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COVID-19: Original Article
The impact of COVID-19 on screening for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancer in Korea
Hyeree Park, Seung Hee Seo, Jong Heon Park, Shin Hye Yoo, Bhumsuk Keam, Aesun Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022053.   Published online June 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022053
  • 12,417 View
  • 453 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the utilization of healthcare services, including participation in cancer screening programs. We compared cancer screening participation rates for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancers among participants in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2019 and 2020 to address the potential distraction effect of COVID-19 on cancer screening.
METHODS
Data from the NCSP for 4 cancer types (stomach, colorectal, breast, and cervical) in 2019 and 2020 were used to calculate cancer screening participation rates by calendar month, gender, age group, and geographical region. Monthly participation rates were analyzed per 1,000 eligible individuals.
RESULTS
The screening participation rate decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 for all 4 cancers: colorectal (40.5 vs. 35.3%), gastric (61.9 vs. 54.6%), breast (63.8 vs. 55.8%), and cervical (57.8 vs. 52.2%) cancers. Following 2 major COVID-19 waves in March and December 2020, the participation rates in the 4 types of cancer screening dropped compared with those in 2019. The highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older (percentage change: -21% for colorectal cancer; -20% for gastric cancer; -26% for breast cancer; -20% for cervical cancer).
CONCLUSIONS
After the 2 major COVID-19 waves, the screening participation rate for 4 types of cancer declined compared with 2019. Further studies are needed to identify the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients, such as delayed diagnoses of cancer or excess cancer deaths.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 코로나 대유행 기간 전과 후 대장암, 위암, 유방암, 자궁경부암 검진 수검률 차이를 비교하고자 하였다. 첫 코로나 확진자가 발생한 2020년을 코로나 대유행 기간, 전년도 기간인 2019년을 코로나 대유행 전 기간으로 설정하며 국민건강보험공단에서 집계된 전수자료를 이용하여 암 검진 대상자 수와 수검자 수를 비교 분석하였다. 4개 암종 모두에서 2019년도와 비교하여 2020년도에 전국적으로 수검률이 감소하는 경향이 있었으며, 1차 대유행이 있었던 3월과 3차 대유행 시기인 12월에 2019년도 동기간과 비교하여 수검률이 크게 감소하였고, 80대 이상 노인 인구에서 감소폭이 다른 연령대와 비교하여 크게 나타났다.
Key Message
We found decline of the colorectal, gastric, breast and cervical cancer screening participation rates in 2020 following the two major COVID-19 waves, compared with those of 2019, and the highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Emergency department visits of newly diagnosed cardiovascular disease patients in Korea during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Ji Yoon Baek, Seung Hee Seo, Sooyoung Cho, Jun-Bean Park, Bhumsuk Keam, Shin Hye Yoo, Aesun Shin
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Decline in Cancer Diagnoses during the ‘Zero COVID’ Policy in Hong Kong: Indirect Spillover Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
    H.M. Youn, Y. Zhang, A. Liu, C.S. Ng, J. Liang, G.K.K. Lau, S.F. Lee, J. Lok, C.L.K. Lam, E.Y.F. Wan, J. Quan
    Clinical Oncology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on cancer care: How the pandemic has changed cancer utilization and expenditures
    Jinah Sim, Jihye Shin, Hyun Jeong Lee, Yeonseung Lee, Young Ae Kim, Chong-Chi Chiu
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(2): e0296808.     CrossRef
  • Access to colorectal cancer screening in populations in China, 2020: A coverage‐focused synthesis analysis
    Yan‐Jie Li, Xin Wang, Yu‐Jie Wu, Xin‐Yi Zhou, Jibin Li, Jiangmei Qin, Wanghong Xu, Jie‐Bin Lew, Wanqing Chen, Ju‐Fang Shi
    International Journal of Cancer.2024; 155(3): 558.     CrossRef
  • Delayed treatment in breast cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic: a population health information research infrastructure (PHIRI) case study
    Francisco Estupiñán-Romero, Santiago Royo-Sierra, Javier González-Galindo, Natalia Martínez-Lizaga, Petronille Bogaert, Nienke Schutte, Liesbet Van Eycken, Nancy Van Damme, Kris Henau, Ronan A Lyons, Sarah J Aldridge, Andrea Faragalli, Flavia Carle, Rosar
    European Journal of Public Health.2024; 34(Supplement): i50.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of the current situation and related influencing factors of cervical precancer screening under the COVID-19
    Xiaohong Song, Yongbin Yang
    Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews.2023; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Willingness to Undergo Gastroscopy for Early Gastric Cancer Screening and Its Associated Factors During the COVID-19 Pandemic – A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study in China
    Kejia Ma, Xuejie Chen, Xin Xiang, Xueyi Mao, Ningxin Zhu, Tianyu Wang, Shuyu Ye, Xiaoyan Wang, Minzi Deng
    Patient Preference and Adherence.2023; Volume 17: 505.     CrossRef
  • Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on breast cancer surgery using the National Database of Japan
    Misuzu Fujita, Hideyuki Hashimoto, Kengo Nagashima, Kiminori Suzuki, Tokuzo Kasai, Kazuya Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro Onouchi, Daisuke Sato, Takehiko Fujisawa, Akira Hata
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal cancers
    Byung Soo Yoo, Ankit Patel, Kevin V. Houston, Alejandra Vargas, Ana Rosa Vilela Sangay, Steve M. D’Souza, David A. Johnson
    Exploration of Medicine.2023; : 356.     CrossRef
  • Changes in the Utilization of Health Care Services by Cancer Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Seung Hee Seo, Sooyoung Cho, Shin Hye Yoo, Bhumsuk Keam, Aesun Shin
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2023; 64(7): 463.     CrossRef
