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Modifiable risk factors of lung cancer in “never-smoker” women
Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015047.   Published online October 29, 2015
  • 16,485 View
  • 210 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Korean women with a history of never smoking and with adenocarcinoma showed an increasing trend in lung cancer occurrence during 2002 to 2012. The two modifiable factors of never-smoker lung cancer in women are hormone and oncogenic virus infection. Based on previous studies, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection might afford protection or be a risk factor, respectively. It is necessary to perform a pooled analysis of cohort studies to evaluate HRT and never-smoker lung cancer in women and a systematic review of case-control studies to determine the association between HPV infection and never-smoker lung cancer.
Korean summary
2002년에서 2012년간 폐암 통계를 살펴보면 비흡연 여성에서 선암종의 발생이 크게 증가하는 것으로 확인된다. 이렇게 여성에서 비흡연 폐암발생과 관련한 요인들로는 호르몬 대체요법 (HRT)과 인유두종바이러스 (HPV) 감염이 알려져 있다. 환자-대조군연구를 이용한 메타분석에 따르면 호르몬대체요법은 폐암발생을 억제하는 것으로 나왔다. HPV에 대한 메타분석은 아직 없는 가운데 위험요인으로 의심하고 있다. 따라서 HRT에 대하여는 코호트 연구 결과를 이용한 연합분석 (pooled analysis)이 필요하며, HPV에 대하여는 환자-대조군연구 결과를 이용한 메타분석이 수행될 필요가 있다.


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  • Lung Cancer in Never-Smokers: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in North China
    Di Liang, Jingxi Wang, Daojuan Li, Jin Shi, Jin Jing, Baoen Shan, Yutong He
    Frontiers in Oncology.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Necessity of Epigenetic Epidemiology Studies on the Carcinogenesis of Lung Cancer in Never Smokers
    Jong-Myon Bae
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2018; 51(5): 263.     CrossRef
  • Age at menopause and hormone replacement therapy as risk factors for head and neck and oesophageal cancer
    Caroline E. McCarthy, John K. Field, Michael W. Marcus
    Oncology Reports.2017; 38(4): 1915.     CrossRef
  • Human papillomavirus infection and risk of lung cancer in never-smokers and women: an ‘adaptive’ meta-analysis
    Jong-Myon Bae, Eun Hee Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2015; 37: e2015052.     CrossRef
Original Article
Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Post Menopausal Women
Arthur J. Hartz, Tao He
Epidemiol Health. 2013;35:e2013003.   Published online April 30, 2013
  • 17,953 View
  • 152 Download
  • 23 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The present study assessed more than 800 potential risk factors to identify new predictors of breast cancer and compare the independence and relative importance of established risk factors.


Data were collected by the Women's Health Initiative and included 147,202 women ages 50 to 79 who were enrolled from 1993 to 1998 and followed for 8 years. Analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 used the Cox proportional hazard regression to test the association between more than 800 baseline risk factors and incident breast cancer.


Baseline factors independently associated with subsequent breast cancer at the p<0.001 level (in decreasing order of statistical significance) were breast aspiration, family history, age, weight, history of breast biopsies, estrogen and progestin use, fewer live births, greater age at menopause, history of thyroid cancer, breast tenderness, digitalis use, alcohol intake, white race, not restless, no vaginal dryness, relative with prostate cancer, colon polyps, smoking, no breast augmentation, and no osteoporosis. Risk factors previously reported that were not independently associated with breast cancer in the present study included socioeconomic status, months of breast feeding, age at first birth, adiposity measures, adult weight gain, timing of initiation of hormone therapy, and several dietary, psychological, and exercise variables. Family history was not found to alter the risk associated with other factors.


These results suggest that some risk factors not commonly studied may be important for breast cancer and some frequently cited risk factors may be relatively unimportant or secondary.



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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health