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Case Report
Two cases of cholera O1 in South Batinah, Oman, April 2019: lessons learned
Zayid K. Al Mayahi, Nasser Al-Shaqsi, Hamid A. Elmutashi, Ali Al-Dhoyani, Azza Al Hattali, Khalid Salim, Issa S. Al Fulaiti, Mahmood S. Al Subhi
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019033.   Published online July 12, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019033
  • 11,837 View
  • 167 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Cholera represents an ongoing threat to many low-income and middle-income countries, but some cases of cholera even occur in high-income countries. Therefore, to prevent or combat cholera outbreaks, it is necessary to maintain the capacity to rapidly detect cholera cases, implement infection control measures, and improve general hygiene in terms of the environment, water, and food. The 2 cases, 1 imported and 1 secondary, described herein are broadly indicative of areas that require improvement. These cases were missed at the primary health care stage, which should be the first detection point even for unusual diseases such as cholera, and the absence of strict infection control practices at the primary care level is believed to contribute to secondary cases of infection. This report also encourages countries to ensure that rapid diagnostic stool tests are available to enable quick detection, as well as to provide information to people travelling to areas where cholera is endemic.
Summary

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  • Perception of the health surveillance users on the health electronic surveillance network (HESN), Saudi Arabia, 2016
    Zayid K. Almayahi, Fahad Alswaidi, Abdullah Alzahrani
    Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Risk factors associated with the recent cholera outbreak in Yemen: a case-control study
Fekri Dureab, Albrecht Jahn, Johannes Krisam, Asma Dureab, Omer Zain, Sameh Al-Awlaqi, Olaf Müller
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019015.   Published online April 21, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019015
  • 20,418 View
  • 501 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The cholera outbreak in Yemen has become the largest in the recent history of cholera records, having reached more than 1.4 million cases since it started in late 2016. This study aimed to identify risk factors for cholera in this outbreak.
METHODS
A case-control study was conducted in Aden in 2018 to investigate risk factors for cholera in this still-ongoing outbreak. In total, 59 cholera cases and 118 community controls were studied.
RESULTS
The following risk factors were associated with being a cholera case in the bivariate analysis: a history of travelling and having had visitors from outside Aden Province; eating outside the house; not washing fruit, vegetables, and khat (a local herbal stimulant) before consumption; using common-source water; and not using chlorine or soap in the household. In the multivariate analysis, not washing khat and the use of common-source water remained significant risk factors for being a cholera case.
CONCLUSIONS
Behavioural factors and unsafe water appear to be the major risk factors in the recent cholera outbreak in Yemen. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, hygiene practices for washing khat and vegetables and the use and accessibility of safe drinking water should be promoted at the community level.
Summary