  • The Challenges of Gastric Cancer Surgery during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Catalin Vladut Ionut Feier, Alaviana Monique Faur, Calin Muntean, Andiana Blidari, Oana Elena Contes, Diana Raluca Streinu, Sorin Olariu
    Healthcare.2023; 11(13): 1903.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 on Gastric Cancer Diagnosis and Stage: A Single-Institute Study in South Korea
    Moonki Hong, Mingee Choi, JiHyun Lee, Kyoo Hyun Kim, Hyunwook Kim, Choong-Kun Lee, Hyo Song Kim, Sun Young Rha, Gyu Young Pih, Yoon Jin Choi, Da Hyun Jung, Jun Chul Park, Sung Kwan Shin, Sang Kil Lee, Yong Chan Lee, Minah Cho, Yoo Min Kim, Hyoung-Il Kim,
    Journal of Gastric Cancer.2023; 23(4): 574.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic inequality in organized and opportunistic screening for gastric cancer: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey 2009–2022
    Xuan Quy Luu, Kyeongmin Lee, Jae Kwan Jun, Mina Suh, Kui Son Choi
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Gastric Cancer Screening in South Korea: Results From the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (2017–2021)
    Kyeongmin Lee, Mina Suh, Jae Kwan Jun, Kui Son Choi
    Journal of Gastric Cancer.2022; 22(4): 297.     CrossRef
  • Impact of frailty on survival and readmission in patients with gastric cancer undergoing gastrectomy: A meta-analysis
    Xiaoyan Wang, Yimeng Sun, Pei Wang, Yu Jie, Guodong Liu, Dandan Gong, Yu Fan
    Frontiers in Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Trends in breast cancer screening rates among Korean women: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, 2005-2020
    Soo Yeon Song, Yun Yeong Lee, Hye Young Shin, Bomi Park, Mina Suh, Kui Son Choi, Jae Kwan Jun
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022111.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Original Article
The age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of COVID-19 in 79 countries: a cross-sectional comparison and their correlations with associated factors
Dongui Hong, Sohyae Lee, Yoon-Jung Choi, Sungji Moon, Yoonyoung Jang, Yoon-Min Cho, Hyojung Lee, Sukhong Min, Hyeree Park, Seokyung Hahn, Ji-Yeob Choi, Aesun Shin, Daehee Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021061.   Published online September 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021061
  • 21,845 View
  • 372 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, crude incidence and mortality rates have been widely reported; however, age-standardized rates are more suitable for comparisons. In this study, we estimated and compared the age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates (CFRs) among countries and investigated the relationship between these rates and factors associated with healthcare resources: gross domestic product per capita, number of hospital beds per population, and number of doctors per population.
METHODS
The incidence, mortality, and CFRs of 79 countries were age-standardized using the World Health Organization standard population. The rates for persons 60 years or older were also calculated. The relationships among the rates were analysed using trend lines and coefficients of determination (R<sup>2</sup>). Pearson correlation coefficients between the rates and the healthcare resource-related factors were calculated.
RESULTS
The countries with the highest age-standardized incidence, mortality, and CFRs were Czechia (14,253 cases/100,000), Mexico (182 deaths/100,000), and Mexico (6.7%), respectively. The R<sup>2</sup> between the incidence and mortality rates was 0.852 for all ages and 0.945 for those 60 years or older. The healthcare resources-related factors were associated positively with incidence rates and negatively with CFRs, with weaker correlations among the elderly.
CONCLUSIONS
Compared to age-standardized rates, crude rates showed greater variation among countries. Medical resources may be important in preventing COVID-19-related deaths; however, considering the small variation in fatality among the elderly, preventive measures such as vaccination are more important, especially for the elderly population, to minimize the mortality rates.
Summary
Korean summary
국가별 발생률, 사망률, 치명률을 WHO 표준 인구로 연령표준화하였고, 의료자원과 관계된 지표와의 상관관계를 파악하였다. 2021년 4월 6일 기준, 연령표준화 발생률, 사망률, 치명률이 가장 높은 나라는 각각 체코 (10만명당 14,253명), 멕시코 (10만명당 182명), 멕시코 (6.7%)이며, 60세 이상 노인은 사망률과 치명률이 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 1인당GDP, 인구당 의사 수, 인구당 병상 수는 발생률과 양의 상관관계가, 치명률과는 음의 상관관계가 있었고 노인에게서는 상관관계가 약하게 나타났다. 코로나바이러스감염증-19로 인한 피해를 최소화하기 위해서 의료자원의 투입과 더불어 노인의 감염예방이 중요할 것이다.
Key Message
The incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of 79 countries were age-standardized using the WHO standard population. The correlations between the rates and the healthcare resource-related factors were investigated. As of April 6, 2021, the countries with the highest age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates were Czechia (14,253 cases/100,000), Mexico (182 deaths/100,000), and Mexico (6.7%), respectively; the mortality and case fatality rates were higher among the elderly. GDP per capita, number of hospital beds per population, and number of doctors per population were associated positively with incidence rate, and negatively with case fatality rates: the correlations were weaker among the elderly. To minimize the burden caused by COVID-19, preventing the elderly from infection is important as well as supply of medical resources.

Citations

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  • Occurrence of COVID-19 and serum per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances: A case-control study among workers with a wide range of exposures
    Anna K. Porter, Sarah E. Kleinschmidt, Kara L. Andres, Courtney N. Reusch, Ryan M. Krisko, Oyebode A. Taiwo, Geary W. Olsen, Matthew P. Longnecker
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