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COVID-19: Original Article
Influence of practice location on prescribing, diabetes care, and colorectal cancer screening among Czech general practitioners during the COVID-19 pandemic
Jan Bělobrádek, Luděk Šídlo, Tom Philipp
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024033.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024033
  • 1,694 View
  • 61 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The provision of primary health care was not interrupted during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Czechia, although the capacity and resources of providers changed. We examined how the pandemic affected individual general practices throughout 2017-2021, focusing on differences between urban and rural practices.
METHODS
We analysed data from the largest health insurance company in Czechia, which provides care to 4.5 million people (60% of the population). We evaluated the prescription volume, diabetes care procedures, and faecal immunochemical test (FIT) in preventive care and new pandemic-related procedures (remote consultations, testing, and vaccinations). For the spatial distribution of practices, we adapted the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development typology.
RESULTS
We observed minimal declines in 2020 in the rate of prescribing (-1.0%) and diabetes care (-5.1%), with a rapid resumption in 2021, but a substantial decline in FIT (-17.8% in 2020) with slow resumption. Remote consultations were used by 94% of all practices regardless of location, with testing and vaccinations more commonly performed by rural general practitioners (GPs).
CONCLUSIONS
Primary care in Czechia rose to the challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic, as shown by the finding that the volume of healthcare services provided through primary care did not decrease across most of the monitored parameters. This study also confirmed that rural GPs provide more care in-house, both in terms of prescribing and procedures performed in their practices. Future studies will need to focus on preventive care, which the pandemic has dampened in GP practices in Czechia.
Summary
Key Message
Primary care in Czechia has effectively adapted to the changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Minimal impact was observed in prescribtions and diabetic patient care. There was a significant decline in colorectal cancer screening, with a slow restitution after the pandemic subsided. Rural GPs consistently provided in-house treatment and have higher shares of both prescribing and diabetes care, as well as performing more COVID-19 specific procedures.
Original Articles
A prospective association between dietary mushroom intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study–Cardiovascular Disease Association Study
Yu-Mi Kim, Hye Won Woo, Min-Ho Shin, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024017.   Published online January 8, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024017
  • 2,674 View
  • 93 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Mushrooms, known for their nutritious and functional components, are considered healthy and medicinal. This study investigated the prospective association between dietary mushroom consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥40 years.
METHODS
In total, 16,666 participants who were not taking anti-diabetic medication or insulin and had normal fasting blood glucose (FBG; <126 mg/dL) were included. We used the cumulative average dietary consumption of mushrooms as an exposure metric, calculated from food frequency questionnaires at every follow-up, along with covariates collected during a baseline survey. To estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for type 2 diabetes, a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator was applied.
RESULTS
In multivariable models, dietary mushroom consumption was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in both genders (men: IRR, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47 to 0.90; p<sub>linearity</sub>=0.043 in the highest quartile (Q4) vs. the lowest quartile (Q1); women: IRR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.93; p<sub>linearity</sub>=0.114 in Q4 vs. Q1). The inverse association remained after adjustment for dietary factors instead of dietary quality index, the baseline FBG, and the exclusion of incidence within the first year. Additionally, no significant interaction was found regarding the risk of type 2 diabetes between dietary mushroom consumption and participants’ gender or other factors.
CONCLUSIONS
Dietary mushroom consumption was inversely linked with the risk of type 2 diabetes incidence in both genders, indicating the beneficial role of mushrooms in preventing the disease.
Summary
Korean summary
- 흔히 사용하는 버섯의 식이 섭취량이 증가함에 따라 한국 40세 이상 성인에서 제2형 당뇨병 발생 위험이 낮았다. - 이러한 역관계는 성별과 다양한 식이 배경에서도 일관성을 유지하였고, 이는 버섯이 제2형 당뇨병 예방에 있어 잠재적인 식이요소로서의 가능성을 보여주는성을 보여주는 보여주는 결과이다.
Key Message
• Increased dietary consumption of commonly used mushrooms is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes incidence among adults aged 40 years or older in Korea. • This inverse relationship remains consistent across genders and various dietary backgrounds, underscoring the potential of mushrooms as a preventive dietary component against.
Increased risk of cancer and cancer-related mortality in middle-aged Korean women with prediabetes and diabetes: a population-based study
Thi Xuan Mai Tran, Soyeoun Kim, Huiyeon Song, Boyoung Park
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023080.   Published online August 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023080
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the risk of developing and dying from all types of cancer, as well as cancer-specific mortality, in women diagnosed with prediabetes and diabetes.
