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Original Article
The probability of diagnostic delays for tuberculosis and its associated risk factors in northwest Iran from 2005 to 2016: a survival analysis using tuberculosis surveillance data
Reza Ebrahimoghli, Hassan Ghobadi, Davoud Adham, Parviz Jangi, Abbas Abbasi-Ghahramanloo, Eslam Moradi-Asl
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022060.   Published online July 18, 2022
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Early diagnosis is essential for effective tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Therefore, this study examined the risk of delays in TB diagnosis and associated factors in Ardabil Province in northwest Iran from 2005 to 2016.
This longitudinal retrospective cohort study was conducted using data obtained from the Iranian National Tuberculosis Control Program at the provincial level between 2005 and 2016. The total delay in diagnosis was defined as the time interval (days) between the onset of symptoms and TB diagnosis. Survival analysis was conducted to analyze the delay in diagnosis. Associated factors were identified using a Cox proportional hazards model.
A total of 1,367 new TB cases were identified. The 12-year median diagnostic delay was 45 days (interquartile range [IQR], 30-87). The annual median diagnostic delay decreased from 68 days (IQR, 33-131) in 2005 to 31 days (IQR, 30-62) in 2016. The probability of a delay in TB diagnosis decreased by 5.0% each year (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.07). Residence in a non-capital county (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.92) and referral from the private health system (HR, 0.74%; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.84) were significantly associated with an increased risk of delay in TB diagnosis over the 12-year study period.
The median delay decreased during the study period. We identified factors associated with a longer delay in TB diagnosis. These findings may be useful for further TB control plans and policies in Iran.
Key Message
A longitudinal analysis of tuberculosis surveillance data from northwest Iran showed that during the 12-year period from 2005 to 2016, a total of 1,367 tuberculosis cases were registered, of whom 942 patients had a prolonged diagnostic delay (>30 days) and the probability of a delay in tuberculosis diagnosis decreased by 5.0% each year.
Controlling the drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic in India: challenges and implications
Aliabbas A. Husain, Andreas Kupz, Rajpal S. Kashyap
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021022.   Published online April 7, 2021
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
India has a higher tuberculosis (TB) burden than any other country, accounting for an estimated one-fourth of the global burden. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) presents a major public health problem in India. Patients with DR-TB often require profound changes in their drug regimens, which are invariably linked to poor treatment adherence and sub-optimal treatment outcomes compared to drug-sensitive TB. The challenge of addressing DR-TB is critical for India, as India contributes over 27% of global DR-TB cases. In recent decades, India has been proactive in its battle against TB, even implementing a revised National Strategic Plan to eliminate TB by 2025. However, to achieve this ambitious goal, the country will need to take a multifaceted approach with respect to its management of DR-TB. Despite concerted efforts made by the National TB Elimination Program, India faces substantial challenges with regard to DR-TB care, especially in peripheral and resource-limited endemic zones. This article describes some of the major challenges associated with mitigating the growing DR-TB epidemic in India and their implications.
Key Message
India is regarded as highest drug-resistant TB burden country accounting for estimated 27% of global cases. Challenge of addressing drug resistant TB is critical for India to achieve TB elimination targets of National TB program. Several heterogeneous factors have mediated the success of DR-TB management in India. In this article, we discuss, in brief, some of the major challenges and implications associated with reducing the growing DR-TB epidemic in India.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Snapshot of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Phylogenetics from an Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh Bordering China
    Shiv kumar Rashmi Mudliar, Umay Kulsum, Syed Beenish Rufai, Mika Umpo, Moi Nyori, Sarman Singh
    Genes.2022; 13(2): 263.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health