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3 "China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study"
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The association between glaucoma and all-cause mortality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people: results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
Xiaoxu Huang, Mengqiao Xu, Minwen Zhou, Wenjia Liu, Xiaohuan Zhao, Xiaodong Sun
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023066.   Published online July 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023066
  • 2,513 View
  • 83 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This population-based, prospective cohort study investigated the association between glaucoma and mortality in older adults.
METHODS
Participants aged 45 years or older at baseline (47.9% male) were enrolled in 2011 for the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). All-cause mortality was observed during 7 years of follow-up. The baseline data were collected in the 2011 CHARLS, and participants were followed up for 7 years (until 2018). The risk of all-cause mortality was investigated using Cox proportional-hazards regression with age as the time scale, adjusting for significant risk factors and comorbid conditions.
RESULTS
Among the 14,803 participants included, the risk of all-cause death was significantly higher among people with glaucoma than among those without glaucoma, after adjustment for other confounders (hazard ratio [HR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.03). In a subgroup analysis based on the mean age of death, among those who were 75 years and older (n=1,231), the risk of all-cause death was significantly higher in patients with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.89).
CONCLUSIONS
Participants with glaucoma had a higher risk of all-cause mortality, especially those aged 75 years and above. Our findings revealed potential mechanisms underlying an association between glaucoma and all-cause mortality. They also highlighted the importance of glaucoma management to prevent premature death in middle-aged and older adults.
Summary
Key Message
The present study suggests that glaucoma is associated with a higher rate of mortality in middle-aged and elderly people in China, especially for those aged 75 years and older. This study provides an important reference for the design and evaluation of clinical glaucoma treatment and the management of patients of different ages.
Exploring cognitive trajectories and their association with physical performance: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
Jingdong Suo, Xianlei Shen, Jinyu He, Haoran Sun, Yu Shi, Rongxin He, Xiao Zhang, Xijie Wang, Yuandi Xi, Wannian Liang
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023064.   Published online July 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023064
  • 2,530 View
  • 418 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The long-term trends of cognitive function and its associations with physical performance remain unclear, particularly in Asian populations. The study objectives were to determine cognitive trajectories in middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals, as well as to examine differences in physical performance across cognitive trajectory groups.
METHODS
Data were extracted from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. A total of 5,701 participants (47.7% male) with a mean age of 57.8 (standard deviation, 8.4) years at enrollment were included. A group-based trajectory model was used to identify cognitive trajectory groups for each sex. Grip strength, repeated chair stand, and standing balance tests were used to evaluate physical performance. An ordered logistic regression model was employed to analyze differences in physical performance across cognitive trajectory groups.
RESULTS
Three cognitive trajectory groups were identified for each sex: low, middle, and high. For both sexes, higher cognitive trajectory groups exhibited smaller declines with age. In the fully adjusted model, relative to the low trajectory group, the odds ratios (ORs) of better physical performance in the middle cognitive group were 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.59; p<0.001) during follow-up and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.64; p<0.001) at the endpoint. The ORs in the high trajectory group were 1.94 (95% CI, 1.61 to 2.32; p<0.001) during follow-up and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.69 to 2.45; p<0.001) at the endpoint.
CONCLUSIONS
Cognitive function was better preserved in male participants and individuals with higher baseline cognitive function. A higher cognitive trajectory was associated with better physical performance over time.
Summary
Key Message
Three cognitive trajectory groups were identified for each sex in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people. Cognitive function was found to be better preserved in male participants and individuals with higher baseline cognitive function. Better cognitive trajectory was associated with better physical performance over time.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Longitudinal trajectories of cognitive aging
    Elena Lobo, Patricia Gracia-GarcĂ­a, Antonio Lobo
    Current Opinion in Psychiatry.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
The association between obesity and glaucoma in older adults: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
Xiaohuan Zhao, Qiyu Bo, Junran Sun, Jieqiong Chen, Tong Li, Xiaoxu Huang, Minwen Zhou, Jing Wang, Wenjia Liu, Xiaodong Sun
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023034.   Published online March 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023034
  • 2,525 View
  • 135 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study evaluated the association between obesity and glaucoma in middle-aged and older people. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.
METHODS
Glaucoma was assessed via self-reports. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the relationship between obesity and glaucoma risk.
RESULTS
Older males living in urban areas who were single, smokers, and non-drinkers were found to have a significantly higher incidence of glaucoma (all p<0.05). Diabetes, hypertension, and kidney disease were also associated with higher glaucoma risk, while dyslipidemia was associated with lower risk (all p<0.05). After the model was adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables, obesity was significantly associated with a 10.2% decrease in glaucoma risk according to the Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.97) and an 11.8% risk reduction in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.97). A further subgroup analysis showed that obesity was associated with a reduced risk of glaucoma in people living in rural areas, in smokers, and in those with kidney disease (all p<0.05). Obesity also reduced glaucoma risk in people with diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia more than in healthy controls (all p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
This cohort study suggests that obesity was associated with a reduced risk of glaucoma, especially in rural residents, smokers, and people with kidney disease. Obesity exerted a stronger protective effect in people with diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia than in healthy people.
Summary
Key Message
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide. The diagnosis of glaucoma is frequently delayed, as it may be asymptomatic until a relatively late stage. Thus, there is a need to identify protective and risk factors for glaucoma. Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease, and the impact of obesity on glaucoma risk remains uncertain. This study evaluated the association between obesity and glaucoma in middle-aged and older people. This cohort study suggests that obesity was associated with a reduced risk of glaucoma, especially in rural residents, smokers, and people with kidney disease.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health