METHODS
We included women aged ≥40 years who underwent cancer screening from 2009 to 2014 with follow-up until 2020. Diabetes status was determined based on fasting plasma glucose levels, self-reported history of diabetes, and the use of antidiabetic medication. We quantified the risk of cancer and mortality in the prediabetes and diabetes groups, relative to the normoglycemia group, by calculating adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs).
RESULTS
The study included 8,309,393 participants with a mean age of 52.7±9.7 years. Among these participants, 522,894 cases of cancer and 193,283 deaths were detected. An increased risk of cancer was observed in both the prediabetes group (aHR, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.04) and the diabetes group (aHR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.14). The highest risk was identified in those with diabetes who developed liver (aHR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.66 to 1.79), pancreatic (aHR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.60 to 1.76), and gallbladder cancer (aHR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.36 to 1.51). Women with prediabetes and diabetes exhibited a 1.07-fold (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.08) and 1.38-fold (95% CI, 1.36 to 1.41) increased risk of death from cancer, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Both prediabetes and diabetes were associated with an elevated risk of cancer, as well as an increased risk of death from cancer, in middle-aged Korean women. However, the degree of risk varied depending on the specific site of the cancer.
Summary
Korean summary
40세 이상의 중년 여성에서 당뇨 또는 당뇨 전 단계는 암 발생 위험과 암으로 인한 사망위험을 증가시킴. 암 종별로는 위암, 대장암, 직장암, 간암, 담낭암, 췌장암, 유방암, 자궁경부암, 자궁암, 신장암, 방광암의 발생 위험이 증가한 반면, 갑상선암의 발생 위험은 감소하였음. 거의 대부분의 암종에서 당뇨는 암으로 인한 사망위험을 증가시킴
Key Message
Both prediabetes and diabetes were independently associated with an overall increased risk of cancer, with a stronger association with malignancies in the liver and pancreas in women. Additionally, both prediabetes and diabetes status are associated with an elevated risk of death from cancer. These findings support the need for prevention and management to reduce cancer-related burden and premature deaths due to cancer, not only in individuals with diabetes but also in those with prediabetes.
Associations between adverse childhood experiences and diabetes among middle-aged and older Chinese: a social-ecological perspective
Siyu Zhu, Leying Hou, Jiaying Ma, Shuting Li, Weidi Sun, Wen Liu, Jiajun Hao, Wenhan Xiao, Siqing Cheng, Dexing Zhang, Dong Zhao, Peige Song
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023071.   Published online August 2, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023071
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined the associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and diabetes within a social-ecological framework, incorporating personal and environmental unfavorable conditions during childhood from family, school, and community contexts.
METHODS
Data were obtained from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (2014 life history survey and 2015 survey), including 9,179 participants aged ≥45 years. ACEs were collected through self-report questionnaires, and participants were categorized based on the number of distinct ACEs experienced (0, 1, 2, 3, or ≥4 ACEs). Diabetes was defined by biomarkers, self-reported diagnosis, and treatment status. Logistic regression was conducted to explore the associations between ACEs and diabetes. Subgroup analyses were conducted by gender, age, and obesity status.
RESULTS
Compared with participants without ACEs, those exposed to any ACE (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.40), 3 ACEs (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.62) and ≥4 ACEs (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.56) had an increased risk of diabetes. For each additional ACE, the risk of diabetes increased by about 5%. Regarding the source of ACEs, those originating from the family (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.41) were associated with diabetes. In terms of specific ACE types, family members with substance abuse (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.52), emotional abuse (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.46), and poor parental relationship (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.43) were associated with diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS
ACEs, particularly those originating from the family, were associated with diabetes. Interventions aimed at preventing and mitigating ACEs are essential for the early prevention of diabetes.
Summary
Key Message
From a social-ecological perspective, this study delineates an association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), particularly those originating from the family, and diabetes among middle-aged and older Chinese. Interventions aimed at preventing and mitigating ACEs are essential for the early prevention of diabetes.
Effects of multigrain rice and white rice on periodontitis: an analysis using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2015
Seung-Hee Ryu, Zi-lan Wang, Seon-Jip Kim, Hyun-Jae Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023063.   Published online July 3, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023063
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Numerous studies have investigated the efficacy of whole grains; however, research on multigrain remains limited. Grains exhibit combined positive effects against various diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multigrain and white rice consumption on periodontitis.
METHODS
We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-3 and VI, collected between 2012 and 2015, which included 12,450 patients (4,859 male and 7,591 female) aged 19-64 years. The World Health Organization’s Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was utilized to assess the presence of periodontitis, with periodontitis defined as a CPI index score of ≥3. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for potential confounding variables.
