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4 "Salman Khazaei"
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Factors associated with in-hospital death in patients with nosocomial infections: a registry-based study using community data in western Iran
Salman Khazaei, Erfan Ayubi, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Masud Shojaeian, Leili Tapak
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020037.   Published online June 1, 2020
  • 11,292 View
  • 254 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Determining the predictors of in-hospital death related to nosocomial infections is an essential part of efforts made in the overall health system to improve the delivery of health care to patients. Therefore, this study investigated the predictors of in-hospital death related to nosocomial infections.
This registry-based, longitudinal study analyzed data on 8,895 hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in Hamadan Province, Iran from March 2017 to December 2019. The medical records of all patients who had been admitted to the hospitals were extracted from the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Software. The effects of the type and site of infection, as well as age group, on in-hospital death were estimated using univariate and multivariable Cox regression models.
In total, 4,232 (47.8%) patients with HAIs were males, and their mean age was 48.25±26.22 years. In both sexes, most nosocomial infections involved Gram-negative bacteria and the most common site of infection was the urinary tract. Older patients had a higher risk of in-hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 3.69 for males; aHR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.62 for females). In both sexes, compared with urinary tract infections, an increased risk of in-hospital death was found for ventilator-associated events (VAEs) (by 95% for males and 93% for females) and bloodstream infections (BSIs) (by 67% for males and 82% for females).
We found that VAEs, BSIs, and fungal infections were independently and strongly associated with increased mortality.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence of Nosocomial Infections During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Sima Rafiei, Zahra Nejatifar, Rana Soheylirad, Samira Raoofi, Fatemeh Pashazadeh Kan, Ahmad Ghashghaee
    Journal of Health Reports and Technology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Nosocomial Infections During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Sima Rafiei, Zahra Nejatifar, Rana Soheylirad, Samira Raoofi, Fatemeh Pashazadeh Kan, Ahmad Ghashghaee
    Journal of Health Reports and Technology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on Nosocomial Infection Rate: A Case of Iran
    Maryam Jabarpour, Mahlagha Dehghan, Giti Afsharipour, Elham Hajipour Abaee, Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki, Mehdi Ahmadinejad, Mahboobeh Maazallahi, Aseer Manilal
    Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
  • Survival rate in patients with ICU-acquired infections and its related factors in Iran’s hospitals
    MEDSKorosh Etemad, Yousef Khani, Seyed-Saeed Hashemi-Nazari, Neda Izadi, Babak Eshrati, Yadollah Mehrabi
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Geographic distribution of the incidence of colorectal cancer in Iran: a population-based study
Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Erfan Ayubi, Salman Khazaei, Mohadeseh Sani, Shiva Mansouri Hanis, Somayeh Khazaei, Mokhtar Soheylizad, Kamyar Mansori
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017020.   Published online May 17, 2017
  • 13,948 View
  • 267 Download
  • 23 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the provincial distribution of the incidence of CRC across Iran.
This epidemiologic study used data from the National Cancer Registry of Iran and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran. The average annual age-standardized rate (ASR) for the incidence of CRC was calculated for each province.
We found that adenocarcinoma (not otherwise specified) was the most common histological subtype of CRC in males and females, accounting for 81.91 and 81.95% of CRC cases, respectively. Signet ring cell carcinoma was the least prevalent subtype of CRC in males and females and accounted for 1.5 and 0.94% of CRC cases, respectively. In patients aged 45 years or older, there was a steady upward trend in the incidence of CRC, and the highest ASR of CRC incidence among both males and females was in the age group of 80-84 years, with an ASR of 144.69 per 100,000 person-years for males and 119.18 per 100,000 person-years for females. The highest incidence rates of CRC in Iran were found in the central, northern, and western provinces. Provinces in the southeast of Iran had the lowest incidence rates of CRC.
