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Original Article
The exposure rate to hepatitis B and C viruses among medical waste handlers in three government hospitals, southern Ethiopia
Anteneh Amsalu, Mesfin Worku, Endale Tadesse, Techalew Shimelis
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016001.   Published online January 5, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016001
  • 20,408 View
  • 262 Download
  • 17 Web of Science
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and risk factors for exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among medical waste handlers.
METHODS
A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015. A total of 152 medical waste handlers (MWH) and 82 non-medical waste handlers (NMWH) were studied. Serum samples were collected from participants and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and anti-HCV using rapid immunochromatography assay. MWH were also screened for hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs).
RESULTS
The respective prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV was 1.3%, 39.4%, and 0.7% in MWH, compared to 2.4%, 17.1%, and 1.2%, respectively, in NMWH. Among MWH, 58.6% were susceptible to HBV infection. There was a significant difference in the rate of lifetime exposure to HBV in MWH compared with NMWH (odds ratio [OR], 3.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64 to 6.13). However, there was no significant difference between participant groups with respect to current HBV infection (OR, 0.53; 95%CI, 0.07 to 3.86) or anti-HCV (OR, 0.54; 95%CI, 0.03 to 8.69). Age older than 40 years and working in a hospital laundry were independent predictors of lifetime exposure to HBV infection. Eleven (7.2%) respondents were vaccinated against HBV.
CONCLUSIONS
Lifetime exposure to HBV infection was significantly higher in MWH than in NMWH. The majority of MWH was not vaccinated against HBV and thus remains susceptible to contracting the infection. Screening upon hire followed by vaccination of MWH is recommended to reduce the transmission of HBV.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses among waste handlers in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Alemu Gedefie, Fekadeselassie Belege Getaneh, Habtu Debash, Saleamlak Sebsibe, Yonas Erkihun, Ermiyas Alemayehu, Yeshi Metaferia, Yeshimebet Kassa, Agumas Shibabaw, Mihret Tilahun, Getachew Mesfin Bambo, Samuel Sahile Kebede, Mekuanent Alemu, Wondmagegn D
    SAGE Open Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Medical and healthcare waste generation, storage, treatment and disposal: a systematic scoping review of risks to occupational and public health
    Ed Cook, Anne Woolridge, Petra Stapp, Sarah Edmondson, Costas A. Velis
    Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology.2023; 53(15): 1452.     CrossRef
  • Occurrence and transport of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater streams and its detection and remediation by chemical-biological methods
    Sayan Bhattacharya, Kumar Abhishek, Shilpi Samiksha, Prabhakar Sharma
    Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances.2023; 9: 100221.     CrossRef
  • Healthcare Waste—A Serious Problem for Global Health
    Edyta Janik-Karpinska, Rachele Brancaleoni, Marcin Niemcewicz, Wiktor Wojtas, Maurizio Foco, Marcin Podogrocki, Michal Bijak
    Healthcare.2023; 11(2): 242.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice of hepatitis C virus among waste handlers in Sidama, Ethiopia
    Birhanu Betela Warssamo, Denekew Bitew Belay
    Scientific African.2023; 21: e01764.     CrossRef
  • The sero-prevalence of hepatitis b and c viruses in municipal waste collectors in Southwest of Iran
    Jamal Sarvari, Negar Joharinia, Alireza Shiri, Atefeh Vali, Farshid Beigzadeh, MohammadAli Davarpanah, Amir Atapour, Rohollah Khoshbakht, Omid Jaberi, SeyedYounes Hosseini
    Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2023; 27(2): 172.     CrossRef
  • Hepatitis B virus infection status and associated factors among health care workers in selected hospitals in Kisumu County, Kenya: A cross-sectional study
    Frankline Otieno Mboya, Ibrahim I. Daud, Raphael Ondondo, Daniel Onguru, Max Carlos Ramírez-Soto
    PLOS Global Public Health.2023; 3(9): e0001535.     CrossRef
  • Elucidating the role of environmental management of forests, air quality, solid waste and wastewater on the dissemination of SARS-CoV-2
    Khaled Al Huraimel, Mohamed Alhosani, Hetasha Gopalani, Shabana Kunhabdulla, Mohammed Hashem Stietiya
    Hygiene and Environmental Health Advances.2022; 3: 100006.     CrossRef
  • Hepatitis B virus infection and its associated factors among medical waste collectors at public health facilities in eastern Ethiopia: a facility-based cross-sectional study
    Degu Abate Mengiste, Abebe Tolera Dirbsa, Behailu Hawulte Ayele, Tewodros Tesfa Hailegiyorgis