RESULTS
The group that consumed only multigrain rice was less likely to have periodontitis than the group that consumed only white rice (odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 0.93). When stratified by sex, the risk of periodontitis demonstrated a 24% decrease in female who consumed only multigrain rice (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.93). A similar result was observed in the age group of 40-64 years (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.99). In the diabetes stratification model, the normal group that consumed only multigrain rice exhibited a 25% decrease in the odds of periodontitis (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.91).
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest that the prevalence of periodontitis may vary depending on the type of rice consumed.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 우리나라의 대규모 자료를 이용하여 쌀 섭취 종류가 치주염 위험에 미치는 영향을 살펴보았다. 우리의 연구 결과는 잡곡밥을 매일 2회 이상 섭취하는 것이 흰쌀밥을 먹는 것보다 치주염 예방에 더 효과적이라는 것을 보여준다. 이러한 결과는 당뇨병이 있는 사람에 비해 건강한 사람, 남성보다는 여성, 40~64세에서 더 큰 예방 효과를 시사한다.
Key Message
In this study, we examined the impact of different types of rice consumption on the risk of periodontitis using large-scale data from Korea. The group that consumed only multigrain rice was less likely to have periodontitis than the group that consumed only white rice (odds ratio [OR]=0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69–0.93). The risk of periodontitis was reduced by 24% in female who consumed only multigrain rice, 16% decrease in the 40–64 age group, and in the diabetic stratification model, the normal group who consumed only multigrain rice had a 25% decrease in periodontitis risk.

Citations

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  • Trends and Characteristics of Brown Rice Consumption among Adults in Japan: An Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Surveys, 2012–2019
    Nayu Ikeda, Miwa Yamaguchi, Nobuo Nishi
    Nutrients.2024; 16(10): 1473.     CrossRef
Clinical traits and systemic risks of familial diabetes mellitus according to age of onset and quantity: an analysis of data from the community-based KoGES cohort study
Ju-Yeun Lee, Kyungsik Kim, Sangjun Lee, Woo Ju An, Sue K. Park
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023029.   Published online February 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023029
  • 4,817 View
  • 201 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical trait of familial diabetes mellitus (DM) by analyzing participants’ risk of DM according to the age of DM onset in parents and siblings, and to evaluate individuals’ risk of DM-associated cardiometabolic diseases.
METHODS
Altogether, 211,173 participants aged ≥40 years from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were included in this study. The participants were divided into groups based on the number (1 or 2 relatives) and age of onset (no DM and early, common, or late onset) of familial DM. Participants’ risk of DM was assessed using a Cox regression model with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A logistic regression model with odds ratios was used to evaluate associations among the participants’ likelihood of acquiring cardiometabolic diseases such as hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease.
RESULTS
The risk of developing DM was 2.02-fold (95% CI, 1.88 to 2.18) and 2.88-fold (95% CI, 2.50 to 3.33) higher, respectively, in participants with 1 and 2 family members diagnosed with familial DM. It was 2.72-fold (95% CI, 2.03 to 3.66) higher in those with early-onset familial DM. In the early-onset group, the respective risks of hypertension and CKD were 1.87-fold (95% CI, 1.37 to 2.55) and 4.31-fold (95% CI, 2.55 to 7.27) higher than in the control group.
CONCLUSIONS
The risk of DM and related cardiometabolic diseases was positively associated with the number of family members diagnosed with DM and an early diagnosis in family members with DM.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국인유전체역학조사사업 역학자료를 이용하여, 당뇨병을 진단받은 가족 구성원 (부모 및 형제)의 수가 많고 당뇨병이 조기에 발생할수록 개인의 당뇨발생 위험도가 높아짐을 보고하였습니다. 또한 당뇨병이 조기에 발생한 가족구성원이 있을 경우 개인의 일부 심대사질환과의 연관성이 있을 수 있음을 설명하였습니다.
Key Message
This study demonstrated that the risk of diabetes in individuals was significantly associated with the quantity and the onset of family members diagnosed with diabetes. We also explained that having a family member with early-onset diabetes can be associated with some cardiometabolic diseases in individuals.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Assessing blood sugar measures for predicting new-onset diabetes and cardiovascular disease in community-dwelling adults
    Jung-Hwan Kim, Yaeji Lee, Chung-Mo Nam, Yu-Jin Kwon, Ji-Won Lee
    Endocrine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
COVID-19: Health Statistics
Changes in the management of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: data from the 2010-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Kyungwon Oh, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023014.   Published online February 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023014
  • 5,296 View
  • 167 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to analyze the changes in chronic disease management indicators, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesteremia, from 2010-2020 and before (2019) and during (2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
METHODS
This study included 58,504 individuals aged ≥30 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2020. Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of chronic diseases and the difference in those between before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed using the SAS program PROC SURVEYREG.