Citations

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  • Knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward COVID-19 prevention in Yemen: a community-based cross-sectional study
    Ola El Hajj Hassan, Ahmed Asa’ad Al-Aghbari, Maureen McGowan, Maureen Dar Iang, Huda Omer Basaleem, Khaled Abdulla Al-Sakkaf, Dalia Hyzam, Albrecht Jahn, Fekri Dureab
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Inadequate Hand Washing, Lack of Clean Drinking Water and Latrines as Major Determinants of Cholera Outbreak in Somali Region, Ethiopia in 2019
    Jemal Mussa Challa, Tamirat Getachew, Adera Debella, Melkamu Merid, Genanaw Atnafe, Addis Eyeberu, Abdi Birhanu, Lemma Demissie Regassa
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Determining factors associated with cholera disease in Ethiopia using Bayesian hierarchical modeling
    Tsigereda Tilahun Letta, Denekew Bitew Belay, Endale Alemayehu Ali
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cholera outbreak investigation report in Mille woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia, 2019
    Hana Mekonen, Kefyalew Amene, Dr Samrawit Bisrat, Tesfahun Abye
    MOJ Women s Health.2022; 11(2): 63.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors of Cholera Transmission in Al Hudaydah, Yemen: Case-Control Study
    Abdulqawi Mohammed Qaserah, Mohammed Abdullah Al Amad, Abdulwahed Abduljabbar Al Serouri, Yousef Saleh Khader
    JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2021; 7(7): e27627.     CrossRef
  • Solar-powered desalination, a novel solar still directly connected to solar parabolic trough
    Ali M. Aqlan, Musaed Aklan, Abdulmalik E. Momin
    Energy Reports.2021; 7: 2245.     CrossRef
  • Cholera Outbreak in Hadhramout, Yemen: The Epidemiological Weeks 2019
    Eidha Ali Bin-Hameed, Huda Ameen Joban
    International Journal of Epidemiologic Research.2021; 8(1): 40.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge on and preventive practices of cholera in Al-Mahweet – Yemen, 2018: a cross-sectional study
    Fekri Dureab, Yasameen Al-Qadasi, Hani Nasr, Marwah Al-Zumair, Taha Al-Mahbashi
    Journal of Water and Health.2021; 19(6): 1002.     CrossRef
  • Reinventing the Wheel of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Transmission to Humans
    Francesca Tamarozzi, Peter Deplazes, Adriano Casulli
    Trends in Parasitology.2020; 36(5): 427.     CrossRef
A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study
Ghobad Moradi, Mohammad Aziz Rasouli, Parvin Mohammadi, Elham Elahi, Hojatollah Barati
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016018.   Published online May 14, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016018
  • 19,532 View
  • 254 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks.
METHODS
An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method.
RESULTS
In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72).
CONCLUSIONS
Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cholera outbreak at a city hotel in Kenya, 2017: a retrospective cohort study
    Philip Ngere, Elvis Oyugi, Alexis Niyomwungere, Scolastica Wabwire, Adi Dahabo, Daniel Langat, Raphael Muli, Maurice Owiny
    Journal of Interventional Epidemiology and Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cholera outbreak investigation report in Mille woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia, 2019
    Hana Mekonen, Kefyalew Amene, Dr Samrawit Bisrat, Tesfahun Abye
    MOJ Women s Health.2022; 11(2): 63.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors of Cholera Transmission in Al Hudaydah, Yemen: Case-Control Study
    Abdulqawi Mohammed Qaserah, Mohammed Abdullah Al Amad, Abdulwahed Abduljabbar Al Serouri, Yousef Saleh Khader
    JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2021; 7(7): e27627.     CrossRef
  • Prevention and control of cholera with household and community water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions: A scoping review of current international guidelines
    Lauren D’Mello-Guyett, Karin Gallandat, Rafael Van den Bergh, Dawn Taylor, Gregory Bulit, Dominique Legros, Peter Maes, Francesco Checchi, Oliver Cumming, Andrew S. Azman
    PLOS ONE.2020; 15(1): e0226549.     CrossRef
  • Risk factors associated with the recent cholera outbreak in Yemen: a case-control study
    Fekri Dureab, Albrecht Jahn, Johannes Krisam, Asma Dureab, Omer Zain, Sameh Al-Awlaqi, Olaf Müller
    Epidemiology and Health.2019; 41: e2019015.     CrossRef
  • Individual and household exposures associated with cholera transmission in case–control studies: a systematic review
    Matthew D. Phelps, Lone Simonsen, Peter K. M. Jensen
    Tropical Medicine & International Health.2019; 24(10): 1151.     CrossRef
  • Cholera case management in Harare City, 2018: are we doing the right things right?
    Govha Emmanuel, Paul Musarurwa, Christine Gabaza, Taurai Masango, Shambira Gerald, Gombe Tafara Notion, Juru Tsitsi Patience, Tshimanga Mufuta
    Journal of Interventional Epidemiology and Public Health .2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • H2S is a key antisecretory molecule against cholera toxin-induced diarrhoea in mice: Evidence for non-involvement of the AC/cAMP/PKA pathway and AMPK
    Francisca B.M. Sousa, Luan K.M. Souza, Nayara A. Sousa, Thiago S.L. Araújo, Simone de Araújo, Dvison M. Pacífico, Irismara S. Silva, Renan O. Silva, Lucas A.D. Nicolau, Fabiana M. Souza, Marcelo C. Filgueiras, Jefferson S. Oliveira, Marcellus H.L.P. Souza
    Nitric Oxide.2018; 76: 152.     CrossRef
  • Individual and Household Risk Factors for Symptomatic Cholera Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Aaron Richterman, Duarxy Rodcnel Sainvilien, Lauren Eberly, Louise C Ivers
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases.2018; 218(suppl_3): S154.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of two control groups for estimation of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness using a case-control study design
    Molly F. Franke, J. Gregory Jerome, Wilfredo R. Matias, Ralph Ternier, Isabelle J. Hilaire, Jason B. Harris, Louise C. Ivers
    Vaccine.2017; 35(43): 5819.     CrossRef
An Epidemiological Survey on the Outbreak of Cholera of Overseas Travelers in Daejeon.
Sun Mi Jin, Tae Yong Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 2006;28(1):119-128.
  • 5,821 View
  • 40 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
This study was coducted to describe the epidemiological, characteristics of the outbreak of cholera of overseas travelers on Aug. 2005 in Daejeon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interview using a standard questionnaire and rectal swab were conducted to 15 overseas travelers ,27 persons who contacted with travelers RESULTS: Epidemiological characteristics of the 2005 cholera epidemic of Daejeon are as follows: 1. Isolated species were Vibrio cholerae, O1 El Tor Ogawa. There were 6 culture-proven patients, 4 culture-not proven patients and 2 asymptomatic carriers. There was no case of person to person infection and no fatal cases 2. The sex distribution of cholera patients was equal. The most of cholera patients were at the age of fifties. 3. The duration of diarrhea was 4.4 days. The number of diarrhea per 1day was 5.5. 4. Source of Vibrio cholerae in this outbreak was suggested to be the contaminated food from the overseas traveling to epidemic area, Mandalay, Myanmar on Aug. 8, 2005 CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that the government should be prepared to prevent cholera of overseas travelers effectively. To prevent the outbreak of cholera by chronic carriers, we need to strengthen the monitoring sytem of diarrhoeal diseases.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health