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Original Articles
Effect of trajectory of employment status on all-cause mortality in the late middle-aged and older population: results of the Korea Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2020)
Jeong Min Yang, Jae Hyun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023056.   Published online June 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023056
  • 3,619 View
  • 164 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study conducted a longitudinal analysis of the effect of trajectory of employment status (TES) on all-cause mortality in late middle-aged and older Koreans based on the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA).
METHODS
After excluding missing values, data on 2,774 participants were analyzed using the chi-square test and the group-based trajectory model (GBTM) for data from the first to fifth KLoSA and the chi-square test, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard regression for data from the fifth to eighth KLoSA.
RESULTS
The GBTM analysis identified 5 TES groups: sustained white collar (WC; 18.1%), sustained standard blue collar (BC; 10.8%), sustained self-employed BC (41.1%), WC to job loss (9.9%), and BC to job loss (20.1%). Compared to the sustained WC group, the WC to job loss group had higher mortality at 3 years (hazard ratio [HR], 4.04, p=0.044), 5 years (HR, 3.21, p=0.005), and 8 years (HR, 3.18, p<0.001). The BC to job loss group had higher mortality at 5 years (HR, 2.57, p=0.016) and 8 years (HR, 2.20, p=0.012). Those aged 65 years and older and males in the WC to job loss and BC to job loss groups had an increased risk of death at 5 years and 8 years.
CONCLUSIONS
There was a close association between TES and all-cause mortality. This finding highlights the need for policies and institutional measures to reduce mortality within vulnerable groups with an increased risk of death due to a change in employment status.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 제 1차~8차 한국고령화연구패널을 활용하여 중고령층의 근로활동 궤적과 사망 간의 연관성을 분석하였다. 근로활동 궤적을 파악하기 위하여 집단중심추세모형을 활용하였으며, 총 5가지의 근로활동 궤적을 도출하였다. 도출된 궤적을 바탕으로 카이제곱 검정과 콕스 비례위험모형을 통해 근로활동 궤적과 사망률 간의 연관성을 분석하였다. 연구 결과 화이트칼라에서 실업으로 변화하는 집단과 블루칼라에서 실업으로 변화하는 두 집단에서 사망 간의 유의한 결과를 발견하였으며, 특히, 65세 이상 집단과 남성 집단에서 강한 연관성이 존재하였다. 본 연구 결과를 바탕으로 근로활동 변화로 인해 사망 위험이 증가하는 취약 집단을 위한 정책적, 제도적 방안의 기초자료로서 활용되기를 기대한다.
Key Message
Compared with the sustained White Collar (WC) trajectory group, changed WC to job loss trajectory group and changed BC to job loss trajectory had higher mortality. The over 65 years group and the male group, a strong association between change in employment status and mortality was observed. This study emphasizes the need for policy and institutional measures to reduce mortality for vulnerable groups who are at increased risk of death due to changes in employment status.
Unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality: a historical cohort study of 50,000 COVID-19 patients in Fars, Iran
Alireza Mirahmadizadeh, Mohammad Taghi Badeleh Shamooshaki, Amineh Dadvar, Mohammad Javad Moradian, Mohammad Aryaie
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022032.   Published online March 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022032
  • 8,457 View
  • 403 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Previous studies have estimated the risk of death associated with unemployment in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but no studies have examined unemployment before COVID-19 infection as a risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Thus, this study aimed to investigate COVID-19 mortality among this population.
METHODS
Data on 50,038 people aged 25-59 years were collected from 38 agencies in Fars Province, Iran, from February 2020 to July 2021. Follow-up lasted from participants’ diagnosis with COVID-19 based on the results of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test to participants’ death or the end of the study period. The association between unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality was estimated using the Poisson regression method, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to calculate the E-value.
RESULTS
Unemployment was associated with a 2.41-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01 to 2.90) higher age-adjusted and sex-adjusted risk of COVID-19-related mortality. The adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed 8.82 (95% CI, 6.42 to 12.11), 2.84 (95% CI, 1.90 to 4.24), and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.24 to 2.01) times higher risks of COVID-19-related mortality among unemployed people aged 25-39 years, 40-49 years, and 50-59 years, respectively, than among their employed counterparts. Unemployment increased the risk of COVID-19 mortality by 3.31 (95% CI, 2.31 to 4.74) and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.86 to 2.84) times in female and male, respectively. The E-value was 3.43, reflecting the minimum strength of confounding required to shift the association between unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality toward the null.