Wide geographical variation was found in the incidence of CRC across the 31 provinces of Iran. These variations must be considered for prevention and control programs for CRC, as well as for resource allocation purposes.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A joinpoint and age–period–cohort analysis of ocular cancer secular trends in Iran from 2004 to 2016
    Mohammad Abolhosseini, Zahra Khorrami, Sare Safi, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Seyed Mohamadmehdi Moshtaghion, Seyed Farzad Mohammadi, Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi, Saeed Karimi
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Outcome of early versus late ileostomy closure in patients with rectal cancers undergoing low anterior resection: A prospective cohort study
    Alimohammad Bananzade, Maryam Dehghankhalili, Faranak Bahrami, Seyed Mohammad Kazem Tadayon, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand
    Asian Journal of Surgery.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Carbohydrate quality indices and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study
    Masoud Amini Kahrizsangi, Zohreh Ebrahimi, Zainab Shateri, Fatemeh Mansouri, Ali Zangene, Milad Rajabzadeh-Dehkordi, Mehran Nouri, Bahram Rashidkhani
    BMC Cancer.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impacts of some clinicopathodemography and colorectal tissues key cell cycle and mucin stabilizing molecules on the metastasis trend in colorectal cancer patients
    Ali Ghorbani Ranjbary, Jalil Mehrzad, Nasrollah Rahbar, Hesam Dehghani
    Molecular Biology Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Serum level and tumor tissue expression of Ribonucleotide-diphosphate Reductase subunit M2 B: a potential biomarker for colorectal cancer
    Naser Mobarra, Hanieh Gholamalizadeh, Kaed A. Abdulhussein, Sara Raji, Fatemeh Taheri Asl, Mobina Sadat Mirvahabi, Mahdi Rafiee, Reza Pakzad
    Molecular Biology Reports.2022; 49(5): 3657.     CrossRef
  • Enhanced anticancer potency with reduced nephrotoxicity of newly synthesized platin-based complexes compared with cisplatin
    Roya Salehi, Selda Abyar, Fatemeh Ramazani, Ali Akbar Khandar, Seyed Abolfazl Hosseini-Yazdi, Jonathan M. White, Mahdi Edalati, Houman Kahroba, Mehdi Talebi
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A systematic review of methods to estimate colorectal cancer incidence using population-based cancer registries
    Norah Alsadhan, Alaa Almaiman, Mar Pujades-Rodriguez, Cathy Brennan, Farag Shuweihdi, Sultana A. Alhurishi, Robert M. West
    BMC Medical Research Methodology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of lymph node adequacy in patients with colorectal cancer: Results from a referral center in Iran
    Hossein Yahyazadeh, Ahmad Rezazadeh Mafi, Marzieh Beheshti, Amin Ghareyazi, Azita Abdollahinejad, Sahel Valadan Tahbaz
    Forum of Clinical Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of lymph node adequacy in patients with colorectal cancer: Results from a referral center in Iran
    Hossein Yahyazadeh, Ahmad Rezazadeh Mafi, Marzieh Beheshti, Amin Ghareyazi, Azita Abdollahinejad, Sahel Valadan Tahbaz
    Forum of Clinical Oncology.2022; 13(1): 9.     CrossRef
  • Diet-dependent acid load and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma: a case–control study
    Saeede Jafari Nasab, Pegah Rafiee, Alireza Bahrami, Nasim Rezaeimanesh, Bahram Rashidkhani, Golbon Sohrab, Farah Naja, Ehsan Hejazi, Amir Sadeghi
    Public Health Nutrition.2021; 24(14): 4474.     CrossRef
  • Incidence and Risk Factors of Colorectal Cancer in the Iranian Population: a Systematic Review
    Hossein Mozafar Saadati, Batool Okhovat, Farzad Khodamoradi
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer.2021; 52(2): 414.     CrossRef
  • Trends of Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology and Morphology in Tehran Metropolis, Iran from 2006 to 2015
    Mehdi Azizmohammad Looha, Gohar Mohammadi, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Elham Partovipour, Majid Samsami
    International Journal of Cancer Management.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Participation Rate, Risk Factors, and Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in the Screening Program Among the Population Covered by the Health Centers in Arak, Iran
    Pegah Mohaghegh, Farzane Ahmadi, Mahjabin Shiravandi, Javad Nazari
    International Journal of Cancer Management.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A case-control study of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets, colorectal cancer and adenomas among Iranian population