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Viral Infection in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Teshiwal Deress, Yihenew Million, Teshome Belachew, Mohabaw Jemal, Mekonnen Girma, Gianandrea Pasquinelli
    The Scientific World Journal.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
  • Managing medical waste in Ghana – the reality
    Justice Kofi Debrah, Ivaní Nadir Carlotto, Diogo Guedes Vidal, Maria Alzira Pimenta Dinis
    International Journal of Environmental Studies.2021; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Medical waste handling and hepatitis B virus infection: A meta-analysis
    Ahmed Arafa, Ehab S. Eshak
    American Journal of Infection Control.2020; 48(3): 316.     CrossRef
  • An updated min-review on environmental route of the SARS-CoV-2 transmission
    Edris Hoseinzadeh, Safoura Javan, Mahdi Farzadkia, Farshid Mohammadi, Hooshyar Hossini, Mahmoud Taghavi
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.2020; 202: 111015.     CrossRef
  • A Path to Ending Hepatitis C in Ethiopia: A Phased Public Health Approach to Achieve Micro-Elimination
    Belaynew Wasie Taye
    The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.2019; 101(5): 963.     CrossRef
  • Hepatitis B vaccination coverage among health-care workers in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Asa Auta, Emmanuel O. Adewuyi, Gbednet T. Kureh, Nguavese Onoviran, Davies Adeloye
    Vaccine.2018; 36(32): 4851.     CrossRef
  • Sero-prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection and associated factors among health care workers and medical waste handlers in primary hospitals of North-west Ethiopia
    Endalew Yizengaw, Tamyalew Getahun, Mekuanint Geta, Wondemagegn Mulu, Mulat Ashagrie, Derese Hailu, Shibabaw Tedila
    BMC Research Notes.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Healthcare Waste Management: A Case Study from Sudan
    Ahmed Hassan, Terry Tudor, Mentore Vaccari
    Environments.2018; 5(8): 89.     CrossRef
  • Tumour virus epidemiology
    Ruth M. Lunn, Gloria D. Jahnke, Charles S. Rabkin
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.2017; 372(1732): 20160266.     CrossRef
  • Is waste collection associated with hepatitis B infection? A meta-analysis
    Marcos Paulo Gomes Mol, Sandy Cairncross, Dirceu Bartolomeu Greco, Leo Heller
    Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical.2017; 50(6): 756.     CrossRef
Health Statistics
Trends of liver cancer and its major risk factors in Korea
Eun-Young Lee, Tran Thi Xuan Mai, Yoonjung Chang, Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015016.   Published online March 11, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015016
  • 24,404 View
  • 263 Download
  • 17 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The Republic of Korea (hereafter Korea) is one of the countries with high incidence of liver cancer and there is great difference in incidence of liver cancer between male and female. We investigated the sex-specific trends of three major risk factors of liver cancer, which are hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection, hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection, and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The incidence of liver cancer was obtained from the Cancer Registration Statistics of the National Cancer Center of Korea. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity was based on data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Disease statistics from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea were used to evaluate trends in HCV infection and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The prevalence of these risk factors were compared with the incidence of liver cancer. Males had a three to four times higher incidence of liver cancer than females did from 1999 to 2011. This gap between the incidence for males and females increased with age and males aged 50 to 59 showed a five times higher incidence than females of the same age did. In general, HBsAg seropositivity decreased from 1998 to 2011. The prevalence of HCV infections was 96.2 and 90.3 per 100,000 females and males, respectively in 2013. The prevalences of HCV infections from 2009 to 2013 did not substantially differ. The annual average prevalence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis from 2009 to 2013 was 77.22 and 8.90 per 100,000 males and females, respectively; the prevalence among males was 8.7 times higher than that among females. The prevalence rapidly increased with age in males, and males aged 60 to 69 peaked with a 19.2 times higher prevalence than that among females of the same age group. We found that the incidence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, a major risk factor of liver cancer, exhibited a trend similar to that of liver cancer incidence in males, and this trend also differed remarkably by sex.
