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Misconceptions and stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey
Desi Suantari
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021094.   Published online November 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021094
  • 8,007 View
  • 163 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Data are not available in Indonesia to measure the main indicators of zero new infections, zero acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths and zero discrimination. This study aimed to determine factors related to misconceptions about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and the stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Indonesia
METHODS
This cross-sectional study used secondary data from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS). The sample was women and men aged 17-45 years and married (n=3,023).
RESULTS
Education and wealth index quintile were significantly related to misconceptions about HIV transmission. Respondents with low levels of education were more likely to have misconceptions about HIV transmission. Respondents who were in the poorest, poorer, middle, and richer quintiles of the wealth index were more likely to have misconceptions about HIV transmission than those in the richest quintile. Educational level, employment status, and wealth index quintile were predictors of stigma against PLWHA.
CONCLUSIONS
There are still many Indonesian people with misconceptions about HIV transmission and stigma against PLWHA. Future studies should focus on educational programs or interventions aimed at increasing public knowledge and awareness, promoting compassion towards PLWHA, and emphasizing respect for the rights of PLWHA. These interventions are particularly important for populations who are uneducated and living in poverty.
Summary
Key Message
Many Indonesians still experience misconceptions about HIV transmission and stigmatize PLWHA. Educational programs or interventions are needed to increase public knowledge and awareness, promoting compassion towards PLWHA, and emphasizing respect for the rights of PLWHA, particularly among the poor and uneducated.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of public stigma towards people with HIV and its impact on HIV testing uptake: A cross‐sectional study in 64 low‐ and middle‐income countries
    Ana Mendez‐Lopez, Trenton M. White, María José Fuster‐RuizdeApodaca, Jeffrey V. Lazarus
    HIV Medicine.2024; 25(1): 83.     CrossRef
  • The Pandemics of Mass Destruction: A Comparative Analysis of HIV/AIDS and Coronavirus (COVID-19)
    Robert Kajiita, Simon Kang'ethe
    Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare.2024; Volume 17: 889.     CrossRef
  • The Unheard Stories: Experiences of Young People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Dealing with Discrimination in the Philippines
    Donna Sombrea, Sofia Liane Santarin, Trixie Gayle Verde, Andrea Tidalgo, Coleen Tolosa
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2024; Volume 16: 33.     CrossRef
  • Stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among general adult population: the results from the 6th Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES VI)
    Sineenart Chautrakarn, Parichat Ong-Artborirak, Warangkana Naksen, Aksara Thongprachum, Jukkrit Wungrath, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Scott Stonington, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Pattapong Kessomboon, Nareemarn Neelapaichit, Wichai Aekpl
    Journal of Global Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factor Associated with HIV/AIDS knowledge among males: Findings from 2017-18 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey
    Jamal Abdul Nasir, Muhammad Danish Khan, Syed Arif Ahmed Zaidi
    Journal of Biosocial Science.2023; 55(6): 1169.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its determinants in India: Findings from the National Family Health Survey-5 (2019– 2021)
    Mansi Malik, Siaa Girotra, Debolina Roy, Saurav Basu
    Population Medicine.2023; 5(May): 1.     CrossRef
Associations of depression and anxiety with cardiovascular risk among people living with HIV/AIDS in Korea
Kyong Sil Park, Seon Young Hwang, Bo Youl Choi, June Kim, Sang Il Kim, Woo-Joo Kim, Chun Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021002.   Published online December 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021002
  • 12,770 View
  • 384 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
As HIV/AIDS is becoming a chronic disease, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with HIV/AIDS is rising. Anxiety and depression, which are common among people living with HIV/AIDS, have been linked with CVD. This study investigated the risk of CVD in people living with HIV/AIDS and explored the effects of depression and anxiety on CVD risk.