RESULTS
From 2010-2020, the awareness, treatment, and control in adults aged ≥30 years for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia continuously improved, whereas no significant change in the management indicators of diabetes mellitus was observed. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in men increased from before to during the COVID- 19 pandemic. However, there was no significant change in the management indicators of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in men and women, and the awareness, treatment, and control rates for hypercholesterolemia increased by 5.5%p, 6.9%p, and 4.1%p respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
In 2020, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia increased, but the management indicators of the chronic diseases did not significantly deteriorate. Considering the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to monitor changes in chronic disease management indicators and to develop efficient and accessible chronic disease prevention and management programs.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사 자료를 분석한 결과 11년간(2010-2020년) 성인의 고혈압, 고콜레스테롤혈증 인지율, 치료율, 치료자 중 조절률은 개선된 반면 당뇨병은 변화가 없었다. 코로나19 유행 전(2019년)·후(2020년) 비교시 남자에서 고혈압, 당뇨병, 고콜레스테롤혈증 유병률이 증가했다. 그러나 고혈압, 당뇨병 관리지표는 변화가 없었고, 고콜레스테롤혈증 관리지표만 개선되었다.
Key Message
The rates of awareness, treatment, and control in adults aged ≥30 years for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia continuously improved, whereas no significant change in the management indicators of diabetes mellitus was observed over the past 11 years (2010-2020). The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in men increased from before (2019) to during (2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there was no significant change in the management indicators of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in men and women, and that of hypercholesterolemia improved.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Obesity, Metabolic Parameters and Clinical Values in the South Korean Adult Population
    Anna Kim, Eun-yeob Kim, Jaeyoung Kim
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(10): 2814.     CrossRef
  • Topic Modeling-Based Analysis of News Keywords Related to Patients with Diabetes during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Jeong-Won Han, Jung Min Kim, Hanna Lee
    Healthcare.2023; 11(7): 957.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the severity of non-fatal injuries, but not the risk of fatal injuries, among driver victims of motor vehicle crashes in Taiwan
I-Lin Hsu, Wen-Hsuan Hou, Ya-Hui Chang, Chung-Yi Li
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022076.   Published online September 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022076
  • 4,909 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Limited information is available on whether diabetes increases the severity of injuries from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). This study aimed to investigate the association of type 2 diabetes with injury severity among driver victims of MVCs.
METHODS
This cohort study involved 75,737 adult driver victims with type 2 diabetes from Taiwan’s Police-Reported Traffic Accident Registry in 2015-2017, along with 150,911 sex-, age-, and calendar year-matched controls. The severity level of non- fatal injuries was derived from the International Classification of Diseases Programs for Injury Categorization based on the diagnostic codes of National Health Insurance claims within 3 days after an MVC. Information on fatal injuries within 3 days after an MVC was obtained from the Taiwan Death Registry. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of injury severity in association with type 2 diabetes.
RESULTS
After adjusting for potential confounders, driver victims with type 2 diabetes experienced significantly higher risks of mild and severe non-fatal injuries than their counterparts without diabetes, with covariate-adjusted ORs of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.11) and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.37), respectively. By contrast, the adjusted OR for fatal injuries was not significantly elevated, at 1.02 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.18). Similar results were found when car and scooter driver victims were analyzed separately.
CONCLUSIONS
Type 2 diabetes was found to moderately increase the severity of non-fatal injuries from MVCs among car and scooter driver victims.
Summary
Key Message
With 75,737 driver victims with diabetes and 150,911 matched controls, this study showed an 8% and 28% increase in mild and severe non-fatal injury, respectively among driver victims with diabetes. Such increase in risk was equally applied to both car and scooter drivers. No increase in risk of 3-day mortality after crash was found.
Associations of fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin with vitamin D levels according to diabetes mellitus status in Korean adults
Yerin Hwang, Jiyoung Jang, Myung-Hee Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022025.   Published online February 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022025
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
According to previous studies, vitamin D deficiency might increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, few studies have examined whether vitamin D continues to affect glucose control after DM diagnosis. Therefore, we examined the association between vitamin D and glucose levels in individuals with and without DM.
