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4 "Epidemiologic methods"
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Equivalence model: A new graphical model for causal inference
Jalal Poorolajal
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020024.   Published online April 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020024
  • 11,571 View
  • 198 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Although several causal models relevant to epidemiology have been proposed, a key question that has remained unanswered is why some people at high-risk for a particular disease do not develop the disease while some people at low-risk do develop it. The equivalence model, proposed herein, addresses this dilemma. The equivalence model provides a graphical description of the overall effect of risk and protective factors at the individual level. Risk factors facilitate the occurrence of the outcome (the development of disease), whereas protective factors inhibit that occurrence. The equivalence model explains how the overall effect relates to the occurrence of the outcome. When a balance exists between risk and protective factors, neither can overcome the other; therefore, the outcome will not occur. Similarly, the outcome will not occur when the units of the risk factor(s) are less than or equal to the units of the protective factor(s). In contrast, the outcome will occur when the units of the risk factor(s) are greater than the units of the protective factor(s). This model can be used to describe, in simple terms, causal inferences in complex situations with multiple known and unknown risk and protective factors. It can also justify how people with a low level of exposure to one or more risk factor(s) may be affected by a certain disease while others with a higher level of exposure to the same risk factor(s) may remain unaffected.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The role of problem-solving skills in the prevention of suicidal behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Nahid Darvishi, Mehran Farhadi, Bita Azmi-Naei, Jalal Poorolajal, Humayun Kabir
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(10): e0293620.     CrossRef
  • Risk of primary lung cancer after breast cancer radiotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Bushra Zareie, Mohammad Aziz Rasouli, Jalal Poorolajal
    Breast Cancer.2022; 29(2): 361.     CrossRef
  • The effect of silica exposure on the risk of lung cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis
    Fatemeh Shahbazi, Mina Morsali, Jalal Poorolajal
    Cancer Epidemiology.2021; 75: 102024.     CrossRef
  • Factors for the Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
    Jalal Poorolajal, Fatemeh Heidarimoghis, Manoochehr Karami, Zahra Cheraghi, Fatemeh Gohari-Ensaf, Fatemeh Shahbazi, Bushra Zareie, Pegah Ameri, Fatemeh Sahraei
    Journal of Research in Health Sciences.2021; 21(3): e00520.     CrossRef
  • The Epidemiology of Aggression and Associated Factors among Iranian Adult Population: A National Survey
    Jalal Poorolajal, Bahram Ebrahimi, Forouzan Rezapur-Shahkolai, Amin Doosti-Irani, Mahnaz Alizadeh, Jamal Ahmadpoor, Leila Moradi, Azam Biderafsh, Fateme Nikbakht, Zakie Golmohammadi, Ehsan Sarbazi, Samira Bahadivand, Marzieh Jahani Sayad Noveiri, Maryam R
    Journal of Research in Health Sciences.2020; 20(4): e00499.     CrossRef
Note
Theory and practice of Case-Crossover Study Design.
Moran Ki
Korean J Epidemiol. 2008;30(1):1-11.   Published online June 30, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/kje.2008.30.1.1
  • 65,535 View
  • 251 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
A case-crossover study design is a method to assess the effect of transient exposures on the risk of onset of acute events. Which was introduced by Maclure in 1991 for Myocardial Infarction Onset Study. The design has been used to diverse fields of epidemiology such as injury, drug adverse events, air pollution and so on. The most valuable advantage of this design is unnecessary of control selection. To estimate relative risk, the exposure frequency during a window just before outcome onset is compared with exposure frequencies during control times rather than in control persons. One or more control times are supplied by each of the cases themselves. Self-matching of cases eliminates the threat of control-selection bias and increases efficiency. To application of the case-crossover design, we need to make sure several criteria and the possibility of specific bias. This review is designed to help the reader apply a case-crossover study design to their research fields by understanding general ideas, prior conditions and limitations of the design.
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Risk of Falls Associated with Long-Acting Benzodiazepines or Tricyclic Antidepressants Use in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Nationwide Population-Based Case–Crossover Study
    Inyoung Na, Junyoung Seo, Eunjin Park, Jia Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(14): 8564.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Effect of Two-Hour Exposure to Forest and Urban Environments on Cytokine, Anti-Oxidant, and Stress Levels in Young Adults
    Su Im, Han Choi, Yo-Han Jeon, Min-Kyu Song, Won Kim, Jong-Min Woo
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(7): 625.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Smoking and lung cancer: foundation of modern epidemiology.
Hae Kwan Cheong
Korean J Epidemiol. 2005;27(2):1-19.
  • 44,105 View
  • 47 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Since its introduction to western world in 16th century, smoking has been one of the most popular parts of human life. Its health hazards, however, has rarely been evaluated before mid 20th century. After early suggestion of association with lip cancer and pipe smoking, which was falsely associated with the heat of the pipe smoking, association between rapidly increasing incidence of lung cancer and increasing popularity of smoking habit in the western world has been suggested in late 1940s. Initial case-control studies, in spite of its proneness to various biases, aroused the relevance of the relationship. It was supported by following well-designed case-control studies and new method, cohort studies in both coast of the Atlantic. Consistency of the results of epidemiologic studies and additional support from animal experiments made the causal relationship to be accepted from scientific community, and finally from public and governments. Establishment of criteria of causal relationship was also established in the process of investigation of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Smoking is most common cause attributable to lung cancers in most of the world. It is also responsible for the many cancers, including larynx, bladder, oral cavity, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, stomach, liver, and myeloid leukemia; and cardiovascular disorders, respiratory disorders, and other degenerative disorders. Passive (or environmental tobacco) smoking has also been found to be hazardous. Establishment of causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer has been a landmark in the development of epidemiologic methods and concepts, which played the key role in the evaluation of risk factors and preventive intervention on the chronic degenerative disorders.
Summary
Population-adjusted Mean Age at Incidence (PAMA) for Comparing Incidence Patterns with Age in Different Populations.
Yoon Ok Ahn, Moo Song Lee, Weechang Kang, Chung Min Lee, Youngjo Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(1):31-35.
  • 5,208 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Standardized incidence rates have been widely used for comparing incidence patterns between populations, adjusting for differences in demographic structure. These rates can compare overall incidence levels, but to fully understand incidence patterns, an index which links incidence with age is also needed. The authors proposed a statistical method for estimating population-adjusted mean age of incidence (PAMA), based on Poisson distribution and Fieller's theorem. The index was applied with several modifications to data relating to the incidence of breast cancer among Caucasian women living in Los Angeles.
Summary

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