METHODS
Data were collected for 457 people enrolled in the Korea Cohort HIV/AIDS study after 2010. Framingham risk scores were calculated to quantify the 10-year risk of developing CVD. Depression and anxiety variables were re-coded as a single combined variable. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity after entry into the cohort, and depression/anxiety.
RESULTS
Participants with both depression and anxiety were 2.28 times more likely than those with neither depression nor anxiety to have moderate/high-risk CVD risk. The 10-year risk of developing CVD was affected by LDL cholesterol, TG, age, and duration of HIV infection. LDL cholesterol and TG levels change according to the duration of HIV infection, and metabolic disorders affect the risk of CVD. Thus, a longer duration of HIV infection is associated with a higher risk of developing CVD.
CONCLUSIONS
Screenings for depression and anxiety need to be provided regularly to assess the severity of those symptoms. To help decrease their risk of developing CVD, people living with HIV/AIDS should be offered behavioral modification interventions aimed at developing healthy lifestyle habits.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구를 통해 우울과 불안이 심혈관질환 발생위험을 증가시키는 영향요인임을 확인하였다. 따라서, HIV 감염자의 우울과 불안에 대한 정기적인 검사 및 상담이 필요하며, 우울 또는 불안한 환자의 심혈관질환의 발병 위험을 줄이기위해 좋은 생활 습관을 위한 행동 수정 및 동기 부여 교육프로그램의 개발이 필요하다.
Key Message
healthcare providers need to provide motivational education for behavioral modifications to decrease patients’ risk of developing CVD, especially among those with depression or anxiety symptoms.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comorbidities among persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Florida: a network analysis
    Shyfuddin Ahmed, Angel B. Algarin, Hsu Thadar, Zhi Zhou, Tanjila Taskin, Krishna Vaddiparti, Karina Villalba, Yan Wang, Nicole Ennis, Jamie P. Morano, Charurut Somboonwit, Robert L Cook, Gladys E. Ibañez
    AIDS Care.2023; 35(7): 1055.     CrossRef
  • Elevated frequency and everyday functioning implications of vascular depression in persons with HIV disease
    Ilex Beltran-Najera, Andrea Mustafa, Desmond Warren, Zach Salling, Maria Misiura, Steven Paul Woods, Vonetta M. Dotson
    Journal of Psychiatric Research.2023; 160: 78.     CrossRef
  • MENTE X CORAÇÃO: AS DOENÇAS PSIQUICAS E AS CONSENQUÊNCIAS CARDIOVASCULARES: UMA REVISÃO DA LITERATURA
    Beatriz da Silva Araújo, Morgana Gonçalves da Silva
    Revista interdisciplinar em saúde.2021; 8(Único): 292.     CrossRef
Oral colonization by Candida species and associated factors in HIV-infected patients in Ahvaz, southwest Iran
Elham Aboualigalehdari, Maryam Tahmasebi Birgani, Mahnaz Fatahinia, Mehran Hosseinzadeh
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020033.   Published online May 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020033
  • 12,047 View
  • 149 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Objectives
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The most common cause is <i>Candida albicans</i>, followed by non-<i>albicans Candida</i>. This study aimed to identify colonized <i>Candida</i> species in HIV-infected patients from Ahvaz, Iran. Additionally, the relationships between immunity-related factors, lifestyle, and colonization of <i>Candida</i> spp. were studied.
Methods
Oral swabs were taken from 201 HIV-positive patients referred for consultations at the Behavioral Modification Center. Oral <i>Candida</i> colonization was detected using culture-based and molecular assays. Data were assessed by descriptive statistics and analyzed to investigate the correlation between <i>Candida</i> colonization and various factors, including the CD4<sup>+</sup> cell count and viral load.
Results
It was found that 43.8% of patients were positive for <i>Candida</i>. The most common species was C. <i>albicans</i> (48.0%), followed by non-<i>albicans Candida</i> isolates, including <i>C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr</i>, and <i>C. krusei.</i> Colonization of <i>Candida</i> spp. in patients was associated with a CD4 count ≤200 cells/mm<sup>3</sup> (odds ratio [OR], 4.62; p<0.05), history of shared injections (OR, 6.96; p<0.001), and sex (OR, 3.59; p<0.05).
Conclusions
The results of this study showed that C. <i>albicans</i> was the dominant pathogen. The risk factors for colonization of <i>Candida</i> spp. were a CD4 count ≤ 200/mm<sup>3</sup> , a history of shared injections, and sex. Other factors with potential relationships include viral load, age, and opportunistic infections, but further investigations are needed.
Summary