METHODS
We analyzed data for 32,943 adults aged 19 years and older from the 2008 to 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. DM was defined as a fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL, current use of DM medications or insulin injections, or a self-reported diagnosis of DM by a doctor.
RESULTS
In male DM patients, the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level increased significantly as vitamin D levels became severely deficient. In male and postmenopausal female with abnormal HbA1c, those with severe vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher HbA1c levels (p for trend=0.004 and 0.022 for male and postmenopausal female, respectively). Significant differences were found between participants with normal and abnormal HbA1c levels in both male and female. However, regardless of sex or menopausal status, there was no significant association between vitamin D and fasting glucose in any of the fasting glucose subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS
Male and female with abnormal HbA1c levels showed markedly elevated blood glucose when they also had vitamin D deficiency. A more distinct difference was observed in the HbA1c subgroups than in the fasting glucose subgroups.
Summary
Korean summary
당화혈색소 비정상군에서 비타민 D가 부족할수록 혈당의 상승을 보였다. 현재까지 비타민 D와 혈당 조절과 관련하여 한국인을 대상으로 한 연구는 매우 미비한 상황이며, 한국인을 대상으로 한 연구 결과를 반영한 당뇨병 환자들의 혈당 조절 관리 지침 마련이 필요하다.
Key Message
Guidelines are needed for managing glucose control in DM patients that reflect the results of this research performed among Koreans. Additional large-scale longitudinal studies should be conducted to clarify the causal relationships underlying this association.
Effects of early medication treatment and metformin use for cancer prevention in diabetes patients: a nationwide sample cohort study in Korea using extended landmark time analysis
Hwa Jeong Seo, Hyun Sook Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021103.   Published online December 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021103
  • 9,003 View
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  • 5 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the effectiveness of early medication treatment and metformin use for cancer prevention in type 2 diabetes patients.
METHODS
Population-based cohort data were used from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database (KNHIS-NSC) for 2002-2013. Patient-specific medication prescription status was defined by the landmark time (LMT; a fixed time after cohort entry), considering both pre- and post-LMT prescriptions to control methodological biases in observational research. The LMT was set to 2 years. Logistic regression analysis with multivariable adjustment was conducted to analyze cancer incidence by patient-specific medication prescription status.
RESULTS
Only 33.4% of the subjects were prescribed medication early (before the LMT) with compliance. Cancer incidence in individuals with early prescription and compliance was 25% lower (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 0.84) than in those without. As early-prescribed medications, metformin monotherapy and metformin combination therapy were associated with 34% (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.83) and 25% (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.88) lower cancer risk than non-use, respectively. Patients who were prescribed late (post-LMT) but did not comply with the prescription had a 24% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.58) higher cancer incidence than non-users. Among patients who started monotherapy early without changes throughout the entire follow-up period, those who started on metformin had a 37% (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.99) lower risk of cancer than non-metformin users.
CONCLUSIONS
Doctors must prescribe antidiabetic medication early, and patient compliance is required, regardless of the prescription time, to prevent cancer. Metformin monotherapy or combination therapy is recommended as an early prescription.
Summary
Korean summary
당뇨 환자는 암 발병 위험이 높으며 암은 주요 사망 원인이다. 당뇨환자의 암발생 예방을 위한 관리로서, 당뇨병 진단 후 약물 치료 시기에 대한 연구는 부족하다. 또한, 전 세계적으로 가장 흔히 처방되는 당뇨병 치료제인 메트포민은 암 예방 효과가 있다고 알려져 왔으나 관측연구에서 발생하는 선택 편향의 문제가 제기되었고, 최근 일부 연구에서 기존의 암 예방 효과와 상충되는 결과가 나오고 있어 논쟁이 이어지고 있다. 본 연구는 선택 편향을 통제한 코호트 연구에서 조기 약물 치료와 메트포민 사용이 당뇨환자의 암 예방에 효과적임을 밝혔다. 따라서 의사들은 처음 당뇨 진단을 받은 환자에게 조기에 약물 처방을 하고, 환자들은 처방에 잘 따라야 한다. 조기 처방 약물로서 메트포민이 권장된다.
Key Message
Diabetic patients have a high risk of developing cancer, and cancer is the leading cause of death. There are few studies on the timing of medication treatment after diagnosis of diabetes. In addition, metformin, the most commonly prescribed diabetes treatment worldwide, is known to have cancer-preventive effects, but the problem of selection bias that occurs in observational studies has been raised, and some studies have recently been contradicting the existing cancer-preventing effects of metformin. This study, in a cohort study controlled for selection bias, demonstrated that early medication treatment and metformin use were effective in preventing cancer in diabetic patients.

