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Systematic Review
Association between gallstones and the risk of biliary tract cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Dan Huang, Hyundeok Joo, Nan Song, Sooyoung Cho, Woosung Kim, Aesun Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021011.   Published online February 3, 2021
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are rare but highly fatal. Although the etiology of BTC is poorly understood, gallstones are proposed to be a major risk factor. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations between gallstone characteristics and BTC risk.
We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central databases and systematically reviewed cohort and case-control studies published before April 9, 2018. All the included studies reported appropriate risk estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between the presence, size, number, or duration of gallstones and the risk of BTC, including gallbladder cancer (GBC), extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EBDC), and ampulla of Vater cancer (AOVC). Summary odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects model in the meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted to inspect sources of potential heterogeneity, and the Egger test was performed to assess publication bias.
Seven cohort studies and 23 case-control studies in Asian, European, and American populations were included. The presence of gallstones was associated with an increased risk of BTC (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 3.23 to 5.93; I<sup>2</sup>=91.2%), GBC (OR, 7.26; 95% CI, 4.33 to 12.18), EBDC (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 2.24 to 4.50), and AOVC (OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.33 to 8.11). Gallstone size (>1 vs. <1 cm; OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.22) was significantly associated with the risk of GBC.
Gallstone characteristics, such as presence, size, and number, are associated with an increased risk of BTC. However, significantly high heterogeneity in the meta-analyses is a limitation of this study.
Korean summary
The prevalence of APCT-detected sacroiliitis in CD patients was higher than that in controls, but the condition was asymptomatic. The clinical significance of asymptomatic sacroiliitis in Korean CD patients remains unclear.
Key Message
본 연구에서는 체계적 문헌고찰과 메타분석법을 활용하여 여러 선행연구에서 담도계암 전반과 담석의 다양한 특성사이에 연관성이 있는지 탐구하였다. 총 30개의 문헌을 분석한 결과 담석의 존재 여부가 담도계암과 각 하위 암의 위험을 모두 높이는 것으로 나타났고, 담석의 크기가 클수록 담낭암의 위험이 높은 것으로 드러났다. 본 연구는 담석과 담도계암 전반의 연관성에 대해 체계적으로 정리한 최초의 문헌으로서 담석과 담도계암의 관계에 대한 이해의 폭을 넓히고, 추후 해당 주제로 추가 연구를 수행하는 데에 있어 기준점이 될 수 있으리라 기대한다.


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