Citations

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  • Antifungal Susceptibility and Candida sp. Biofilm Production in Clinical Isolates of HIV-Positive Brazilian Patients under HAART Therapy
    Anelise Maria Costa Vasconcelos Alves, Érika Helena Salles de Brito, Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo, Juliana Jales de Hollanda Celestino, Ana Caroline Rocha de Melo Leite, Gabriela Silva Cruz, Nuno Filipe Azevedo, Célia Fortuna Rodrigues
    Biomedicines.2024; 12(2): 310.     CrossRef
  • Exploring the diversity of uncommon oral yeast species and associated risk factors among substance abusers in southwestern Iran
    Aynaz Ghojoghi, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Eisa Nazar, Mahnaz Fatahinia
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Recuento de linfocitos CD4, carga viral y colonización oral por Candida en personas viviendo con VIH/SIDA
    Esperanza Gissela Vargas-Díaz, Graciela Albino Cornejo, Hans Ramón Quiroz-Ruiz
    Gaceta Médica Boliviana.2023; 46(1): 18.     CrossRef
  • Low level of antifungal resistance inCandidaspecies recovered from Iranian HIV-associated oral infection
    Maryam Erfaninejad, Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Elham Maraghi, Mohammad Hashemzadeh, Mahnaz Fatahinia
    Letters in Applied Microbiology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology, prevalence, and associated factors of oral candidiasis in HIV patients from southwest Iran in post-highly active antiretroviral therapy era
    Maryam Erfaninejad, Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Elham Maraghi, Mohammad Hashemzadeh, Mahnaz Fatahinia
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Meyerozyma guilliermondii species complex: review of current epidemiology, antifungal resistance, and mechanisms
    Reza Ghasemi, Ensieh Lotfali, Kamran Rezaei, Seyed Ataollah Madinehzad, Mahdi Falah Tafti, Nikta Aliabadi, Ebrahim Kouhsari, Mahsa Fattahi
    Brazilian Journal of Microbiology.2022; 53(4): 1761.     CrossRef
  • HIV-infected patients rarely develop invasive fungal diseases under good immune reconstitution after ART regardless high prevalence of pathogenic filamentous fungi carriage in nasopharynx/oropharynx
    Xiaoman Chen, Yi Cao, Meijun Chen, Haodi Wang, Peishan Du, Hong Li, Huolin Zhong, Quanmin Li, Santao Zhao, Zhenjiang Yao, Wanshan Chen, Weiping Cai, Xiaoping Tang, Linghua Li
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Neglected mycobiome in HIV infection: Alterations, common fungal diseases and antifungal immunity
    Shuang Li, Xiaodong Yang, Christiane Moog, Hao Wu, Bin Su, Tong Zhang
    Frontiers in Immunology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Update of the list of QPS‐recommended biological agents intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA 13: suitability of taxonomic units notified to EFSA until September 2020
    Kostas Koutsoumanis, Ana Allende, Avelino Alvarez‐Ordóñez, Declan Bolton, Sara Bover‐Cid, Marianne Chemaly, Robert Davies, Alessandra De Cesare, Friederike Hilbert, Roland Lindqvist, Maarten Nauta, Luisa Peixe, Giuseppe Ru, Marion Simmons, Panagiotis Skan
    EFSA Journal.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Transcription Factors of CAT1, EFG1, and BCR1 Are Effective in Persister Cells of Candida albicans-Associated HIV-Positive and Chemotherapy Patients
    Elham Aboualigalehdari, Maryam Tahmasebi Birgani, Mahnaz Fatahinia, Mehran Hosseinzadeh
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Life expectancy of HIV-positive patients after diagnosis in Iran from 1986 to 2016: A retrospective cohort study at national and sub-national levels
Mohammad Mirzaei, Maryam Farhadian, Jalal Poorolajal, Parvin Afasr Kazerooni, Katayoun Tayeri, Younes Mohammadi
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018053.   Published online November 7, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018053
  • 10,807 View
  • 175 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Little is known about the life expectancy of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Iran. This study therefore aimed to estimate the life expectancy of HIV-positive patients in Iran.
METHODS
In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and the Death Registration System. We included patients aged 20 years and older who had a specified date of diagnosis. We estimated life expectancy and its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Chiang’s methodology.
RESULTS
The overall life expectancy at the national level was 23.1 years (95% CI, 22.6 to 23.5). Life expectancy was 21.6 years (95% CI, 21.1 to 22.0) for men and 32.7 years (95% CI, 31.4 to 34.0) for women. The life expectancy of patients who did or did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) was 37.0 years (95% CI, 36.2 to 37.8) and 15.5 years (95% CI, 15.1 to 15.9), respectively. The life expectancy of patients with or without tuberculosis (TB) was 21.6 years (95% CI, 20.4 to 22.9) and 36.5 years (95% CI, 35.7 to 37.4), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
The life expectancy of Iranian HIV-positive patients was found to be very low. To improve their longevity, improvements in ART coverage and the control and treatment of TB are advised.
Summary