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    International Ophthalmology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Sara S Bashraheel, Hadeel Kheraldine, Sarah Khalaf, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa
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Editorial
Spatiotemporal analyses of the epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus
Sang Youl Rhee
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021102.   Published online December 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021102
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  • 1 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Research based on spatiotemporal analysis has been conducted to identify various factors that can affect an individual’s or community’s degree of health and disease. These spatiotemporal studies can effectively illustrate patterns in disease frequency, features, and temporal flow in different parts of a country. Furthermore, identifying these regional characteristics can aid in the development of disease prevention or intervention strategies.
Summary
Korean summary
1. 시공간 분석은 국가 혹은 지역의 질병 빈도, 특징 및 시간 흐름의 패턴을 효과적으로 설명할 수 있다. 2. 시공간 분석은 질병의 예방 또는 중재 전략 개발에 도움이 될 수 있다.
Key Message
1. Spatiotemporal analyses can effectively illustrate patterns in disease frequency, features, and temporal flow in different parts of a country. 2. Spatiotemporal analysis can aid in disease prevention or development of intervention strategies.

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  • Epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal analysis of mumps at township level in Wuhan, China, 2005–2019
    Ying Peng, Peng Wang, De-guang Kong, Wen-zhen Li, Dong-ming Wang, Li Cai, Sha Lu, Bin Yu, Bang-hua Chen, Pu-Lin Liu
    Epidemiology and Infection.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Association between a family history of diabetes and carotid artery atherosclerosis in Korean adults
Sun Young Shim, Ga Bin Lee, Jee-Seon Shim, Sun Jae Jung, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021049.   Published online August 3, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021049
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  • 3 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for atherosclerosis, but the association between a family history of diabetes and atherosclerosis remains unknown. In this study, we assessed the association between a family history of diabetes and increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in a middle-aged Korean population.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study included 3,974 community-dwelling adults (1,404 male and 2,570 female) aged 30-64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort. The presence of a family history of diabetes was assessed through face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Carotid IMT was assessed using B-mode ultrasonography, and increased IMT was defined as a value in the top quartile of the IMT values of all participants. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate independent associations between a family history of diabetes and increased IMT.
RESULTS
A family history of diabetes was significantly associated with increased carotid IMT (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.48) after adjusting for sex; age; body mass index; systolic blood pressure; total cholesterol, triglyceride, and hemoglobin A1c levels; smoking; alcohol consumption; exercise; use of antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antilipidemic drugs; and a family history of hypertension. The positive association remained significant after excluding participants with diabetes (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.47).
CONCLUSIONS
A family history of diabetes was positively associated with increased carotid IMT, even in participants without diabetes. Therefore, information on a family history of diabetes may help identify individuals at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Summary
Korean summary
한국의 30–64세 성인에게서 당뇨병 가족력이 있는 경우, 본인의 당뇨병 여부와 무관하게 경동맥 내중막 두께가 증가된 경향을 보였다. 이 결과는 당뇨병 가족력에 대한 정보를 파악하는 것은 죽상경화성 심혈관 질환의 위험이 높은 개인을 식별하는 데 도움이 될 수 있음을 시사한다.
Key Message
The family history of diabetes was positively associated with an increase in intima-media thickness of the carotid artery, even among people with normal fasting glucose levels. This suggests that asking for a family history of diabetes can help identify people at high risk of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

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    Ge Meng, Tongfeng Liu, Sabina Rayamajhi, Amrish Thapa, Shunming Zhang, Xuena Wang, Hongmei Wu, Yeqing Gu, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Zhongze Fang, Kaijun Niu
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2023; 33(11): 2209.     CrossRef
  • The association between grip strength and incident carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older adults: The TCLSIH cohort study
    Bei Zhang, Xuena Wang, Yeqing Gu, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Ge Meng, Hongmei Wu, Shunming Zhang, Tingjing Zhang, Huiping Li, Juanjuan Zhang, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Jian Huang, Junsheng Huo, Bing Zhang, Gangqiang Ding, Kaijun Niu
    Maturitas.2023; 167: 53.     CrossRef
  • Clinical traits and systemic risks of familial diabetes mellitus according to age of onset and quantity: an analysis of data from the community-based KoGES cohort study
    Ju-Yeun Lee, Kyungsik Kim, Sangjun Lee, Woo Ju An, Sue K. Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023029.     CrossRef
  • The Relationship between Family History of Diabetes and Diabetes by BMI and Age in Korean Men and Women
    Eunna Ko, Jae Woong Sull
    Biomedical Science Letters.2021; 27(4): 317.     CrossRef
Trends in the prevalence and management of major metabolic risk factors for chronic disease over 20 years: findings from the 1998-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Yoonjung Kim, Sun Jin Nho, Gyeongji Woo, Hyejin Kim, Suyeon Park, Youngtaek Kim, Ok Park, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021028.   Published online April 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021028
  • 13,235 View
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  • 13 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to explore trends in the prevalence and management of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults from 1998 to 2018 using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
METHODS
The study participants included 79,753 individuals aged ≥ 30 years who had participated in the health examination and health interview of the first (1998) to the seventh (2016-2018) KNHANES. The prevalence and management as well as annual percent change (APC) in chronic diseases were analyzed using SAS and the Joinpoint software program.
