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The effect of demographic characteristics on the relationship between smoking and dry mouth in Iran: a cross-sectional, case-control study
Shahla Kakoei, Amir Hossein Nekouei, Sina Kakooei, Hamid Najafipour
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021017.   Published online February 28, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021017
  • 11,383 View
  • 350 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The effect of age, sex, and other demographic factors on the relationship between smoking and dry mouth remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics on the relationship between dry mouth, also known as xerostomia, and smoking.
METHODS
This case-control study included 5,640 randomly-selected subjects from the second phase of the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study, which observed 10,000 participants from 2014 to 2018. A checklist was used to record the participants’ demographic characteristics and smoking frequency. Each participant completed a six-item Fox questionnaire to measure dry mouth as a dependent variable. The interaction terms of daily cigarette smoking with sex, age, educational level, and marital status were entered into the model. Non-significant terms were removed using hierarchical model selection.
RESULTS
Of the sample, 3,429 (60.8%) did not have dry mouth and were analyzed as controls, whereas 2,211 (39.2%) had xerostomia and were deemed to be cases. Smokers were more likely to have dry mouth in all ages and both sexes (p < 0.001). As male became older, the chance of having dry mouth increased more rapidly than among female smokers (p < 0.001). In addition, female smokers were more likely to have dry mouth than male smokers (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
The likelihood of dry mouth among daily smokers depended on age and sex. Female smokers were more likely to have dry mouth, and its likelihood increased with age in daily smokers of both sexes, though more rapidly in males.
Summary
Key Message
The relationship between dry mouth as a distressing condition and smoking has been confirmed by many studies, but so far the severity and weakness of this relationship have not been studied in terms of demographic variables. We showed that the female smokers were more likely to have dry mouth. The chance of having dry mouth increase in a male smoker more than a female smoker as age increases.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The prevalence of xerostomia among e-cigarette or combustible tobacco users: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Xingtong Guo, Lili Hou, Xuepei Peng, Fuyou Tang
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2023; 21(February): 1.     CrossRef
  • World Workshop on Oral Medicine VIII: Development of a core outcome set for dry mouth: a systematic review of outcome domains for xerostomia
    Paswach Wiriyakijja, Sven Eric Niklander, Alan Roger Santos-Silva, Michal Kuten Shorrer, Melanie Louise Simms, Alessandro Villa, Vidya Sankar, Alexander Ross Kerr, Richeal Ni Riordain, Siri Beier Jensen, Konstantina Delli
    Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology.2023; 135(6): 827.     CrossRef
  • Xerostomia as a key predictor of physical frailty among community-dwelling older adults in Japan: a five-year prospective cohort study from The Otassha Study
    Yuki Ohara, Masahori Iwasaki, Maki Shirobe, Hisashi Kawai, Ayako Edahiro, Keiko Motokawa, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Hunkyung Kim, Kazushige Ihara, Shuichi Obuchi, Yutaka Watanabe, Hirohiko Hirano
    Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics.2022; 99: 104608.     CrossRef
  • Effect of vitamin E and supragingival scaling on salivary gland function in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with 131I
    Yan Cheng, Huimin Tong, Xiaoqian Li, Xiaomin Zhang, Ju Fang, Rongli Yue, Nan Huang, Jing Tian, Feiyan Yu, Ying Gao
    Nuclear Medicine Communications.2022; 43(9): 995.     CrossRef
Factors related to cancer screening behaviors
Boyoung Choi, Tae Rim Um, Kwang-Soo Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018011.   Published online March 29, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018011
  • 12,763 View
  • 235 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to investigate the factors related to cancer screening behaviors (CSB).
METHODS
The 2014 Korean Community Health Survey used for analysis. The dependent variable was CSB, and the independent variables were demographic, health behavioral, and regional factor. Propensity score matching (PSM) used to control health behavior and regional factors, which were influencing CSB. For statistical analysis, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis used.
RESULTS
Logistic regression analysis after PSM showed that gender, age, marital status, educational level, monthly household income, employment type, alcohol drinking, smoking, body mass index group, chronic disease, and subjective health status influenced the CSB, there were statistical differences.
CONCLUSIONS
To improve cancer screening (CS), it is necessary to educate individuals on the need for CS and to carry out a personalized CS program based on an individual’s demographic status and health behavior.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구의 목적은 암 검진 행태와 관련된 요인들을 조사하는 것이다. 이를 위해 2014년 지역 사회 건강 조사 데이터를 활용하였으며, 건강 검진 행동에 영향을 미치는 건강 행동 및 지역 요인을 통제하기 위해 성향점수매칭 방법을 사용하였고, 통계 분석을 위해 카이 제곱 검정과 로지스틱 회귀 분석을 사용하였다. 성향점수 매칭 후 분석 결과에서 성별, 연령, 결혼 상태, 교육 수준, 월평균 가구 소득, 고용형태, 음주, 흡연, BMI 그룹, 만성 질환, 주관적 건강 상태가 암 검진 수진에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 암 검진 수진을 향상시키기 위해서 암 검진의 필요성에 대한 교육과 개인의 인구사회학적, 건강 행태를 고려한 맞춤형 암 검진 프로그램이 필요하다. 본 연구는 성향점수 매칭을 이용하여 교란요인을 통제한 후 암 검진 수진의 영향을 살펴보았다는 데에 의의가 있다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The association of the dietary inflammatory potential with risk of overall and site-specific cancers: A community-based longitudinal study in the UK Biobank
    Jiaxin Liang, Rongrong Yang, Huiying Da, Jiao Wang, Maiwulamujiang Maimaitiyiming, Xiuying Qi, Michelle M. Dunk, Weili Xu
    The Journal of nutrition, health and aging.2024; 28(6): 100225.     CrossRef
  • Health Behaviors of Cancer Survivors According to the Employment Status and Occupation: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Ka Ryeong Bae, Wi-Young So, Su Jung Lee
    Healthcare.2023; 11(22): 2974.     CrossRef
  • Income Disparities in Cancer Screening: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013–2019
    Vasuki Rajaguru, Tae Hyun Kim, Jaeyong Shin, Sang Gyu Lee
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Predictors of non-communicable diseases screening behaviours among adult population in Brunei Darussalam: a retrospective study
    Ak Muhd Adiib Pg Suhaimi, Hanif Abdul Rahman, Sok King Ong, David Koh
    Journal of Public Health.2021; 29(6): 1303.     CrossRef
  • Older Adults’ Socio-Demographic Determinants of Health Related to Promoting Health and Getting Preventive Health Care in Southern United States: A Secondary Analysis of a Survey Project Dataset
    Huey-Ming Tzeng, Udoka Okpalauwaekwe, Chih-Ying Li
    Nursing Reports.2021; 11(1): 120.     CrossRef
  • The Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and Cancer Risk in Korea: A Prospective Cohort Study within the KoGES-HEXA Study
    Injeong Ryu, Minji Kwon, Cheongmin Sohn, Nitin Shivappa, James R. Hébert, Woori Na, Mi Kyung Kim
    Nutrients.2019; 11(11): 2560.     CrossRef

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