CONCLUSIONS
Unemployment prior to COVID-19 infection increased the risk of COVID-19-related mortality. COVID-19-related mortality disproportionately impacted unemployed women and younger unemployed people.
Summary
Key Message
This study adds new insights to the existing body of work on the topic of unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality. Unemployment prior to COVID-19 infection was found to increase the risk of COVID-19-related mortality, which disproportionately burdened unemployed female and younger unemployed people. It seems older unemployed people and unemployed males may tend to have more financial resources and savings when they lose a job, making younger unemployed people and unemployed female more vulnerable to financial stress, which can lead to deferred care and increase their risk of COVID-19-related mortality.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • How do socioeconomic determinants of health affect the likelihood of living with HTLV-1 globally? A systematic review with meta-analysis
    Nydile Ramesh, Beatrice Cockbain, Graham P. Taylor, Carolina Rosadas
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Modelling the spatial varying relationships between socioeconomic inequalities and COVID-19 mortality in the African subregion
    Yaw K. Awuah-Mensah, Eric N. Aidoo
    Earth Science Informatics.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Anatomy of Unemployment: Determinants During and After the COVID-19 Crisis
    Matus Senci, Lucia Svabova, Tomas Kliestik
    Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy.2024; 12(1): 86.     CrossRef
  • Is there a relationship between internet access and COVID-19 mortality? Evidence from Nigeria based on a spatial analysis
    Richard Adeleke
    Dialogues in Health.2023; 2: 100102.     CrossRef
  • Determinant Factors of Mortality in Pre-elderly and Elderly Patients With COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia
    Thresya Febrianti, Ngabila Salama, Inggariwati, Dwi Oktavia
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(3): 231.     CrossRef
  • The gamma-Maxwell regression for COVID-19 mortality rates of the 50 U.S. largest cities
    N.S.S. da Costa, G.M. Cordeiro
    Model Assisted Statistics and Applications.2023; 18(3): 193.     CrossRef
Cohort Profile
Cohort profile: Singapore’s nationally representative Retirement and Health Study with 5 waves over 10 years
Reuben Ng, Yi Wen Tan, Kelvin Bryan Tan
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022030.   Published online February 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022030
  • 7,121 View
  • 259 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The Retirement and Health Study (RHS) is Singapore’s largest nationally representative cohort with over 15,000 participants (aged 45-85 years) followed across five timepoints in 10 years (2014-2024). Accounting for sample weights, the sample represents 1.2 million Singaporeans and permanent residents of a total population of 5.5 million. The RHS sought consent to link survey responses to relevant administrative data, enabling the cross-validation of self-reports with national databases. There are 10 sections in the RHS with over 400 questions, 50% of which are on respondents’ physical and mental health, healthcare utilization and insurance; the remaining 50% are about employment history, retirement adequacy, wealth, and household expenditure. The RHS was set up to provide microdata to compliment administrative data for whole-of-government policy making given that Singapore will reach super-aged status by 2026. Sample findings include a need for older adults to balance between immediate financial needs and investments regarding their pension funds. Also, 86% of older adults preferred to transit into partial retirement by reducing workloads. On the health front, existing studies utilising the RHS have revealed latent classes of disabilities, and that intentions to seek employment can mitigate disability developments. Another study reported that physical disability and social isolation was projected to increase, with ethnic disparities in social functioning. Overall, the RHS will be used for evidenced-informed policy agenda setting and evaluation across domains of health, finance, retirement adequacy, social and family development.
Summary
Key Message
The Retirement and Health Study (RHS) is Singapore’s largest nationally representative cohort with over 15,000 participants (aged 45-85 years) followed across five timepoints in 10 years (2014-2024). Sample findings include a need for older adults to balance between immediate financial needs and investments regarding their pension funds. Overall, the RHS will be used for evidenced-informed policy agenda setting and evaluation across domains of health, finance, retirement adequacy, social and family development.

