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Tefera Mulugeta Demelew 1 Article
Incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among HIV-positive children at Adama Referral Hospital and Medical College, Oromia, Ethiopia: a retrospective follow-up study
Masino Tessu Beshir, Aklil Hailu Beyene, Kenean Getaneh Tlaye, Tefera Mulugeta Demelew
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019028.   Published online June 22, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Tuberculosis (TB) is common in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but its effect on the survival of HIV-infected children is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the incidence and predictors of active TB among HIV-positive children at Adama Referral Hospital and Medical College, Oromia, Ethiopia.
A retrospective study was conducted over 5 years using a checklist to gather data from 428 randomly selected pediatric patient charts. The checklist was adapted from the standardized antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow-up form currently used by the institution’s ART clinic. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariable analysis using Cox regression proportional hazards models, as appropriate. Survival was calculated and compared using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests.
Of the 466 charts reviewed, 428 patient records were included in the analysis. A total of 67 new TB cases were observed during the follow-up period. Hence, the incidence rate in this cohort was found to be 6.03 per 100 child-years of observation. A baseline hemoglobin level <10 g/dL (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 7.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 48.15), moderate wasting (aHR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.02 to 7.99), and not receiving isoniazid preventive therapy (aHR, 8.23; 95% CI, 2.11 to 32.06) were among the independent predictors of TB occurrence.
The incidence of TB was high, particularly in pre-ART patients receiving chronic care for HIV. Close followup of HIV-positive children is crucial to protect them against the development of TB. Initiating isoniazid preventive therapy, averting malnutrition, and managing anemia are also of significant importance.


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