Citations

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  • Factors related to baseline CD4 cell counts in HIV/AIDS patients: comparison of poisson, generalized poisson and negative binomial regression models
    Maryam Farhadian, Younes Mohammadi, Mohammad Mirzaei, Nasrin Shirmohammadi-Khorram
    BMC Research Notes.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Experiences of patients with primary HIV diagnosis in Kermanshah-Iran regarding the nature of HIV/AIDS: A qualitative study
    Fatemeh Gh.Barkish, Rostam Jalali, Amir Jalali
    Heliyon.2019; 5(8): e02278.     CrossRef
Effect of antiretroviral therapy on changes in the fertility intentions of human immunodeficiency virus-positive women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a prospective follow-up study
Hussen Mekonnen, Fikre Enquselassie
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017028.   Published online July 16, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017028
  • 11,910 View
  • 183 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
With access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are able to consider childbearing to a greater extent than previously. In many cases, ART has transformed their intentions to have children. The present study aimed to assess changes in fertility intentions 12 months after ART initiation among HIV-positive women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
METHODS
An institution-based follow-up study was conducted among 360 HIV-positive women in Addis Ababa. A logistic regression model was used to assess the influence of socio-demographic, reproductive health, and clinical characteristics on changes in the fertility intentions of women.
RESULTS
Overall, 40.8% (147 of 360) of the women reported that they desired to have a child in the future at the baseline visit, while 48.3% (174 of 360) did so at the 12-month follow-up. The proportion of women who reported that they desired to have a child 12 months after ART initiation was higher among ART-initiated women (55.8%, 106 of 190) than ART-naïve women (40.0%, 68 of 170). The adjusted analysis indicated that a change in fertility intentions between baseline and the follow-up visit was significantly associated with ART use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 5.20) and marital status, with single (aOR, 5.33; 95% CI, 1.10 to 25.92) and married (aOR, 6.35; 95% CI, 1.44 to 27.99) women being more likely to report fertility intentions than divorced/widowed women.
CONCLUSIONS
ART use was a significant predictor of change in fertility intentions between the baseline and follow-up visit, which suggests that additional efforts are necessary to integrate family planning and HIV services to address the safe fertility goals of women in the study area.
Summary

Citations

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  • Factors associated with pregnancy uptake decisions among seropositive HIV people receiving antiretroviral therapy in sub‐Saharan Africa: A systematic review
    Abdul Razak Doat, Roberta Mensima Amoah, Kennedy Diema Konlan, Kennedy Dodam Konlan, Juliana Asibi Abdulai, Margaret W. Kukeba, Iddrisu Mohammed, Joel Afram Saah
    Nursing Open.2022; 9(5): 2239.     CrossRef
  • Factors Affecting Fertility Intention Among People Living with HIV in Kunming, China
    Yingwu Guo, Yingrong Du, Sanguan Lerkiatbundit, Jun Liu, Jingsong Bai, Yongrui Yang, Yin Yang, Aihui Wu, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2022; Volume 14: 265.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and factors associated with fertility desire among people living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Xiang Yan, Jie Du, GuoPing Ji, Joseph K.B. Matovu
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(3): e0248872.     CrossRef
  • Motivations to use hormonal contraceptive methods and condoms among HIV-positive and negative women randomized to a progestin contraceptive in Malawi: a qualitative study
    Agatha K. Bula, Kendra Hatfield-Timajchy, John Chapola, L. Chinula, Stacey A. Hurst, Athena P. Kourtis, J. H. Tang
    BMC Women's Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Human immunodeficiency virus and infertility treatment: an Ethics Committee opinion

    Fertility and Sterility.2021; 115(4): 860.     CrossRef
  • Societal and individual drivers of fertility desires and intentions among people living with HIV: a cross sectional study of HIV clinic attendees in Soweto, South Africa
    Penelope Chirambira, Sphiwe Madiba, Busisiwe Ntuli
    AIMS Public Health.2021; 9(1): 173.     CrossRef
  • Effect of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Treatment on Pregnancy Rates in the Western Cape Province of South Africa
    Leigh F Johnson, Themba Mutemaringa, Alexa Heekes, Andrew Boulle
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases.2020; 221(12): 1953.     CrossRef
  • Determinants of Fertility Desire among Women Living with HIV in the Childbearing Age Attending Antiretroviral Therapy Clinic at Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia: A Facility-Based Case-Control Study
    Nigusie Shifera Aylie, Lelisa Sena Dadi, Eshetu Alemayehu, Mengistu Ayenew Mekonn
    International Journal of Reproductive Medicine.2020; 2020: 1.     CrossRef
  • Risky Sexual Practice and Associated Factors Among Women Living with HIV/AIDS Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy at a PMTCT Clinic in Western Oromia, Ethiopia