Summary
Korean summary
한국의 간암 발생 추세에서 나타나는 큰 남녀차이와 관련하여 간암의 주요 위험요소로 평가되는 만성 간염, 음주, 간경변과 관련한 B형간염, C형간염, 알코올성 간경변의 유병률 추세를 살펴본 결과 알코올성 간경변의 유병률 추세에서 간암발생에서와 유사한 큰 남녀차이가 발견되었다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence is decreasing in Korea but increasing in the very elderly
    Young Eun Chon, Seong Yong Park, Han Pyo Hong, Donghee Son, Jonghyun Lee, Eileen Yoon, Soon Sun Kim, Sang Bong Ahn, Soung Won Jeong, Dae Won Jun
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2023; 29(1): 120.     CrossRef
  • Global prevalence, incidence, and outcomes of alcohol related liver diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Xuanxuan Niu, Lin Zhu, Yifan Xu, Menghan Zhang, Yanxu Hao, Lei Ma, Yan Li, Huichun Xing
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Core indicators related to the elimination of hepatitis B and C virus infection in South Korea: A nationwide study
    Chang Hun Lee, Gwang Hyeon Choi, Hwa Young Choi, Sojung Han, Eun Sun Jang, Young Eun Chon, Young Chang, Kyung-Ah Kim, Do Young Kim, Hyung Joon Yim, Hye-Lin Kim, Sook-Hyang Jeong, In Hee Kim
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2023; 29(3): 779.     CrossRef
  • Global pattern of trends in incidence, mortality, and mortality-to-incidence ratio rates related to liver cancer, 1990–2019: a longitudinal analysis based on the global burden of disease study
    Maedeh Amini, Mehdi Azizmohammad Looha, Elaheh Zarean, Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of the presence of allergic disease with subsequent risk of liver cancer in a nationwide retrospective cohort among Koreans
    Ji Ah Kim, Sun Jae Park, Seulggie Choi, Jooyoung Chang, Seogsong Jeong, Joseph C.Ahn, Gyeongsil Lee, Joung Sik Son, Sang Min Park
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Amina Amadou, Dominique Sighoko, Bourama Coulibaly, Cheick Traoré, Bakarou Kamaté, Brahima S Mallé, Maëlle de Seze, Francine N Kemayou Yoghoum, Sandrine Biyogo Bi Eyang, Denis Bourgeois, Maria Paula Curado, Siné Bayo, Emmanuelle Gormally, Pierre Hainaut
    World Journal of Hepatology.2022; 14(9): 1767.     CrossRef
  • Role of Lymphotoxin-α Gene Polymorphism in Hepatitis C Virus-Related Chronic Liver Disorders
    Ghada Galal, Hammam Tammam, Amal Abdel Aal, Nahed Fahmy, Abeer Sheneef, Nagwa Ahmed, Amr Zaghloul
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2021; Volume 14: 1921.     CrossRef
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    Minsu Ock, Woong Jae Choi, Min-Woo Jo, Antonio Palazón-Bru
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Original Article
Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype in Pusan, Korea.
Hai Rim Shin, Jue Bok Song, Byung Seong Suh, In Sik Kim, Yun Young Huh, Kap Yeol Jung, Joon Youn Kim, In Hoo Kim, Jung Man Kim, Wo Won Shin, Hak Do Yang, Myung Kee Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1997;19(2):111-121.
  • 5,630 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
The authors investigated the distribution of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype in blood donors with positive for anti-HCV (n=34), health check-up examiness with positive for anti-HCV (n=29), and in patients with various chronic liver disases positive for anti-HCV (n=63) in Pusan, Korea. HCV genotype was determined by using the molecular typing method through the reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT - PCR) with four type specific primers. Among 116 anti-HCV positive study subjects, 66.4% were positive HCV RNA by RT-PCR. The major HCV genotype was type II (31.9%) and it was followed by type III (27.6%). Two cases were type IV (1.7%). Double infection with two different HCV genotypes (mixed type) was found in three cases (2.6%). Three cases (2.6%) were not determined by the four type specific primers, it may have different subtype. Type II was more prevalent than type III in the blood donors and health check-up examinees, but the reverse was true in the chronic liver disease patients including hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Type II was more prevalent than type III among the anti-HCV positive subjects with risk factors such as acupuncture history, surgical operation history, and trans-fusion history. In contrast type III was more prevalent than type II among the subjects without the above risk factors. It is supposed that the pathogenicity of different kind of HCV genotype might be different. The results of this study suggest that the type II and type III may be the major CV genotype in Korea. The differences of HCV genotype distribution between the study groups support that the clinical significance according to the HCV genotype may be different.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health