Citations

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  • Health District at Queenstown: Catalyst for translational research
    David Michael Allen, Emi Kiyota, John Eu Li Wong
    Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore.2024; 53(4): 264.     CrossRef
  • Not Too Old for TikTok: How Older Adults Are Reframing Aging
    Reuben Ng, Nicole Indran, Barbara J Bowers
    The Gerontologist.2022; 62(8): 1207.     CrossRef
  • A playbook for effective age advocacy on Twitter
    Reuben Ng, Nicole Indran, Luyao Liu
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.2022; 70(8): 2363.     CrossRef
  • Ageism on Twitter during the COVID‐19 pandemic
    Reuben Ng, Nicole Indran, Luyao Liu
    Journal of Social Issues.2022; 78(4): 842.     CrossRef
  • Media attention toward COVID-19 across 18 countries: The influence of cultural values and pandemic severity
    Reuben Ng, Yi Wen Tan, Miguel A. Andrade-Navarro
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(12): e0271961.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Employment status and mortality among Korean men over a 13-year period
Dohee Lim, Kyoung Ae Kong, Hyesook Park, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021055.   Published online August 18, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021055
  • 8,220 View
  • 257 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study explored the effect of employment status on mortality over a 13-year period in Korean men.
METHODS
Data were used from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study from 1999 to 2012. This study started with 2,737 subjects and included employed men in good health, aged 30-69 years. Deaths were tracked for 13 years from 2000 to 2012. Employment status classifications were: (1) regular employees, (2) precarious employees, (3) petty bourgeoisie, and (4) employers. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model, and were adjusted for age, education, income, and occupation, with regular employees as the reference category. To examine the effect of employment status and include employment history, the risk ratios of mortality were measured using the Poisson regression model, considering the duration of each employment and using 0 years as the reference category.
RESULTS
Over the course of the 13-year study, being a precarious employee (HR, 1.84) or petty bourgeoisie (HR, 1.87) at a particular point in time had a negative effect on mortality when compared with regular employees. Furthermore, working as precarious employees or petty bourgeoisie had no positive effect on mortality. A positive effect was observed, however, on the overall mortality risk for regular employees.
CONCLUSIONS
These results suggest that a healthy social policy is needed for precarious employees and petty bourgeoisie to avoid disadvantages in the workplace and the social safety net.
Summary
Korean summary
13년간 추적한 결과, 비정규직 노동자와 고용원이 없는 자영업자가 정규직 노동자에 비해 사망위험이 유의하게 높았다. 정규직 노동자에서는 일하는 것이 사망위험을 낮추는 긍정적인 효과를 관찰할 수 있었으나, 비정규직 노동자나 고용원이 없는 자영업자에서는 일하는 것의 긍정적인 효과를 관찰할 수 없었다. 이는 비정규직 노동자와 고용원이 없는 자영업자에 대한 건강한 사회 정책이 필요함을 시사한다.
Key Message
Over the course of the 13-year study, being a precarious employee or petty bourgeoisie had a negative effect on mortality when compared with regular employees. No positive effect of working was found for precarious employees or petty bourgeoisie, whereas cumulative work as a regular employee was observed to have a positive effect on mortality. These results suggest that a healthy social policy is needed for precarious employees and petty bourgeoisie to avoid disadvantages in the workplace and the social safety net.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Temporary Employment Is Associated with Poor Dietary Quality in Middle-Aged Workers in Korea: A Nationwide Study Based on the Korean Healthy Eating Index, 2013–2021
    Seong-Uk Baek, Myeong-Hun Lim, Yu-Min Lee, Jong-Uk Won, Jin-Ha Yoon
    Nutrients.2024; 16(10): 1482.     CrossRef
Socioeconomic and Employment Status of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Korea
Jeong-Mi Kwon, Jinnie Rhee, Hyemin Ku, Eui-Kyung Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2012;34:e2012003.   Published online May 7, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2012003
  • 16,475 View
  • 121 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>This study investigates the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by gender and socio-economic characteristics. It also explores the differences in the employment status between RA patients and the general population without RA in Korea.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>We analyzed data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) conducted from 2007 to 2009. Prevalence rates were estimated for female and male patients with RA in terms of age, residence, education, income level, and occupation type. The female respondents aged 45 to 64 were divided into the RA population and the non-RA population in order to compare the employment status between the two groups.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>The annual physician-diagnosed RA prevalence rate was 1.45%. The prevalence rate was 2.27% for women and 0.62% for men. Individuals with RA had a significantly lower employment rate than individuals without RA (41.7 vs. 68.1%). The main reason for non-employment among RA patients was health-related problems (47.1%). There was statistically significant difference in employment type among the two groups. The experience rates for sick leave and sick-in-bed due to RA were 1.7 and 3.9%, respectively.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSION</title><p>Middle- and old-aged women accounted for the majority of the Korean RA population, which had a significant lower employment rate compared to the population without RA for both sexes. RA resulted in considerable productivity loss in Korea.</p></sec>
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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