    Saeede Jafari Nasab, Matin Ghanavati, Pegah Rafiee, Alireza Bahrami, Nazanin Majidi, Cain C. T. Clark, Amir Sadeghi, Mohammad Houshyari, Ehsan Hejazi
    BMC Cancer.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Association of Fat-Mass-and Obesity-Associated Gene Polymorphism (rs9939609) With Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study
    Maryam Gholamalizadeh, Mohammad Esmail Akbari, Saeid Doaei, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Bojlul Bahar, Ghasem Azizi Tabesh, Hossein Sadeghi, Melika Razavi Hashemi, Elham Kheyrani, Samira Rastgoo, Azadeh Hajipour, Zahra Aslany, Reza Mirfakhraie, Alireza Mosavi J
    Frontiers in Oncology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Premature mortality of gastrointestinal cancer in Iran: trends and projections 2001–2030
    Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Farshad Farzadfar, Moein Yoosefi, Kamyar Mansori, Reza Khosravi Shadman, Aliakbar Haghdoost
    BMC Cancer.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Measuring inequalities in the selected indicators of National Health Accounts from 2008 to 2016: evidence from Iran
    Mohammad Hossein Mehrolhassani, Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Marzieh Lashkari
    Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Spatio-temporal analysis of colorectal cancer using a geographic information system in the Iranian military community during the period 2007–2016
    Alireza Khoshdel, M Alimohammadi, M Sepandi, Y Alimohamadi, P Jalali, M Janani
    BMJ Military Health.2020; 166(E): e8.     CrossRef
  • Positive correlation between interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene 86bp VNTR polymorphism and colorectal cancer susceptibility: a case-control study
    Mostafa Ibrahimi, Maryam Moossavi, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Mahsa Musavi, Milad Mohammadoo-khorasani, Zahra Shahsavari
    Immunologic Research.2019; 67(1): 151.     CrossRef
  • Lymphovascular and Perineural Invasions Are Independently Associated with Advanced Colorectal Carcinoma
    Hossein Yahyazadeh, Ahmad R Mafi, Elham Khatooni, Marzieh Beheshti, Azita Abdollahinejad
    International Journal of Cancer Management.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Prediction of Colorectal Cancer Screening Based on the Extended Parallel Process Model: Moderating the Role of Health Literacy and Cancer-Related Empowerment
    Isaac Rahimian Boogar, Siavash Talepasand, Hassan Norouzi, Sara Mozafari, Sayed Javad Hosseini
    International Journal of Cancer Management.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Synthesis of Cyanoenone-Modified Diterpenoid Analogs as Novel Bmi-1-Mediated Antitumor Agents
    Lian-Fang Yang, Yajing Xing, Jie-Xin Xiao, Jia Xie, Wei Gao, Jiuqing Xie, Li-Ting Wang, Jinhua Wang, Mingyao Liu, Zhengfang Yi, Wen-Wei Qiu
    ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters.2018; 9(11): 1105.     CrossRef
  • Bayesian adjustment for trend of colorectal cancer incidence in misclassified registering across Iranian provinces
    Sajad Shojaee, Nastaran Hajizadeh, Hadis Najafimehr, Luca Busani, Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Ahmad Reza Baghestani, Maryam Nasserinejad, Sara Ashtari, Mohammad Reza Zali, Hassan Ashktorab
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(12): e0199273.     CrossRef
Estimation of the population attributable fraction of road-related injuries due to speeding and passing in Iran
Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Hamid Soori, Kamyar Mansori, Manoochehr Karami, Erfan Ayubi, Salman Khazaei
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016038.   Published online August 29, 2016
  • 14,073 View
  • 278 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Speeding and passing are considered to be the main human factors resulting in road traffic injuries (RTIs). This study aimed to estimate the population attributeable fraction (PAF) of speeding and passing in RTIs in rural Iran during 2012.
The contribution of speeding and passing to RTI-related morbidity and mortality was estimated using the PAF method. The prevalence of speeding and passing was obtained from the national traffic police data registry. A logistic regression model was used to measure the association between the above risk factors and RTIs.
Speeding accounted for 20.96% and 16.61% of rural road-related deaths and injuries, respectively. The corresponding values for passing were 13.50% and 13.44%, respectively. Jointly, the PAF of these factors was 31.63% for road-related deaths and 27.81% for injuries.