RESULTS
The prevalence of obesity in men significantly increased from 26.8% in 1998 to 44.7% in 2018 (APC= 1.9, p< 0.001), whereas that in women decreased slightly from 30.5% in 1998 to 28.3% in 2018 (APC= -0.5, p< 0.001). The prevalence of hypertension in men was 33.2% in 2018, with no significant change, whereas that in women slightly decreased to 23.1% in 2018 (APC= -0.9, p< 0.001). The prevalence of diabetes in men increased slightly from 10.5% in 2005 to 12.9% in 2018 (APC= 1.6, p< 0.001), whereas that in women remained at approximately 8%, with no significant change. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in both men and women increased 3-fold in 2018 (20.9% in men [APC = 8.2, p < 0.001] and 21.4% in women [APC= 7.1, p< 0.001]) compared to that in 2005. The awareness rate, treatment rate, and control rate of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia increased 2-3 fold. Regarding diabetes, the treatment rate increased, but the control rate did not change.
CONCLUSIONS
Over the past 20 years, the prevalence of obesity (in men), diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia has increased and management indicators, such as the awareness rate, treatment rate, and control rate of chronic diseases, have improved continuously.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사(1998-2018) 자료를 활용하여 우리나라 성인의 비만, 고혈압, 당뇨병, 고콜레스테롤혈증 유병률 및 관리수준을 분석한 결과, 20년 동안 비만(남자), 당뇨병, 고콜레스테롤혈증 만성질환의 유병 수준은 악화되고 있는 반면, 만성질환의 인지율, 치료율, 치료자 중 조절률 등 관리지표는 지속적으로 개선되고 있었다.
Key Message
We examined trends in the prevalence and management of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults from the 1998-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Over the past 20 years, the prevalence of obesity (in men), diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia has increased and management indicators, such as the awareness rate, treatment rate, and control rate of chronic diseases, have improved continuously.

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  • Adherence to Cancer Prevention Guidelines and Cancer Incidence and Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort Study
    Jin-Kyoung Oh, Minji Han, Byungmi Kim, Eun Young Park
    Cancer Research and Treatment.2023; 55(1): 15.     CrossRef
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    Yan Qiu, Junzhuang Ma, Jiahong Zhu, Ying Liu, Wen Ren, Shuaishuai Zhang, Jingjing Ren
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jihyun Kim, Seunghee Kye
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2023; 56(3): 288.     CrossRef
  • Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Obesity in Korean Adults
    Jee-Seon Shim, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(4): 547.     CrossRef
  • Changes in metabolic syndrome and the risk of breast and endometrial cancer according to menopause in Korean women
    Thi Xuan Mai Tran, Soyeoun Kim, Boyoung Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023049.     CrossRef
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    Jee‐Seon Shim, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Obesity.2023; 31(9): 2430.     CrossRef
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    Jin-Ju Baek, Soo-In Ryu, Jean Kyung Paik
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2023; 52(10): 983.     CrossRef
  • Changes in the management of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: data from the 2010-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Kyungwon Oh, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023014.     CrossRef
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    Hyeon Chang Kim, Hokyou Lee, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Eunsun Seo, Eunji Kim, Jiyen Han, Ja-Young Kwon, Hyeon Chang Kim, Song Vogue Ahn, Sun Ha Jee, Sungha Park, Hae-Young Lee, Min Ho Shin, Sang-Hyun Ihm, Seung Won Lee, Hokyou Lee, Jong Ku Park, Il Suh, Tae-Yong Lee
    Clinical Hypertension.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sex-Specific Trends in the Prevalence of Hypertension and the Number of People With Hypertension: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 1998–2018
    Eunsun Seo, Sunjae Jung, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Korean Circulation Journal.2022; 52(5): 382.     CrossRef
  • Benefits of adherence to the Korea Healthy Eating Index on the risk factors and incidence of the metabolic syndrome: analysis of the 7th (2016–2018) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Sun A Choi, Sung Suk Chung, Jeong Ok Rho
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2022; 55(1): 120.     CrossRef
  • Obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Ga Bin Lee, Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Kyungwon Oh
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022041.     CrossRef
  • Current Status of the National Health Screening Programs in South Korea
    Hee-Taik Kang
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2022; 43(3): 168.     CrossRef
