data, and theses in November 2016 (updated in September 2019). All English-language and Persian-language papers were included. Duplicates, articles with unrelated content, and articles only containing a protocol were excluded. The FFQs were categorized based on: (1) number of food items in to short (≤80 items) and long (>80 items) and; (2) the aim of the FFQ to explore total consumption pattern/nutrients (general) or to detect specific nutrient(s)/food group(s) (specialized).
RESULTS
Sixteen reasonably validated questionnaires were identified. However, only 13 presented a reproducibility assessment. Ten FFQs were categorized as general (7 long, 3 short) and 6 as specialized (3 long, 3 short). The correlation coefficients for nutrient intake between dietary records or recalls and FFQs were 0.07-0.82 for long (general: 0.07-0.82 and specialized: 0.26-0.67) and 0.20-0.67 for short (general: 0.24-0.54 and specialized: 0.20-0.42) FFQs. Long FFQs showed higher validity and reproducibility than short FFQs. Reproducibility of FFQs was acceptable (0.32-0.89). The strongest correlations were reported by studies with shorter intervals between FFQs.
CONCLUSIONS
FFQs designed for the Iranian population appear to be appropriate tools for dietary assessment. Despite their acceptable reproducibility, their validity for assessing specific nutrients and their applicability for populations other than those they were developed for may be questionable.
Summary

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  • Correlation of Dietary Macro- and Micro-Mineral Intake with Seminal Plasma Quality/Quantity and Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Infertile Compared to the Normal Men: a Case-Control Study
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    Sedigheh Yeganeh, Niloofar Motamed, Saeid Najafpour Boushehri, Razieh Bagherzadeh, Maryam Ravanipour
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  • The relationship between nutritional facts and temperament of selected Iranians’ frequent food items: a summative content analysis study
    Mohsen Zakerian, Fatemeh Roudi, Fatemeh Mahjoub, Tannaz Jamialahmadi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Malihe Motavasselian
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Original Articles
Evaluating maternal and child health indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals in 2018: what is Iran’s position?
Elham Khatooni, Isa Akbarzadeh, Elham Abdalmaleki, Zhaleh Abdi, Elham Ahmadnezhad
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019045.   Published online October 11, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019045
  • 10,310 View
  • 168 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Since many Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were not achieved, countries including Iran—despite achieving some of the MDGs—need regular planning to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. This article examines maternal and child health indicators in the early years of the SDGs in Iran relative to several other countries.
METHODS
This study was carried out through a secondary analysis of maternal and child health indicators in Iran. The results were compared with data from other countries divided into three groups: countries with upper-middle income levels, countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region, and the countries covered by the Outlook Document 1,404 (a regional classification). Then, the relationship between these indicators and the Human Development Index was investigated.
RESULTS
Iran has attained better results than other countries with respect to maternal mortality, family planning, skilled birth attendance, under-5 deaths, incidence of hepatitis B, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination coverage, and antenatal care. In contrast, Iran performed worse than other countries with respect to under-5 wasting, under-5 stunting, and care-seeking behavior for children.
CONCLUSIONS
Overall, among the 11 indicators surveyed, Iran has attained better-than-average results and seems to be improving. We recommend that Iran continue interventions in the field of maternal and child health.
Summary

Citations

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  • Iranian women's birth experiences: a cross-sectional study
    Mona Ghobadi, Farzaneh Pazandeh, Barbara Potrata, Ehsan Kazemnejad Lili
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    Yasmin Madani-Lavassani
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The relationship between maternal mental health and communication skills in children in Shiraz, Iran
Najmeh Maharlouei, Hossein Alibeigi, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Pedram Keshavarz, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki, Hamid Nemati, Kamran B. lankarani
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019035.   Published online July 19, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019035
  • 12,486 View
  • 238 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Child development is a significant issue in global public health, and maternal mental health (MMH) can have a remarkable effect on children’s development of communication skills. We aimed to investigate the association between MMH and communication skills in a sample of Iranian children.
METHODS
This study was conducted in Shiraz, Iran during 2016. In total, 640 mothers who lived in Shiraz and were registered in the Fars Birth Cohort (FBC) study were invited to attend the FBC clinic with their children. A trained physician evaluated MMH using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Additionally, a trained nurse assessed the children’s communication development status using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for 60-month old children.
RESULTS
The majority of the mothers were homemakers (82.8%) and had high school diplomas (38.9%). The mothers’ mean age was 33.7±4.6 years. Seventy-nine (12.3%) children had delayed communication skills, but no significant association was found between children’s communication skills and the mothers’ total GHQ score (p=0.43). In total, 493 mothers (77.0%) had abnormal somatic symptoms, 497 (77.7%) had abnormal anxiety/insomnia, 337 (52.7%) had social dysfunction, and 232 (36.3%) suffered from depression. Logistic regression indicated that after adjusting for confounders, the odds of delayed communication skills were 3-fold higher among the children of mothers with abnormal somatic symptoms than among other children (p=0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
The study results confirmed that MMH had a significant impact on children’s communication skills. Moreover, maternal abnormal somatic symptoms exerted the strongest impact on the development of communication skills in 5-yearold children.
Summary

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    Zuguo Qin, Lei Shi, Yaqing Xue, Huang Lin, Jinchan Zhang, Pengyan Liang, Zhiwei Lu, Mengxiong Wu, Yaguang Chen, Xiao Zheng, Yi Qian, Ping Ouyang, Ruibin Zhang, Xuefeng Yi, Chichen Zhang
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    Kathryn Mishkin, Shaymaa Samir Maqsood, Hamdia Mirkhan Ahmed
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  • Comparing Growth and Development of Low and Normal Birth Weight Children at Age of 60 Months
    Najmeh Maharlouei, Sogand Farhangian, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health