This study illustrates the importance of controlling speeding and passing as a high-priority aspect of public-health approaches to RTIs in Iran. It is recommended that laws restricting speeding and passing be enforced more strictly.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Human Risk Factors for Severity of Injuries in Urban and Suburban Traffic Accidents in Southern Iran: An Insight from Police Data
    Meisam Abolvardi, Nader Sharifi, Karamatollah Rahmanian, Vahid Rahmanian
    International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the effect of fixed speed cameras on speeding behavior among Iranian taxi drivers through telematics monitoring
    Hamed Tavolinejad, Mohammad-Reza Malekpour, Nazila Rezaei, Ayyoob Jafari, Naser Ahmadi, Ali Nematollahi, Elham Abdolhamidi, Elmira Foroutan Mehr, Milad Hasan, Farshad Farzadfar
    Traffic Injury Prevention.2021; 22(7): 559.     CrossRef
  • Spousal violence against women and its association with sociodemographic factors and husbands’ controlling behaviour: the findings of Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey (2015–2016)
    Tayzar Tun, Per-Olof Ostergren
    Global Health Action.2020; 13(1): 1844975.     CrossRef
  • Time Series Analysis of Mortalities Resulting from Car Accidents in the Injured Individuals Hospitalized in Shiraz Shahid Rajaee Hospital During 2010 - 2016
    Haleh Ghaem, Mahmoud Hajipour, Hamid Reza Tababataee, Mahnaz Yadollahi, Fatemeh Izanloo
    Trauma Monthly.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
Estimation of the Frequency of Intravenous Drug Users in Hamadan City, Iran, Using the Capture-recapture Method
Salman Khazaei, Jalal Poorolajal, Hossein Mahjub, Nader Esmailnasab, Mohammad Mirzaei
Epidemiol Health. 2012;34:e2012006.   Published online October 31, 2012
  • 13,652 View
  • 100 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The number of illicit drug users is prone to underestimation. This study aimed to use the capture-recapture method as a statistical procedure for measuring the prevalence of intravenous drug users (IDUs) by estimating the number of unknown IDUs not registered by any of the registry centers.


This study was conducted in Hamadan City, the west of Iran, in 2012. Three incomplete data sources of IDUs, with partial overlapping data, were assessed including: (a) Volunteer Counseling and Testing Centers (VCTCs); (b) Drop in Centers (DICs); and (c) Outreach Teams (ORTs). A log-linear model was applied for the analysis of three-sample capture-recapture results. Two information criteria were used for model selection including Akaike's Information Criterion and the Bayesian Information Criterion.


Out of 1,478 IDUs registered by three centers, 48% were identified by VCTCs, 32% by DICs, and 20% by ORTs. After exclusion of duplicates, 1,369 IDUs remained. According to our findings, there were 9,964 (95% CI, 6,088 to 17,636) IDUs not identified by any of the centers. Hence, the real number of IDUs is expected to be 11,333. Based on these findings, the overall completeness of the three data sources was around 12% (95% CI, 7% to 18%).


There was a considerable number of IDUs not identified by any of the centers. Although the capture-recapture method is a useful and practical approach for estimating unknown populations, due to the assumptions and limitations of the method, the results must be interpreted with caution.



Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The prevalence of opioid use disorder in Kentucky’s counties: A two-year multi-sample capture-recapture analysis
    Katherine Thompson, Joshua A. Barocas, Chris Delcher, Jungjun Bae, Lindsey Hammerslag, Jianing Wang, Redonna Chandler, Jennifer Villani, Sharon Walsh, Jeffery Talbert
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2023; 242: 109710.     CrossRef
  • Estimating the Population Size of Female Sex Worker Population in Tehran, Iran: Application of Direct Capture–Recapture Method
    Manoochehr Karami, Salman Khazaei, Jalal Poorolajal, Alireza Soltanian, Mansour Sajadipoor
    AIDS and Behavior.2017; 21(8): 2394.     CrossRef
  • Using the capture-recapture method to estimate the human immunodeficiency virus-positive population
    Jalal Poorolajal, Younes Mohammadi, Farzad Farzinara
    Epidemiology and Health.2017; 39: e2017042.     CrossRef
  • Estimation of perinatal mortality rate for institutional births in Rajasthan state, India, using capture-recapture technique
    P. K. Mony, B. Varghese, T. Thomas
    BMJ Open.2015; 5(3): e005966.     CrossRef
  • Estimating the size of the population of persons who inject drugs in the island of Montréal, Canada, using a six-source capture–recapture model
    Pascale Leclerc, Alain C. Vandal, Aïssatou Fall, Julie Bruneau, Élise Roy, Suzanne Brissette, Chris Archibald, Nelson Arruda, Carole Morissette
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2014; 142: 174.     CrossRef
  • Heterogeneity and behavioral response in continuous time capture–recapture, with application to street cannabis use in Italy
    Alessio Farcomeni, Daria Scacciatelli
    The Annals of Applied Statistics.2013;[Epub]     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health