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    Taiyue Jin, Eun Young Park, Byungmi Kim, Jin-Kyoung Oh
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022046.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and management of hypertension in Korean adults
    Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(10): 633.     CrossRef
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    Hwa Jeong Seo, Hyun Sook Oh
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Trends in prediabetes and diabetes prevalence and associated risk factors in Vietnamese adults
That Thanh Ton, Anh Thi Ngoc Tran, Ich Thanh Do, Hoa Nguyen, Thi Thanh Binh Nguyen, Minh Tu Nguyen, Van Anh Bao Ha, Anh Quoc Tran, Huu Khoi Hoang, Binh Thang Tran
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020029.   Published online May 11, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020029
  • 18,034 View
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  • 11 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing in Vietnam, particularly among adults aged over 45 years. This study estimated trends in diabetes and prediabetes prevalence and determined risk factors in Vietnamese adults (over 45 years).
METHODS
A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data from an annual diabetes screening program among people aged 45-69 years in an urban city in central Vietnam (Da Nang). Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to calculate the annual percentage change and p<sub>trend</sub>-values. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors.
RESULTS
In total, 3,765 men and 9,149 women were included in this analysis. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 2017 was 11.4% and 52.9%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes was higher in men (15.1%) than in women (10.3%), but that of prediabetes was similar in both genders (53.4% vs. 52.8%). The prevalence of prediabetes significantly increased during the study period, whereas no upward or downward trend for diabetes was observed. The prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia showed no obvious trend. Obesity, a high waist-to-hip ratio, hypertension, more severe abdominal obesity, and dyslipidemia were significantly associated with a higher risk of diabetes and prediabetes.
CONCLUSIONS
Diabetes and prediabetes were more prevalent among people aged over 45 years than in the general population. Da Nang has experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of prediabetes. These findings have significant implications regarding the need for nationwide public health interventions and management aiming at diabetes prevention and control.
Summary

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Trends in the prevalence and management of diabetes in Korea: 2007-2017
Ji-Yeon Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019029.   Published online July 4, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019029
  • 16,705 View
  • 315 Download
  • 40 Web of Science
  • 40 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study analyzed Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2017 to assess trends in the prevalence, treatment, and control of diabetes in Korean adults ≥30 years of age.
METHODS
Prevalent diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose level ≥126 mg/dL, self-reported use of anti-diabetic treatment (insulin or oral anti-diabetic drugs), or diabetes diagnosis by a physician. Target levels were defined as glycosylated hemoglobin <6.5% or <7.0%, blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, and total cholesterol <200 mg/dL. All survey waves were age-standardized to the 2005 Korean census population.
RESULTS
Diabetes prevalence increased from 9.6% in 2007-2009 to 10.8% in 2016-2017 (p<0.001). Impaired fasting glucose prevalence significantly increased in both genders and almost every age group. Diabetes awareness and glycemic control did not show an increasing trend; however, the treatment rate and proportion of people diagnosed with diabetes achieving target blood pressure and total cholesterol levels improved from 57.2% to 63.5% (p=0.008), from 41.1% to 53.2% (p<0.001), and from 65.0% to 78.0% (p<0.001), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
From 2007 to 2017, the prevalence of diabetes increased moderately in Korea, whereas the diabetes treatment rate and the proportion of people diagnosed with diabetes achieving target blood pressure and total cholesterol levels improved. However, awareness of diabetes and glycemic control require significant improvements. A national-level action plan is required to raise awareness about diabetes and prediabetes, with the goal of improving glycemic control and minimizing the occurrence of adverse health outcomes.
Summary
Korean summary
지난 2007년-2017년 동안 우리나라 30세 이상 성인의 당뇨병 유병률은 소폭 증가하였으며, 당뇨환자의 치료율, 혈압 조절율, 총콜레스테롤 조절율은 증가 추세를 보였다. 그러나 당뇨병 인지율과 당뇨 환자의 혈당 조절율은 현재의 추세대로라면 Health Plan 2020의 목표치를 달성하기 어려울 것으로 보이며, 개선이 필요하다.

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