    Bikila Balis
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2020; Volume 12: 739.     CrossRef
  • Health workers’ knowledge of safer conception and attitudes toward reproductive rights of HIV-infected couples in Kano, Nigeria
    Zubairu Iliyasu, Hadiza S Galadanci, Ahmad A Zubairu, Taiwo G Amole, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Muktar H Aliyu
    International Health.2019; 11(6): 536.     CrossRef
Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study
Erdaw Tachbele, Gobena Ameni
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016049.   Published online November 6, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016049
  • 15,653 View
  • 366 Download
  • 23 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia.
METHODS
A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models.
RESULTS
Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0%) were censored and 35 (10.0%) died. Twenty-two (62.9%) of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21%) at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72), a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51), and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86) or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27) functional status, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45), and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97).
CONCLUSIONS
Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives.
Summary

Citations

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  • Predictors of Survival Time Among HIV-Infected Adults After Initiating Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Kombolcha Town: A 5-Year Retrospective Cohort Study
    Muhammed Siraj, Sisay Gedamu, Belachew Tegegne
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2022; Volume 14: 181.     CrossRef
  • Survival and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults receiving ART in Hawassa comprehensive specialized hospital, Sidama regional state, Ethiopia
    Balta Bargude, Fanta Amanuel
    Journal of Advanced Pediatrics and Child Health.2022; 5(1): 042.     CrossRef
  • Incidence of Mortality and Its Predictors Among HIV Positive Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy in University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
    Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale, Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye, Haileab Fekadu Wolde
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2021; Volume 13: 31.     CrossRef
  • Statistical Joint Modeling for Predicting the Association of CD4 Measurement and Time to Death of People Living with HIV Who Enrolled in ART, Southwest Ethiopia
    Firew Tiruneh, Lalisa Chewaka, Dinaol Abdissa
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2021; Volume 13: 73.     CrossRef
  • Rate and Predictors of Mortality Among Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia
    Haddis Birhanu, Atsede Alle, Molla Yigzaw Birhanu
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2021; Volume 13: 251.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of Mortality Among Adult HIV-Infected Patients Taking Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Harari Hospitals, Ethiopia
    Abdi Birhanu, Tariku Dingeta, Moti Tolera
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care.2021; Volume 13: 727.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of survival pattern and its predictors among HIV positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southern Ethiopia public health facilities: a retrospective cohort study
    Abewa Kebede, Fasil Tessema, Gadisa Bekele, Zerihun Kura, Hailu Merga
    AIDS Research and Therapy.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prognostic Factors of Mortality among Adult Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in India: A Hospital Based Retrospective Cohort Study
    Nitin Joseph, Ushasti Sinha, Nishtha Tiwari, Pritha Ghosh, Patneedi Sindhu
    BioMed Research International.2019; 2019: 1.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of mortality among adult patients enrolled on Antiretroviral Therapy in Hiwotfana specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia: Retrospective Cohort study
    Eticha Endalkachew Mekonnen
    Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research.2018; : 007.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Mortality among Adult HIV Patients Initiating ART in Rural Setting of HIV Care and Treatment Services in North Western Tanzania: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    Daniel Wilfred Gunda, Igembe Nkandala, Semvua Bukheti Kilonzo, Boniface Bartholomew Kilangi, Bonaventura Cornel Mpondo
    Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.2017; 2017: 1.     CrossRef
Predictors of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection: a case-control study
Leila Molaeipoor, Jalal Poorolajal, Minoo Mohraz, Nader Esmailnasab
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014024.   Published online October 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014024
  • 18,879 View
  • 184 Download
  • 25 Web of Science
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection is a major global challenge. It is not clear why some HIV-positive people are co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) while others are not. This study addressed that question.
METHODS
This case-control study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in June 2004, enrolling 2,388 HIV-positive people. Cases were selected from those who were co-infected with TB and controls from those without TB. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection and several predictors. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.
RESULTS
In this study, 241 cases were compared with 2,147 controls. Sex, age, marital status, educational level, imprisonment, smoking, narcotic use, route of HIV transmission, previous TB infection, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), antiretroviral therapy (ART), and low CD4 count (<350 cells/mm3) were independently associated with M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection (p<0.001). However, after adjusting for all other variables in the model, only the association between M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection and the following predictors remained statistically significant: imprisonment (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11-6.90), previous TB infection (OR, 5.54; 95% CI, 1.99-15.39), IPT (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.06-0.31), ART (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.26-2.61), and CD4 count <350 cells/mm3 (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.36-4.02).
CONCLUSIONS
Several predictors are associated with M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection, but only a few indicators were significantly associated with M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection. It is estimated that a number of predictors of M. tuberculosis/HIV co-infection remain unknown and require further investigation.
Summary

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